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  • -focused dissertation on distance education -Faculty development
  • Use this as audience gauging activity.
  • The use of information technology tools in higher education has increased dramatically. Faculty in higher education settings are taking advantage of these tools to improve the learning experiences of students who are unable to come to campus but have also found that on-campus classroom based courses can also be improved by these technologies. Access to library and information services, web-based learning activities, and extended content discussions are becoming essential components of faculty efforts to improve teaching. Clearly, this expo is a testament to that fact. In my four years at USC, things have moved extremely fast that sometimes I can’t keep up.
  • Distributed learning, rather than distance education will become the dominant paradigm for higher education The possibilities represented by distributed learning are great as are the challenges it brings. I would like to briefly discuss some of those challenges and then the solutions to overcoming these challenges.
  • Distributed learning, rather than distance education will become the dominant paradigm for higher education The possibilities represented by distributed learning are great as are the challenges it brings. I would like to briefly discuss some of those challenges and then the solutions to overcoming these challenges.
  • Distributed learning, rather than distance education will become the dominant paradigm for higher education The possibilities represented by distributed learning are great as are the challenges it brings. I would like to briefly discuss some of those challenges and then the solutions to overcoming these challenges.
  • Technology should not just enhance our current instructional approaches (ie. lecture on Power Point). Have to look back at our fundamental student learning goals for a specific course and brainstorm ways to use technology to enhance student learning. The technology cannot drive the teaching and learning. “ After all, technique is the differentiating force with all technologies” (Hamilton, 1999) People, institutions, companies and society at large, transform technology, any technology, by appropriating it, modifying it, by experimenting with it” (Castells, 2001)
  • This helps to focus and emphasize the pedagogical underpinnings of the technology application. I would argue that this is no different than what we should be doing with any other tool.
  • -focused dissertation on distance education -Faculty development
  • Distributed learning, rather than distance education will become the dominant paradigm for higher education The possibilities represented by distributed learning are great as are the challenges it brings. I would like to briefly discuss some of those challenges and then the solutions to overcoming these challenges.
  • Distributed learning, rather than distance education will become the dominant paradigm for higher education The possibilities represented by distributed learning are great as are the challenges it brings. I would like to briefly discuss some of those challenges and then the solutions to overcoming these challenges.
  • Distributed learning, rather than distance education will become the dominant paradigm for higher education The possibilities represented by distributed learning are great as are the challenges it brings. I would like to briefly discuss some of those challenges and then the solutions to overcoming these challenges.
  • Distributed learning, rather than distance education will become the dominant paradigm for higher education The possibilities represented by distributed learning are great as are the challenges it brings. I would like to briefly discuss some of those challenges and then the solutions to overcoming these challenges.
  • - In a traditional classroom, it’s fairly easy to tell when you are losing your students. Eyelids droop. Heads start to bob. And you have this funny feeling that the click-clacking of keyboards isn’t the result of copious note-taking. In an online classroom, it’s a little more difficult. Not only is it impossible to tell what students are doing on the other end, but the students have access to so many more distractions that it’s sometimes hard to keep them engaged in their learning.
  • Distributed learning, rather than distance education will become the dominant paradigm for higher education The possibilities represented by distributed learning are great as are the challenges it brings. I would like to briefly discuss some of those challenges and then the solutions to overcoming these challenges.
  • Distributed learning, rather than distance education will become the dominant paradigm for higher education The possibilities represented by distributed learning are great as are the challenges it brings. I would like to briefly discuss some of those challenges and then the solutions to overcoming these challenges.
  • Jobs says technology will amaze, but teachers are still at the epicenter (Newsweek, 2001). Distributed learning is much more than an online substitute for lectures and professors. Distributed learning extends the opportunities for interaction between faculty and student, incorporating simulations and visualizations, as well as collaborative learning. The “any time, anyplace” nature of this new set of electronic educational opportunities may well have its greatest impact on face-to-face education. Since distributed education can occur anywhere and at any time, these conditions can be modified on a number of dimensions. It will involve faculty to determine how these modifications will be made.
