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Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
Rizal report (chapter 22)
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Rizal report (chapter 22)

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the TRIAL OF RIZAL

the TRIAL OF RIZAL

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  • 1.  
  • 2.  
  • 3. RESCUE ATTEMPTS BY THE KATIPUNAN: <ul><li>the Katipunan- a secret revolutionary society founded by Bonifacio. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Pio Valenzuela- secret emissary of the Katipunan to Dapitan. </li></ul><ul><li>Persons who plotted to rescue Rizal from the cruiser, Castilla, which was then anchored at Manila Bay: </li></ul><ul><li>Andres Bonifacio </li></ul><ul><li>Emilio Jacinto </li></ul><ul><li>Other brave Katipuneros </li></ul>
  • 4. LAST TRIP TO SPAIN: <ul><li>Cry of Balintawak- the cry that started the Philippine Revolution. (On 23 of August 1896, Bonifacio and his fellow katipuneros tore their cedulas (residence certificate) during their revolution : &quot;Long live the Philippines&quot;. This was marked as the historic &quot;Cry of Balintawak&quot;, which actually occurred in Pugadlawin. Thus it is also called &quot;Sigaw ng Pugadlawin&quot;.) </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Fr. Mariano Gil- augustinian parish priest of Tondo. </li></ul><ul><li>After the “ the Cry of Balintawak ”, Rizal receive letters from: </li></ul><ul><li>Governor Blanco- wishing him happiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Two additional letters from the Minister of War (General Marcelo de Azcarraga – Philippine-born Spaniard and the Minister of Colonies.) </li></ul><ul><li>Isla de Panay- the steamer were Rizal board when he left for Spain. </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>RIZAL IN SINGAPORE: </li></ul><ul><li>Rizal’s fellow-passengers: </li></ul><ul><li>Don Pedro Roxas </li></ul><ul><li>Periquin </li></ul><ul><li>ARREST AND IMPRISONMENT: </li></ul><ul><li>Captain A. Alemany- a ship skipper who arrested Rizal. </li></ul><ul><li>General Despujol- the man who banished him to Dapitan in 1892 and now military Commander of Cataluṅa which jurisdiction over Montjuich Castle. </li></ul><ul><li>Colon- the steamer were Rizal board when he left Barcelona. </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>UNSUCCESSFUL RESCUE IN SINGAPORE: </li></ul><ul><li>Persons who dispatched frantic telegrams: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor </li></ul><ul><li>Sixto Lopez </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Fort- an English lawyer in Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>The dispatched frantic telegrams contains that Mr. Fort should rescue Rizal from the Spanish steamer when it reached Singapore by a writ of Habeas Corpus. </li></ul><ul><li>Habeas Corpus- is a  writ , or legal action, through which a prisoner can be released from unlawful detention , that is, detention lacking sufficient cause or evidence.- </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>BACK TO MANILA: </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino Patriots: </li></ul><ul><li>Deodato Arellano </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Pio Valenzuela </li></ul><ul><li>Moises Salvador </li></ul><ul><li>Jose Dizon </li></ul><ul><li>Domingo Franco </li></ul><ul><li>Timoteo Paez </li></ul><ul><li>Paciano was arrested and cruelly tortured. </li></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Two kinds of evidence presented against Rizal, namely: </li></ul><ul><li>Documentary </li></ul><ul><li>Testimonial </li></ul><ul><li>The documentary evidence consisted of fifteen exhibits as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>A letter of Antonio Luna to Mariano Ponce </li></ul><ul><li>A letter of Rizal to his family </li></ul><ul><li>A letter from Marcelo H. del Pilar to Deodato Areliano </li></ul><ul><li>A poem entitled Kundiman </li></ul><ul><li>A letter of Carlos Oliver to an unidentified person </li></ul><ul><li>A Masonic document </li></ul><ul><li>A letter signed Dimasalang </li></ul><ul><li>A letter of Dimasalang to an unidentified committee </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>9. An anonymous and undated letter to the Editor of the Hongkong Telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>A letter of Ildefonso Laurel to Rizal </li></ul><ul><li>A letter of Rizal Segundo </li></ul><ul><li>A letter of Marcelo H. del Pilar to Don Juan A. Tenluz </li></ul><ul><li>Transcript of a speech of Pingkian </li></ul><ul><li>Transcript of speech of Tik-Tik </li></ul><ul><li>A poem by Laong Laan </li></ul><ul><li>The testimonial evidence consists of the oral testimonies of: </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Constantino 8. Ambrosio Salvador </li></ul><ul><li>Aguedo del Rosario 9. Pedro Serrano Laktaw </li></ul><ul><li>Jose Reyes 10. Dr. Pio Valenzuela </li></ul><ul><li>Moises Salvador 11. Antonio Salazar </li></ul><ul><li>Jose Dizon 12. Francisco Quison </li></ul><ul><li>Domingo Franco 13. Timoteo Paez </li></ul><ul><li>Deodato Arellano </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>Colonel Olive- transmitted the records of the case. </li></ul><ul><li>Governor Ramon Blanco- who, in turn, appointed Captain Rafael Dominguez as the Judge Advocate to institute the corresponding action against Rizal. </li></ul><ul><li>Don Nicolas de la Pena- Judge Advocate General, whom General Blanco transmitted the papers for an opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>After studying the papers, Pena submitted the following