th

18 annual Congress of the

EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE
th

th

26 - 29 June 2013, Barcelona – Spain

BOOK OF ABS...
European College of Sport Science:
Book of Abstracts of the 18h Annual Congress of the
European College of Sport Science –...
Organisation
Congress Presidents
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Natàlia Balagué, Carlota Torrents (ESP)

ECSS Executive Board
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Sigmund Lol...
Local Scientific Committee
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Rosa Angulo
Natàlia Balagué
Alfonso Blanco
Joan Cadefau
An...
Organizing Committee
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5

Agustí Boixeda
Jordi Borrell
Elena Gil
Xavier Iglesias
Vicente Ja...
INEFC-BARCELONA/SPAIN, 26-29 JUNE 2013

6
Welcome
Dear congress participant,
Since its creation one of the main aims of the ECSS has been to contribute to the unifi...
INEFC-BARCELONA/SPAIN, 26-29 JUNE 2013

8
Table of Contents
ORGANISATION ..............................................................................................
IS-BN02 Feedback and feedforward interaction - the role of augmented feedback in performance (sponsored by Adidas) ..........
PP-PM34 Physiology [PH] 1 ...................................................................................................
OP-SH04 Physical Education and Pedagogics [PP] 3.............................................................................
PP-PM42 Physiology [PH] 9 ...................................................................................................
SATURDAY, JUNE 29TH, 2013 ...................................................................................................
PP-BN08 Biomechanics [BM] 8 .................................................................................................
Psychology ..................................................................................................................
Honorary session
PS-HS01 Sport Science, in the World of Science
SPORT SCIENCE, IN THE WORLD OF SCIENCE
Saltin, B.
Rigshosp...
Wednesday, June 26th, 2013
15:00 - 16:30
Invited symposia
IS-PM07 Antioxidants in physical exercise: points and counterpoi...
OP-PM20 Nutrition [NU] 1
malfunctional side” of hormesis curve could be beneficial and can lead to delayed fatigue, enhanc...
Wednesday, June 26th, 2013