  • -In all my courses, I have focused on how to best foster the deep learning ideas and development of student thinking skills and use technology that addresses “bottlenecks.” -Technology enables many pedagogical strategies that were impossible or impractical

Best practice strategies for online teaching cswe apm 2010 Best practice strategies for online teaching cswe apm 2010 Presentation Transcript

  • Best Practice Strategies for Teaching Online By: Jo Ann R. Coe Regan [email_address] Nancy Brown [email_address] University of South Carolina School of Social Work Presented as a Curriculum Workshop at the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) 2010 Annual Program Meeting (APM) Portland, Oregon
  •  
  • WORKSHOP OVERVIEW
    • Website workshop with Power Points, links, and references at or email me at joannr@mailbox.sc.edu
    • Overview of research on best practice strategies and how it impacts knowledge and skills in the design, development, and implementation of online/hybrid courses
    • Examples and models of online courses that demonstrate best practice strategies
    • Challenges and Priorities for Online Teaching and Learning
  • FOCUS FOR BEST PRACTICE STRATEGIES
    • Authoring/Course Design
    • Teaching
      • Workload Management Concerns
      • Design and Technical Concerns
      • Performance/Quality Concerns
  • Let’s Collaborate to Avoid This  Dick Schoech, CSWE San Francisco, DE Research Assumption in the Form of a Cartoon-you have permission to laugh 
  • 2010 2004 2004 2008 1998 2007 2005 2003 2001 2003 2005 2008 2004 2006 2004 1999 2005
  • ONLINE TEACHING AND LEARNING
    • One of the fastest growing trends in educational uses of technology
    • Rapid development of new technology tools and how the Internet has evolved from text to all types of media
    • New generation of “digital natives”
    • Many of us are “digital immigrants”
  • DEFINITIONS
      • Distance education-generally when the instructor and learner are separated
      • Online learning is defined as learning that takes place partially or entirely over the Internet (Sloan Consortium, 2008)
      • Considered a form of distance education (Ko & Rossen, 2004 )
  • Sloan Consortium Classification of Online Learning Allen, I.E. & Seaman, J. (2008). Staying the course: Online Education in the United States, 2008 . The Sloan Consortium: Needham, MA. Proportion of Content Delivered Online Type of Course Typical Description 0% Traditional Course with no online technology used-content is delivered in writing or orally 1 to 29% Web Facilitated Course that uses web-based technology to facilitate what is essentially a face-to-face course. Uses a course management system or web pages to post the syllabus and assignments 30 to 79% Blended/Hybrid Courses that blend online and face-to-face delivery. Substantial proportion of the content is delivered online 80%+ Online A course where most or all of the content is delivered online. Typically have no face-to-face meetings.
  • RESEARCH ON BEST PRACTICE STRATEGIES
      • Growing body of literature to support best practice strategies for online learning
      • US Department of Education (2009). Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning
        • Systematic search of empirical studies of the effectiveness of online learning
        • Meta-Analysis of 51 studies that contrasted online and face-to-face instruction
        • One of the more comprehensive analyses of the literature in the last 3 years (1,132 abstracts)
  • Department of Education Meta-Analysis Findings
      • Blended and purely online learning conditions implemented within a single study generally result in similar student learning outcomes
      • Instruction combining online and face-to-face elements had a larger advantage relative to purely face-to-face and purely online instruction
      • The online classroom differed in terms of time spent, curriculum, and pedagogy and it was the combination of these treatment conditions that produced the learning advantages rather than the instructional delivery medium
      • Online learning is more conducive to the expansion of learning time (time on task) than face-to-face instruction
  • BEST PRACTICE STRATEGY FOR DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
    • Hybrid courses work well rather than just purely online or purely face-to-face instruction
    • Design courses that focus on:
      • Expository learning experiences -content transmitted by a lecture, written material, or other mechanisms
      • Active Learning -student has control of what and how he or she learns
      • Interactive Learning -activity in which the nature of the learning content is emergent as learners interact with one another, instructor, or other knowledge sources
  • RESEARCH ON BEST PRACTICE STRATEGIES
      • Ragan & Terheggen (2003). Effective Workload Management Strategies for the Online Environment
        • Studies focused on best practice strategies for effective development, design, and delivery of online courses
      • Boettcher (2008). Teaching Online for the First Time
        • Strategies for teaching online courses with a focus on first-time teaching
  • TECHNOLOGY CAN’T BE THE DRIVING FORCE
    • Technology cannot drive the teaching and learning but certainly can be used to teach an online course
    • Online teaching forces you to be more organized and structured with content and allows you to focus on the process
  • WHERE TO START WITH THE AUTHORING/COURSE DEVELOPMENT STAGE
    • Analyze what you do in the face-to-face course that works and think about how you can use technology tools to replicate or enhance what you do in an online environment
    • Course Development Models and Processes
    • Assessment of Technical Skills/Knowledge
  • COURSE CONVERSION PROCESS
    • More important : Think about what you want to do in the course and see if any of the online tools will enhance the teaching and learning! Also, consider whether you want to use synchronous, asynchronous, or a combination of both
  • Course Design Process
    • Quality Matters Program Rubric
      • http://www.qmprogram.org/rubric
    • Community of Inquiry Framework
      • http://communityofinquiry.com/introduction
      • http://communityofinquiry.com/blhighered
  • Course Design Process
    • Review other courses, teaching activities and syllabi
      • Penn State World Campus Resources to Teach Online
      • MERLOT Learning Activities
      • Book Publisher Resources
        • Example: Hepworth text, et al
    • Check institutional resources
      • Portland State University
    • What are your goals and outcomes for student learning?
