Jd born digital to dlf 20111031
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OCLC Research project on archival approach to managing born-digital materials in research libraries, including how archivists' skills and knowledge can benefit broader digital library development.

OCLC Research project on archival approach to managing born-digital materials in research libraries, including how archivists' skills and knowledge can benefit broader digital library development.

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  • The Born Digital project is just getting started. Jackie Dooley has the lead on this one. Focus on enhancing effective management of born-digital materials as they intersect with special collections and archives in research libraries. First off we attempted a definition of born digital: Items created and managed in digital form. Working with a number of advisors, we intend to identify the skills and practices in the archival tradition that will be of value in the preservation of, and access to, materials that were born digital. We’ll also assemble the minimal steps that need to be taken, while ensuring that no harm is done. Photo by Merrilee Proffitt. CC BY-NC
  • A 2009 survey of special collections and archives in the US and Canadashows that digitization of special collections and increasing user access to those collections are of critical importance to research libraries. The survey was a follow up to the 1998 ARL survey led directly to many high-profile initiatives to "expose hidden collections.“ We updated ARL’s survey instrument and extended the subject population to encompass the 275 libraries in the following five overlapping membership organizations:• Association of Research Libraries (124 universities and others)• Canadian Academic and Research Libraries (30 universities and others)• Independent Research Libraries Association (19 private research libraries)• Oberlin Group (80 liberal arts colleges)• RLG Partnership, U.S. and Canadian members (85 research institutions)The rate of response was 61% (169 responses).http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stethoscope_1.jpgStethoscope. Public domain.
  • The OCLC report reveals, despite the efforts to uncover hidden collections, much rare and unique material remains undiscoverable, and monetary resources are shrinking at the same time that user demand is growing. The balance sheet is both encouraging and sobering:• The size of ARL collections has grown dramatically, up to 300% for some formats• Use of all types of material has increased across the board• Half of archival collections have no online presence• While many backlogs have decreased, almost as many continue to grow• User demand for digitized collections remains insatiable• Management of born-digital archival materials is still in its infancy• Staffing is generally stable, but has grown for digital services• 75% of general library budgets have been reduced• The current tough economy renders “business as usual” impossibleThe top three “most challenging issues” in managing special collections were space (105 respondents), born-digital materials, and digitization.
  • Focused on issues that warrant shared actionAssessment--Develop and promulgate metrics that enable standardized measurement of key aspects of special collections use and management.Collections--Identify barriers that limit collaborative collection development.--Take collective action to share resources for cost-effective preservation of at-risk audiovisual materials.User Services--Develop and liberally implement exemplary policies to facilitate rather than inhibit access to and interlibrary loan of rare and unique materials.Cataloging and Metadata--Compile, disseminate, and adopt a slate of replicable, sustainable methodologies for cataloging and processing to facilitate exposure of materials that remain hidden and stop the growth of backlogs.--Develop shared capacities to create metadata for published--Convert legacy finding aids using affordable methodologies toDigitization--Develop models for large-scale digitization of special collections,--Determine the scope of the existing corpus of digitized rare books,Born-Digital Archival Materials--Define the characteristics of born-digital materials that warrant theirmanagement as “special collections.”--Define a reasonable set of basic steps for initiating an institutional program for responsibly managing born-digital archival materials.--Develop use cases and cost models for selection, management, and preservation of born-digital archival materials.Staffing--Confirm high-priority areas in which education and training
  • To start out, we recognized that different people may have entirely different things in mind when they use the term born-digital. So we identified nine different types of born-digital material (you could no doubt, add more). There’s a document, but those of you with short attention spans (or who’d like to see OCLC Research staff make fools of ourselves) may want to view the video on our YouTube channel.