15:00 - 16:30

FACTORS INFLUENCING SERUM CAFFEINE CONCENTRATIONS FOLLOWING CAFFEINE INGESTION
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IS-PM13 Exercise and Training in COPD Patients *
mentation in Danish national level elite kayak rowers. Due to the relativ...
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  1. 1. th 18 annual Congress of the EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE th th 26 - 29 June 2013, Barcelona – Spain BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Edited by: Balagué, N., Torrents, C., Vilanova, A., Cadefau, J., Tarragó, R., Tsolakidis, E. Hosted by the: National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC) ISBN 978-84-695-7786-8
  2. 2. European College of Sport Science: Book of Abstracts of the 18h Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science – 26th - 29th June 2013, Barcelona – Spain. Edited by Balagué, N., Torrents, C., Vilanova, A., Cadefau, J., Tarragó, R., Tsolakidis, E. ISBN 978-84-695-7786-8 Copyright by European College of Sport Science Conception, DTP, Cover: SporTools GmbH – Data management in sports Corrections: Patera, N., Zappa Isabella, G., Tsolakidis, K. Printed by OPEN PRINT, S.L.L., Barcelona – Spain. Paul-Niessen-Str. 12, 50969 Cologne, Germany www.SporTools.de INEFC-BARCELONA/SPAIN, 26-29 JUNE 2013 2
  3. 3. Organisation Congress Presidents – Natàlia Balagué, Carlota Torrents (ESP) ECSS Executive Board – – – – – – Sigmund Loland - President (NOR) Hans Hoppeler - Past President (SUI) Marco Narici – President Elect (GBR) Romain Meeusen (BEL) Gisela Sjøgaard (DEN) Tim Cable (GBR) ECSS Scientific Board – – – – – – – – Anton Wagenmakers - Chair (GBR) Flemming Dela - Co-Chair (DEN) Jan Cabri - Secretary (NOR) Joan Duda (GBR) Paul Greenhaff (GBR) Martin Halle (GER) José Antonio López Calbet (ESP) Erich Müller (AUT) ECSS Scientific Committee – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Natàlia Balagué (ESP) Wilhelm Bloch (GER) Annalisa Cogo (ITA) Nenad Dikic (SRB) Taija Finni (FIN) Daniel Green (GBR) Michael Grey (GBR) Markus Gruber (GER) Jørn Wulff Helge (DEN) Ylva Hellsten (DEN) Luc van Loon (NED) Mike McNamee (GBR) Maria Francesca Piacentini (ITA) Janice L. Thompson (GBR) Nicole Wenderoth (BEL) ECSS Office – – – – – 3 Thomas Delaveaux Elias Tsolakidis Steffen Neubert Juliane Melber Tuulia Hokkanen 18 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE TH
  4. 4. Local Scientific Committee – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Rosa Angulo Natàlia Balagué Alfonso Blanco Joan Cadefau Andreu Camps Marta Castañer Francesc Corbi Francesc Cos Assumpta Ensenyat Pere Lavega Eloisa Lorente Xavier Peirau Jordi Porta Joan Riera Rosa Rodríguez Joan Solé Susanna Soler Anna Vilanova Additional reviewers – – – – – – – – – – – – Duarte Araújo Roser Cussó Guadalupe Garrido Myriam Guerra Casimiro Javierre Daniel Memmert Susana Monserrat Carme Porcar Anna Puig Nicolás Terrados Alfonsas Vainoras Josep Lluís Ventura INEFC-BARCELONA/SPAIN, 26-29 JUNE 2013 4
  5. 5. Organizing Committee – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5 Agustí Boixeda Jordi Borrell Elena Gil Xavier Iglesias Vicente Javaloyes Alfredo Joven Pere Manuel Mercè Mateu M. José Montilla Felip Santamaria Cristófol Salas Jordi Solà Rafael Tarragó Carlota Torrents Lorena Torres Josep Vilà 18 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE TH
  6. 6. INEFC-BARCELONA/SPAIN, 26-29 JUNE 2013 6
  7. 7. Welcome Dear congress participant, Since its creation one of the main aims of the ECSS has been to contribute to the unification of sport science. However, the tremendous growth in the field has produced further fragmentation. Is it possible to unify these fragmented areas? Are there common principles that bind them? Reductionism has dominated research for over a century and has provided a wealth of knowledge, yet it is increasingly clear that a discrete biological function can only rarely be attributed to an individual molecule. Indeed, most biological characteristics arise from complex interactions: between proteins, cells, organisms, groups, societies, etc. A key challenge in the twenty-first century is therefore to understand the structure and dynamics of these complex interactions, as this will surely foster a new and better understanding between the different scientific disciplines. The 2013 ECSS Congress in Barcelona seeks to help sport science make its own leap forward towards a comprehension of ourselves not as part of a technical world but as interacting parts of a consistent and coherent whole: nature. The 18thAnnual Congress of the ECSS aims to contribute to the development of global approaches in the different specialized areas and to provide an even broader view of sport science. Hopefully, by moving from the whole to the parts and vice versa, sport scientists will be able to find the best paths through the field. Barcelona is an open city: open to the sea, to culture, to the world and to science. What better place in which to join forces in unifying sport science. Benvinguts a Barcelona, Bienvenidos a Barcelona, Welcome to Barcelona! Natàlia Balagué & Carlota Torrents Congress Presidents 7 18 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE TH
  8. 8. INEFC-BARCELONA/SPAIN, 26-29 JUNE 2013 8
  9. 9. Table of Contents ORGANISATION ....................................................................................................................................... 3  WELCOME.................................................................................................................................................7  TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................... 9  Honorary session: PS-HS01 Sport Science, in the World of Science ..................................................................................................................... 17  WEDNESDAY, JUNE 26TH, 2013 .............................................................................................................. 19  15:00 - 16:30................................................................................................................................................................................... 19  IS-PM07 Antioxidants in physical exercise: points and counterpoints * ............................................................................................................... 19  OP-PM20 Nutrition [NU] 1.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 20  IS-PM13 Exercise and Training in COPD Patients * ................................................................................................................................................. 22  OP-PM25 Physiology [PH] 2 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 22  OP-PM26 Physiology [PH] 3 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 25  IS-BN05 Specificity in strength training in elite sport * .............................................................................................................................................27  OP-PM30 Physiology [PH] 7 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 28  IS-SH01 Understanding sport participation in Europe * ......................................................................................................................................... 30  IS-SH05 A Critical Pedagogy for Physical Education Futures: Prospects for Change ........................................................................................... 31  IS-PM01 JSPFSM Exchange Symposium: Confronting super aging society - ....................................................................................................... 32  OP-SH05 Psychology [PS] 1 ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 33  17:00 - 18:15 ................................................................................................................................................................................... 36  PS-PL01 Does Pain Produce Gain? * ........................................................................................................................................................................ 36  THURSDAY, JUNE 27TH, 2013 .................................................................................................................37  08:30 - 10:00 .................................................................................................................................................................................37  OP-PM22 Nutrition [NU] 3 ..........................................................................................................................................................................................37  OP-PM40 Sports Medicine [SM] 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................. 39  OP-PM47 Training and Testing [TT] 1 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 41  OP-PM14 Neuromuscular Physiology [NP] 1 ........................................................................................................................................................... 