    • What instructional strategies do you want to use?
    • What technology applications are available and can be used by you and students? What kind of technology support?
    • Balance between student-centered vs. instructor-led; asynchronous or synchronous
    • How will learning be assessed ?
    APPROACH TO DEVELOPING ONLINE TEACHING & LEARNING ACTIVITIES
  • OUR FOCUS
    • Careful thought to ensure both QUALITY and SUCCESS of online courses with attention to evidence-based best practices
  • WHERE WE STARTED?
      • Satellite Television and Videoconferencing (both one-way and two-way)
      • Asynchronous Modules (Webcast/Webinar) -one-way
      • Synchronous Online Class Sessions via Adobe Connect
      • Both teach 100% online courses (no face to face meeting)
      • MSW Program offers research, policy and HBSE and a number of elective courses totally online
      • Practice courses taught in hybrid format
  • WHERE WE STARTED?
      • Web Enhanced Course or Hybrid Courses with Asynchronous Online Learning Modules
      • Engaging Clients in the First Interview http://breeze.sc.edu/prac/
        • Tells them what they need to know to conduct a first interview with a client
        • Demonstrate (Show) a first interview via a video demonstration (both a good and a bad one)
        • Practice a skills demonstration to be shown or practiced in class
  • EXPOSITORY LEARNING EXAMPLES IN SOCIAL WORK COURSES
      • http://breeze.sc.edu/adfall09
      • Dr. Nancy Brown-Substance Abuse Elective
      • http://Breeze.sc.edu/p62041030
      • Keeping students engaged with the use of humor
    • Dual Lingual Asynchronous or Webcast (pre-recorded by instructor and students view on their own time)
        • Dr. Nancy Brown’s Lecture
  • WHAT I AM DOING NOW?
      • Focus on active and interactive learning in the classroom
      • http://breeze.sc.edu/sowkj768
      • Adobe Live Meetings (synchronous) meets every week in the online classroom Wednesdays 6-9 PM EST
      • Please feel free to join as a guest by typing your name and enter room (email me in advance that you may be joining me)
      • Still use some asynchronous modules also
    • Active learning involves providing opportunities for students to meaningfully talk and listen, write, read, and reflect on the content, ideas, issues, and concerns of an academic subject
    • Research and anecdotal evidence overwhelmingly support the claim that students learn best when they engage with course material and actively participate in their learning.
    ACTIVE LEARNING AND ENGAGEMENT
    • Tell me,
    • I forget.
    • Show me,
    • I remember.
    • Involve me,
    • I understand.
    • -Ancient Chinese Proverb
  • How do you know if students are engaged in your class or course content?
  • How does Active Learning and Engagement happen in the Online Classroom?
    • The "seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education," originally framed by Arthur Chickering and Zelda Gamson in 1986, is a concise summary of decades of educational research findings about the kinds of teaching/learning activities most likely to improve learning outcomes.