Jd born digital to dlf 20111031 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Born-Digital An Archival Approach Jackie Dooley Program Officer OCLC Research Digital Libraries FederationBaltimore, 31 Oct 2011
  • 2. Heads up!! This project is a work in progress. We’re eager for your feedback.Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 2
  • 3. Assumptions 1. The average research library has made limited progress with born digital materials beyond IRs. 2. Archivists can and should be major players in digital library development. 3. Archival approaches to date have focused on complex solutions. 4. Resources are very limited. 5. Most institutions need a “baby steps” approach to get started.Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 3
  • 4. Project objectives • Explore where “special collections and archives” intersect with “born digital” and “digital library” • Articulate the relevant skills and expertise held by archivists • Describe how these pertain to various types of born-digital materials • Outline “baby steps” to begin preserving physical mediaBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 4
  • 5. Taking Our Pulse: The OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives <http://www.oclc.org/research/publications/library/2010/2010-11.pdf>Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 5
  • 6. Among our key findings … “Your three most challenging issues” 1. Space 2. Born-digital materials 3. Digitization Tough economy renders “business as usual” impossible; 75% of library budgets diminished Survey population: 275 research libraries in U.S. and CanadaBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 6
  • 7. Top education and training needs 1. Born-digital materials: 83% 1. Information technology: 65% 2. Intellectual property: 56% 3. Cataloging and metadata: 51%Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 7
  • 8. Born-digital archival materials are … Undercollected Undercounted Undermanaged Unpreserved Inaccessible American Heritage CenterBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 8
  • 9. Key to percentages: Red = % of respondents Black = numerical dataBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 9
  • 10. Born-digital archival materials • Digital materials currently held by: 79% • Holdings reported by: 35% • Percent held by top two libraries: 51% • Percent held by top 13 libraries: 93% • Gigabytes reported • Entire population: 85,000 GB • Mean: 1,465 GB • Median: 90 GBBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 10
  • 11. Born-digital archival materials • Assignment of responsibility for born-digital management made by: 55% • Most see multiple fundamental impediments: 89% We conclude that … Management of born-digital materials in research libraries remains in its infancy. Collecting is generally reactive, sporadic, limited.Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 11
  • 12. Born-digital: Assignment of responsibilityBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 12
  • 13. Born-digital: Materials already heldBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 13
  • 14. Born-digital: ImpedimentsBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 14
  • 15. Born-digital: Recommended actions 1. Define the characteristics of born-digital materials that warrant their management as “special collections.” 2. Define a reasonable set of basic steps for initiating a program for responsibly managing born-digital archival materials. 3. Develop use cases and cost models for selection, management, and preservation of born-digital archival materials.Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 15
  • 16. Our born-digital special collections projectBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 16
  • 17. Why this project? 1. Majority of research libraries have yet to take even baby steps in born-digital management. 1. Majority of archivists have yet to take action because they think they don’t know enough, don’t have specialized resources, are generally intimidated, need guidance on how to conquer fear and take initial steps. 1. Research library directors often don’t know how/why archivists’ skills and expertise are broadly relevant tolibrarywide management of digital library content.Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 17
  • 18. Our target audiences • Research library directors and higher administration • Archivists and special collections librarians • Other research library specialists • Collection development • Digital library • Information technology • Institutional repository • Metadata • Scholarly communications • Web developmentBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 18
  • 19. Born-digital archival materials are … • Audio • Databases • Email • Institutional records • Manuscripts • Moving images • Photographs • Publications • Social media • Static data sets • Textual documents • Video games • Websites • Works of art American Heritage Center … and moreBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 19
  • 20. There is no one-size-fits-allsolution for all types of digital content.Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 20
  • 21. Archival skills and expertise • Intellectual property • Appraisal • Legal issues • Authenticity • Preservation as • Collective metadata permanence • Collection development • Privacy and • Context confidentiality • Deeds of gift • Provenance • Donor relations … but we need new • Hierarchical skills too relationshipsBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 21
  • 22. Know your digital donors •Primary/core •Naming identities? conventions? •Work products? •“Deleted” files? •Habits? •Cloud content? •Relationship between physical and digital content? •Equipment? •Storage locations? •Restricted information?Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 22
  • 23. Know your digital donors •Digital will • Which content? • Who should have access? • Restrictions? •New deed of gift provisions • Copyright still applies • Sustained donor access • Right to duplicate files • Right to make web-accessibleBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 23
  • 24. Advise your digital donors The management of your digital materials can be enhanced if you handle them in groups and organize them in a logical manner. This structure should be consistent with the organization of any paper records you have, or records in other media, so that all records related to the same activity or subject, or of the same type, can be identified as part of one conceptual grouping. --Author’s guidelines for digitalpreservation Yale UniversityBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 24
  • 25. Identify digital personasBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 25
  • 26. Address fears Kirschenbaum& Nelson, RBS L-95Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 26
  • 27. Manage sensitive personal information Kirschenbaum& Nelson, RBS L-95Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 27
  • 28. Collections management baby steps •Inventory what you have • Types of physical media? • Estimated number of gigabytes? • Maximum per physical object •Initial appraisal • What types of content? • Level of significance/uniqueness?Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 28
  • 29. Technical baby steps • LearnBASIC “do no harm” file management • Capture metadata • Identify file formats • Virus scans • Bit imaging • Checksums • Document all actions • Who did what? • Source of metadata Stanley Fish Papers, Univ. of California, IrvineBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 29
  • 30. Technical baby steps • Photograph physical media • Transfer from physical media to secure storage • Make copies; keep archival copy Smithsonian ArchivesBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 30
  • 31. Ignore this (for now)!Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 31
  • 32. Ignore this (for now)! Kirschenbaum& Nelson, RBS L-95Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 32
  • 33. Organizational baby steps •Make friends with IT •Promote your skills •Keep pursuing educational opportunities … and learn by baby stepsBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 33
  • 34. Identify your low-hanging fruit •Contemporary physical media & file formats •Creator-curated email: convert to PDF •Photographs: expose on Flickr •Text documents: convert to PDF •Web pages: select a harvester and go for it … what else?Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 34
  • 35. PDF those manuscripts Rorty Papers, Univ. of California, IrvineBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 35
  • 36. Don’t go near these … yet • Data curation • Databases • Email systems • Dynamic data • Information management systems • Obsolete physical media & file formats • Social media … what else??Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 36
  • 37. Reactions? Questions? Advice? Jackie Dooley dooleyj@oclc.orgBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 37