ULTURE is COMPLEX● It includes knowledge, belief, art,morals, law, customs, and any othercapabilities and habits acquired byman as a member of society (taylor)
ulture is....● learned from others while growing up in a particularhuman society or groupwidely shared by the members ofthat society or groupresponsible for most differences inways of thinking and behaving that exist between humansocieties or groupsso essential in completing thepsychological and social development of individuals thata person who did not learn culture would not beconsidered normal by other people
culture is learned, shared, largelyresponsible for differences betweenhuman groups, and necessary to makeindividuals into complete persons.
The culture of a group consists ofshared, socially learned knowledgeand patterns of behavior.
Shared...Culture is a collective phenomenon—it is shared.People who were brought up in or are familiar witha given culture are mostly able to communicatewith and interact with one another without seriousmisunderstandings and without needing to explainwhat their behavior means.
...Socially Learned...Individuals acquire their culture in the process ofgrowing up in a society or some other kind ofgroup. The process by which infants and childrenlearn the culture of those around them is calledsocialization, or enculturation. Learning one’sculture, of course, happens as a normal part ofchildhood. To say that culture is learned fromothers seems obvious, but it has severalimportant implications that are not completelyintuitive.
...Knowledge..The members of a culture share enoughknowledge that they behave in ways that aremeaningful and acceptable to others so that theyavoid frequent misunderstandings and usually donot need to explain what they are doing.Theknowledge guides behavior such that the peoplecan survive, reproduce, and transmit their culture.
…and Patterns of BehaviorThe behavior of individuals varies for several reasons. First, individualshave different social identities: males and females, old and young, richand poor, family X and family Y, and so forth. Actions appropriate forpeople with one identity may not be appropriate for others. Second, thebehavior of individuals varies with context and situation: a woman actsdifferently depending on whether she is interacting with her husband,child, priest, or employee. Third, each human individual is in some waysa unique human individual: even when brought up in the same society,we all differ in our emotional responses, appetites, interpretations ofevents, reactions to stimuli, and so forth.Finally, cultural standards forand expectations of behavior are often ambiguous. For these and otherreasons, it is a mistake to think of behavior as uniform within the sameculture.
Origin(s) of CultureOne way to investigate the origin of culture is tolook at the anatomy needed to produce speech.Language is almost entirely symbolic soestimating when the ability to speak languageevolved is one indication of when humanitybecame dependent on culture. Indeed, culture aswe know it could not exist withoutlanguage.humanity had the capacity for culture byaround 80,000 years ago.
Culture and Human Lifeculture is absolutely essential to human life as it isusually lived—in association with other people, orin social groups. Those who study animalbehavior know that living in social groups doesnot require culture.
Culture is necessary for humanexistence in at least three specific ways:1. Culture provides the knowledge by which weadapt to our natural environment by harnessingresources and solving other problems of living in aparticular place.
●. Culture is the basis for human social life.
3. Culture affects our views of reality. It providesthe mental concepts by which people perceive,interpret, analyze, and explain events in the worldaround them.
End of discussionDiscussant:REYMUND B. FLORES, M.P.G.