    • http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/7princip.htm
    SEVEN PRINCIPLES FOR GOOD PRACTICE
    • Good practice encourages contacts between students and faculty
    • Good practice develops reciprocity and cooperation among students
    • Good practice uses active learning techniques
    • Good practice gives prompt feedback
    7 PRINCIPLES OF GOOD TEACHING
    • Good practice emphasizes time on task
    • Good practice communicates high expectations
    • Good practice respects diverse talents and ways of learning
    7 PRINCIPLES OF GOOD TEACHING
    • Chickering and Gamson (1991) Article
    • gives excellent examples of some of the most cost-effective and appropriate ways to use computers, videos, and telecommunications technologies to advance the seven principles
    IMPLEMENTING THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES WITH TECHNOLOGY
  • A DECISION MATRIX TO LINK TECHNOLOGY WITH ACTIVE LEARNING AND ENGAGEMENT Perceptions of Innovational Attributes of Television and the Internet BENCHMARKS TO ENSURE QUALITY ONLINE LEARNING COMMITMENT TO GOOD TEACHING PRINCIPLES APPROPRIATE USE OF TECHNOLOGIES THAT FACILITATE AND ENHANCE ACTIVE LEARNING AND ENGAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES THAT ARE IMPLEMENTED & EVALUATED IN AN ONLINE CLASSROOM
  • Example of Active Learning and Engagement in Adobe Connect
      • http://breeze.sc.edu/p24924993/
      • Breakout Rooms (small group discussions on readings) starts at 1:45:55
      • Use of Guest Speakers (author of the textbook) starts at 30:00
      • http://breeze.sc.edu/p85458177/
      • Polling features starts at 21:08
      • http://breeze.sc.edu/p11882611/
      • Student presentations starts at 44:08; 1:07 (photos of Iraq) and 1:33:44 (presentation from student in Charleston)
  • INTERACTIVE LEARNING EXPERIENCE EXAMPLES
      • http://breeze.sc.edu/p44714979/
      • Online live meeting in which we review skills demonstration assignments and provide feedback for Foundation Practice Course
      • http://lowcountrygraduatecenter.mediasite.com/lgc/Viewer/?peid=9a9d19bf30524a0aa6fc51ca6ee37cf3
      • Video conferencing of a live Capstone Course that is recorded and available online Note: Username: SOWK718 Password: VTC 140
      • http://www.hrsm.sc.edu/facstaff/tcrews/onlineexamples.html
      • Examples of other ways to use web conferencing for active and interactive learning
  • WAYS TO ENGAGE STUDENTS TO THE ONLINE CLASSROOM
    • Make students active participants in the online classroom
    • create a collaborative community of learners in which the role of the instructor and students must change
    • give up control and let learners assume more responsibility for their learning and be held accountable
  • TEACHING PRINCIPLES USED
    • instructor ensures a high degree of interactivity and participation
    • Instructor changes role from “sage on stage” to a “guide on the side” or as an “Architect of Activity”
    • Recognize that learners have shifted from “broadcast learning” to “interactive learning” in the new technology age in which most children are now “growing up digital
  • PARADIGM SHIFT Tapscott, D. (1998). Growing up Digital: The Rise of the Net Generation
  • BEST PRACTICE STRATEGIES
    • Identify and acquire existing learning resources that can be put in an online environment
    • Establish and distribute reusable learning object (example: digital library of videos or podcasts that can be played online)
      • http://socialworkpodcast.blogspot.com/
      • http://www.socialwork.buffalo.edu/podcast/
  • BEST PRACTICE STRATEGIES
    • Look at sample online courses/syllabi
    • Finalize one module or unit before developing remainder of course
    • Clarifying and enhancing student’s technical skills
    • Detailed syllabus and assignments-putting information in more than one place
    • Incorporating a learning management system for recording course transactions
    • Fostering group dynamics and interaction within the course
  • BEST PRACTICE STRATEGIES
    • Clarifying and enhancing student’s technical skills
    • Detailed syllabus and assignments-putting information in more than one place
    • Incorporating a learning management system for recording course transactions
    • Fostering group dynamics and interaction within the course
  • The Good, The Bad, The Evil
  • ADVANTAGES
    • The technology and format lends itself to active learning and engagement in the online classroom
    • Good learning outcomes
    • Positive teaching evaluations
      • Most interactive and collaborative class they have had
      • Students report they never leave computer during live class-don’t want to miss anything 
  • CHALLENGES/FRUSTRATIONS
  • CHALLENGES
    • Using new technology and the learning curve
    • Finding resources and support
      • Technical Support Online in an Adobe Connect Community at Penn State
      • http://meeting.psu.edu/
    • Fostering a personal connection with students in the classroom
    • Evaluating learning outcomes
  • WHAT ARE SOME OF THE CHALLENGES WITH ONLINE EDUCATION?
    • The process needs to reflect a focus on quality and effectiveness!
    • Learning curve for faculty and some students-most of us are DIGITAL IMMIGRANTS!
    • Workload management issues, compensation/incentive (tenure and promotion) issues
    • Research supports the need for face-to-face instruction in some way:
      • Satellite sites
      • On Campus Sessions-i.e. weekend programs, orientations
  • WHAT ARE SOME OF THE CHALLENGES WITH ONLINE EDUCATION?
