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A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
A2 Media Effects of video games and computers
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A2 Media Effects of video games and computers

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  • 1. The effects of video games and computers on young people. • More recently research has turned to considering the potential impact of playing computer games. • Video gaming is now the world’s largest entertainment medium. • Lehart (2008) found 94% of girls and 99% of boys played video games (US sample)
  • 2. So, what is the problem with video games? • The main concern relates to the violence within the games, although concerns have also been raised with regard to addiction & criminal activities. • However, there are claims that games can have a positive benefit in that there are creative and pro-social games with educational value, and also games that help to release stress and aggression in a non-destructive way (Bowman & Rotter, 83) • Virtual reality and video games have also been shown to have beneficial effects as learning aids within the healthcare sector (Gold et al, 2006)
  • 3. POSITIVE EFFECTS of playing video games and computers • Cognitive effects • Computer gaming has been found to improve a range of cognitive skills , such as visuo-spatial and attention skills. Karni et al (2003) showed that such cognitive experiences can lead to long term changes in the brain.
  • 4. POSITIVE EFFECTS of playing video games and computers Prosocial behaviour effects • In 2009 Gentile conducted three studies in three countries with three age groups and found in the US part of the study (161 college students) that those who played prosocial games behaved more helpfully towards another student in a later task. In a Japanese sample prosocial behaviour was related to prosocial game playing over a four month period. (NB it is up to parents to ensure games with maximum benefits are played)
  • 5. POSITIVE EFFECTS of playing video games and computers Promotion of physical activity: Some video games promote physical activity so might be a way of reversing the effects of a sedentary lifestyle. Research has shown that active video games on average treble energy expenditure. Can help those who lack the confidence to try something and new games are being used to help the visually impaired exercise, important because these children as a result of sight problems do not find it easy to take healthy exercise and so are at a higher risk of obesity. Games, such as tennis, are played without visual feedback using audio and vibro-tactile feedback.. So far these games have been very successful in getting sight impaired people to exercise vigorously, though the sample sizes have been very small. • However it has been argued that they are not a replacement for more traditional forms of exercise which burns approx. four times more calories.
  • 6. NEGATIVE EFFECTS of playing video games Increased aggressive behaviour • Many studies point to a correlation between exposure /playing violent video games & negative actions such as aggressive thoughts & aggressive behaviours. • Anderson & Bushman (01) did a meta-analysis & measured effects of exposure on 5 variables. – – – – – Aggressive behaviour Aggressive thoughts Pro-social behaviour Aggressive mood Physiological arousal • They found that short term exposure to video game violence was significantly associated with temporary increases in aggression in all participants. • However much research has challenged this link – arguing only those who were aggressive before video games become more aggressive afterwards. Some researchers have argued that the link between video games and aggression is weaker than that between tv violence and aggression.
  • 7. NEGATIVE EFFECTS of playing video games Increased physiological arousal • Funatsuka (01) argued that gaming can provoke epileptic seizures. Prior to its release in the US, Nintendo’s Pokemon had to be reformatted due to its association with epileptic seizures in more than 700 Japanese viewers (AMA, 2006). • Music is an important factor in increasing arousal. Research using the game DOOM found that both men and women showed increased arousal (higher blood pressure/heart rate) when the music was playing.
  • 8. NEGATIVE SOCIAL EFFECTS of playing video games and computers Poorer relationships • According to some researchers the use of video games leads to poorer relationships with family and friends. In order to play games people remove themselves from social settings. • However, it may be that they were already struggling with relationships and have turned to the games as a form of escape.
  • 9. NEGATIVE EFFECTS of playing video games Reduced helping behaviour: • Research has studied the relationship between playing violent games and later helpful, cooperative behaviours. 48 participants played either a violent or doctored non-violent version of DOOM in pairs. They were then given the option of cooperating or exploiting each other or withdrawing from the game. Those who had played the violent version were more likely to choose to exploit- thus the research concluded that playing violent video games may well undermine prosocial behaviours.
  • 10. NEGATIVE SOCIAL EFFECTS of playing video games and computers Addiction to games • Grüsser et al (07) surveyed 7,000 gamers & found that approx. 12% of these could be classified as addicted using the WHO criteria. • Shotton (89) conducted a study in the UK, surveying 127 people (50% of them children) who reported being addicted to home computer games for at least 5 years. Findings were that, compared to a control group, those in the addicted group were highly intelligent, motivated and high-achieving people. Furthermore, a 5-year longitudinal study of the younger participants found that a proportionately high number had done well educationally, gone on to university & secured high-ranking jobs. Conclusion was that addiction to games was usually harmless . • .
  • 11. NEGATIVE EFFECTS of playing video games Desensitisation to violence • Advances in technology have led to the increased ability to study brain responses to gaming. Bartholemew found reduced brain response (desensitisation) in those used to game violence. • Subsequent researchers have argued that gaming leads to desensitisation to real life violence.
  • 12. NEGATIVE SOCIAL EFFECTS of playing video games and computers Poorer relationships • According to some researchers the use of video games leads to poorer relationships with family and friends. In order to play games people remove themselves from social settings. • However, it may be that they were already struggling with relationships and have turned to the games as a form of escape.
  • 13. POSITIVE SOCIAL EFFECTS of computers Encourage self disclosure • Some researchers believe the internet encourages self disclosure and self disclosure is a key contributor to relationship formation. Reduced visual, auditory and social status cues can encourages self disclosure in those who might be self conscious and shy. The improved quality of internet relationships has added benefits of acting as a buffer against stressors in adolescence.
  • 14. POSITIVE SOCIAL EFFECTS of computers Encourage communication • Technology such as Instant Messaging and Face book have encouraged communication with others. It is estimated 88% of adolescents use it to communicate with friends.
  • 15. Negative effects of computers • Addiction to the internet – some devote so much time to the internet and surfing that family, friends and employers suffer. This can lead to increased feelings of loneliness
  • 16. Negative effects of computers • ‘Face book depression’ • False profiles and security risks • Cyber bullying (deindividuation)
  • 17. EFFECTS of playing video games and computers AO3 Research issues: Research in this area is plagued with methodological difficulties. Using Cardwell and Flanagan (page 223) draw up a table of the strengths and weaknesses of research in this area.
  • 18. Video games and computers-IDA Issue Gender bias • State – Much of the research into the effects of computer game use has been androcentric. Because of this they will also display a beta bias. • Explain – The majority of the research into computer game use has only used male participants to investigate the positive and negative effects. They have also generalised these findings to females as well, thus minimising or ignoring any differences in computer game use and effects on each gender. • Apply – By ignoring 50% of the population of computer game players, it could be argued that the results of the research are not generalisable and therefore not helpful to the understanding of the area. • Stretch and Challenge – Researchers should re-focus their efforts on trying to recruit female participants to investigate the positive and negative effects of computer game use.
  • 19. Video games and computers-IDA Issues/Debates/Approaches Also consider: • Ethical issues • Reductionism For each of the above try to explain the point using the • State • Explain • Apply format.

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