recommendations: </li></ul><ul><li>The accused be immediately brought to trial. </li></ul><ul><li>He should be kept in prison. </li></ul><ul><li>An order of attachment be issued against his properties to the amount of one million pesos as indemnity. </li></ul><ul><li>He should be defended in court by an army officer, not by a civilian lawyer. </li></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>RIZAL CHOOSES HIS DEFENDER </li></ul><ul><li>Don Luis Taviel de Andrade - 1 st Lieutenant of the Artillery, brother of Jose Taviel de Andrade, the bodyguard of Rizal. </li></ul><ul><li>CHARGES READ TO RIZAL </li></ul><ul><li>December 11, the charges were read to Rizal in the presence of his counsel to questions asked, Rizal replied: </li></ul><ul><li>He did not question the jurisdiction of the court. </li></ul><ul><li>He had nothing to amend, except that since his deportation to Dapitan in 1892 he had not engaged in politics. </li></ul><ul><li>He did not admit the charges preferred against him. </li></ul><ul><li>He did not admit the declarations of the witness aginst him. </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>RIZAL MANIFESTO TO HIS PEOPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>RIZAL SADDEST CHRISTMAS: </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote a letter to Lt. Taviel de Andrade </li></ul><ul><li>THE TRIAL OF RIZAL: </li></ul><ul><li>December 26, 1896- the court martial of Rizal. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuartel de Espana- military building. </li></ul><ul><li>Seven Members of the Military Court: </li></ul><ul><li>Lt. Col. Jose Togores Arjona (president) </li></ul><ul><li>Capt. Ricardo Munoz Arias </li></ul><ul><li>Capt. Manuel Reguera </li></ul><ul><li>Capt. Santiago Izquierdo Osorio </li></ul><ul><li>Capt. Braulio Rodriguez Nunez </li></ul><ul><li>Capt. Manuel Diaz Escribano </li></ul><ul><li>Capt. Fernando Perez Rodriguez </li></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>Also present in the courtroom were: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Jose Rizal (the accused) </li></ul><ul><li>Lt. Taviel de Andrade (his defense council) </li></ul><ul><li>Capt. Rafael Dominguez (Judge Advocate) </li></ul><ul><li>Lt. Enrique de Alcocer (prosecuting Attorney) </li></ul><ul><li>The Spectators </li></ul><ul><li>-Josephine Bracken </li></ul><ul><li>-a sister of Rizal </li></ul><ul><li>-some newspapermen </li></ul><ul><li>- many Spaniards </li></ul><ul><li>Prosecuting Attorney Alcocer arose and delivered a long and bitter speech summarizing the charges against Rizal and urged the court to give the verdict of death to the accused. The Spanish spectators applauded noisily Alcocer’s petition for the sentence of death. </li></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>Rizal was accused of three crimes: </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Sedition </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal Association </li></ul><ul><li>Penalty </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion and Sedition- was from life imprisonment to death. </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal Association- was correctional imprisonment and a fine of 325 to 3,250 pesetas. </li></ul><ul><li>In his supplementary defense he further proved his innocence by twelve points: </li></ul><ul><li>He could not be guilty of rebellion, for he advised Dr. Pio Valenzuela in Dapitan not to rise in revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>He did not correspond with the radical, revolutionary elements. </li></ul><ul><li>The revolutionists used his name without his knowledge. If he were guilty he could have escaped in Singapore. </li></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>If he had a hand in the revolution , he could have escaped in a Moro vinta and would not have built a home, a hospital, and bought lands in Dapitan. </li></ul><ul><li>If he were the chief of the revolution, why was he not consulted by the revolutionists? </li></ul><ul><li>It was true he wrote the by-laws of the Liga-Filipina, but this is only a civic association – not a revolutionary society. </li></ul><ul><li>The Liga Filipina did not live long, for after the first meeting he was banished to Dapitan and it died out. </li></ul><ul><li>If the Liga was reorganized nine months later, he did not knoe about it. </li></ul><ul><li>The Liga did not serve the purpose of the revolutionists, other wise they would not have supplanted it with the Katipunan. </li></ul><ul><li>If it were true that there were some bitter comments in Rizal’s letters, it was because they were written in 1890 when his family was being persecuted, being dispossesssed of houses, warehouses, lands, etc… and his brother and brother-in-law were deported. </li></ul>
  • 17. <ul><li>His life in Dapitan had been exemplary as the politico-military commanders and missionary priests could attest. </li></ul><ul><li>It was not true that the revolution was inspired by his one speech at the house of Doroteo Ongjunco, as alleged by witnesses whom he would like to confront. His friends knew his opposition to armed rebellion. Why did the Katipunan send an emissary to Dapitan who was unknown to him? Because those who knew him were aware that he would never sanction any violent movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Lt. Col. Togores Arjona – considered the trial over and ordered the hall cleared. </li></ul><ul><li>POLAVIEJA SIGNS RIZAL’S EXECUTION </li></ul><ul><li>December 30 – the execution of Rizal at Bagumbayan Field (Luneta). </li></ul>
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