    • Student Support Issues
    • Field Issues
    • Too much, too little-knowledge overload
    • New Frontiers:
      • Social Media and Web 2.0 Tools
      • Where will Web 3.0 take us?
      • Second Life and Avatars
        • Virtual clients, agencies
      • Gaming and Simulations
      • New tools constantly-i.e. I –PAD
      • How do we keep up?
  • CONCLUSIONS
    • Online education should lead us to rethink the entire teaching and learning process
    • Careful thought and planning is needed to bring positive growth and change to our curriculums
    Have fun with this new adventure in online learning!
  • Your Standpoint
    • Comments
    • Feedback
    • Thoughts
    • Abel, R. (2005). Implementing best practices in online learning. Retrieved March 27,
    • 2009, from h ttp://connect.educause.edu/Library/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/ImplementingBestPractices/39928?time=1237869199 .
    • Boettcher, J.V. (2008). Teaching online for the first time. Retrieved March 28, 2009,
    • from http://www.designingforlearning.info/services/writing/ecoach/tenbest.html
    • Chickering, A.W. & Ehrmann, S.C. (1996). Implementing the seven principles:
    • Technology as lever. Retrieved on March 27, 2009 from http://www.tltgroup.org/programs/seven.html .
    • Chickering, A.W. & Gamson, Z.F. (1991). Applying the seven principles for good
    • practice in undergraduate education. New directions for teaching and learning: a publication in the Jossey-Bass higher and adult education series. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    • Conrad, R.M., & Donaldson, J.A. (2004). Engaging the online learner: Activities and
    • resources for creative instruction. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    • Ko, S., & Rossen, S. (2004). Teaching online: A practical guide (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    • Miller, T. W., & King, F. B. (2003). Distance education: Pedagogy and best practices in
    • the new millennium. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 6, 283–297.
    • Moore, B. (2005a). Faculty perceptions of the effectiveness of web-based instruction in
    • social work education: A national study. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 23(1/2), 53-66.
    REFERENCES
    • Moore, B. (2005b). Key issues in web-based education in the human services: A review
    • of the literature. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 23(1), 11-28.
    • Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (2001). Lessons from the cyberspace classroom: The realities of online teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    • Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (2003). The virtual student: A profile and guide to working
    • with online learners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    • Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (2007). Building online learning communities: Effective
    • strategies for the virtual classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    • Ragan, L.R. (2009a). An Emerging Set of Operational Performance Guidelines for the
    • Online Instructor. Retrieved March 27, 2009, from http://www.sc.edu/cte/larryragan/performanceguidelines.pdf .
    • Ragan, L.R. (2009b). Penn State Quality Assurance e-Learning Design Standards.
    • Retrieved March 27, 2009, from http://www.sc.edu/cte/larryragan/designstandards.pdf .
    • Ragan, L.R., & Terheggen, S.L. (2003). Effective workload management strategies for the online environment. Retrieved March 28, 2009, from http://www.worldcampus.psu.edu/pdf/fac/workload_strat.pdf .
    • Tallent-Runnels, M.K., Thomas, J.A., Lan, W.Y., Cooper, S., Ahern, T.C., Shaw, S.M., et al. (2006). Teaching courses online: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 93-135.
    REFERENCES
    • The TLT Group (2009). “Seven Principles" Collection of Ideas for Teaching and Learning with Technology. Retrieved March 27, 2009, from http://www.tltgroup.org/Seven/Library_TOC.htm
    • Weiss, R. E., Knowlton, D. S., & Speck, B. W. (Eds.). (2000). Principles of effective teaching in the online classroom. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 84 (Winter 2000), 1–4.
    • Young, S. (2006). Student views of effective online teaching in higher education. The American Journal of Distance Education, 20(2), 65-77.
    •  
    REFERENCES
  • RESOURCE BOOKS USED
    • Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom: The Realities of Online Teaching By: Rena M. Palloff, Keith Pratt
    • The Virtual Student: A Profile and Guide to Working with Online Learners By: Rena M. Palloff, Keith Pratt
    • Teaching Online: A Practical Guide , 2nd Edition (Paperback) by Susan Ko and Steve Rossen
    • Engaging the Online Learner : Activities and Resources for Creative Instruction (Online Teaching and Learning Series (OTL)) (Paperback) by Rita-Marie Conrad , J. Ana Donaldson