44  OP-BN10 Motor Learning [ML] 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 46  OP-BN09 Coaching [CO] 1 Coaching ....................................................................................................................................................................... 49  OP-PM12 Molecular Biology [MB] 2 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 51  OP-SH01 Misc. topics [CS][EC][HI][PE] ........................................................................................................................................................................ 53  OP-SH07 Psychology [PS] 3 ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 55  OP-PM31 Physiology [PH] 8 .......................................................................................................................................................................................57  OP-SH16 Sport Statistics and Analyses [SA] 2 ......................................................................................................................................................... 59  10:20 - 11:50 ................................................................................................................................................................................... 61  IS-PM06 Sports nutrition: from science to recommendations sponsored by GSSI * ............................................................................................ 61  OP-PM48 Training and Testing [TT] 2 ...................................................................................................................................................................... 62  IS-SH11 In Pursuit of Active Aging - Achieving Sustained Physical Activity and Function in Older Adults * ....................................................... 64  OP-PM24 Physiology [PH] 1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 65  9 18 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE TH
  10. 10. IS-BN02 Feedback and feedforward interaction - the role of augmented feedback in performance (sponsored by Adidas) .......................67  OP-BN02 Biomechanics [BM] 2 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 68  OP-PM11 Molecular Biology [MB] 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 71  IS-SH03 Transitions and strategies in top level sport ..............................................................................................................................................73  IS-SH10 Implementation and impact of the Empowering Coaching programme in promoting children's active and healthy engagement in sport: Findings from the PAPA main trial .................................................................74  OP-SH06 Psychology [PS] 2 .......................................................................................................................................................................................75  OP-SH14 Sport Management [SM] 2 .........................................................................................................................................................................78  12:00 - 13:15 ................................................................................................................................................................................... 79  PS-PL02 Emerging Trends in Team Sports Science sponsored by Aspetar ..........................................................................................................79  14:00 - 15:00 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 80  PP-PM68 Training and Testing [TT] 3 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 80  PP-PM28 Nutrition [NU] 2.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 85  PP-PM39 Physiology [PH] 6 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 90  PP-PM45 Physiology [PH] 12 ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 95  PP-PM51 Physiology [PH] 18 ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 100  PP-PM73 Training and Testing [TT] 8 ...................................................................................................................................................................... 105  PP-PM63 Sports Medicine [SM] 7 ............................................................................................................................................................................. 110  PP-PM16 Health and Fitness [HF] 10......................................................................................................................................................................... 115  PP-PM07 Health and Fitness [HF] 1 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 121  PP-PM05 Biochemistry [BC] 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................... 126  PP-PM21 Molecular Biology [MB] 1 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 130  PP-PM27 Nutrition [NU] 1.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 134  PP-PM57 Sports Medicine [SM] 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................. 139  PP-PM79 Training and Testing [TT] 14 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 144  PP-BN02 Biomechanics [BM] 2 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 149  PP-BN04 Biomechanics [BM] 4 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 153  PP-BN13 Motor Learning [ML] 1................................................................................................................................................................................ 158  PP-SH01 Misc. topics 1 .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 162  PP-SH03 Physical Education and Pedagogics [PP] 1 ............................................................................................................................................. 165  PP-SH17 Sociology [SO] 1 .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 170  PP-BN05 Biomechanics [BM] 5 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 174  15:00 - 16:00 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 179  PP-PM58 Sports Medicine [SM] 2 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 179  PP-PM35 Physiology [PH] 2 ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 184  PP-PM40 Physiology [PH] 7...................................................................................................................................................................................... 189  PP-PM46 Physiology [PH] 13 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 194  PP-PM54 Rehabilitation [RE] 1 .................................................................................................................................................................................. 199  PP-PM74 Training and Testing [TT] 9 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 203  PP-PM64 Sports Medicine [SM] 8 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 208  PP-PM17 Health and Fitness [HF] 11......................................................................................................................................................................... 213  PP-PM08 Health and Fitness [HF] 2 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 218  PP-PM01 Adapted Physical Activity [AP] 1 .............................................................................................................................................................. 222  PP-PM23 Neuromuscular Physiology [PH] 1 ......................................................................................................................................................... 225  INEFC-BARCELONA/SPAIN, 26-29 JUNE 2013 10
  11. 11. PP-PM34 Physiology [PH] 1 ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 230  PP-PM66 Training and Testing [TT] 1 ...................................................................................................................................................................... 236  PP-PM80 Training and Testing [TT] 15 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 241  PP-BN01 Biomechanics [BM] 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 246  PP-SH22 Sport Statistics and Analyses [SA] 1 ......................................................................................................................................................... 251  PP-BN10 Coaching [CO] 1 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 255  PP-SH25 Misc. topics 2 ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 259  PP-SH08 Psychology [PS] 1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 262  PP-SH18 Sociology [SO] 2 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 267  PP-SH20 Sport Management [SP] 1 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 270  16:20 - 17:50 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 275  OP-PM43 Sports Medicine [SM] 4 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 275  IS-PM03 Oxygenation and fatigue in humans: unravelling the mechanisms * .................................................................................................277  IS-PM08 Limits to performance during short-term and prolonged exercise in the heat sponsored by Aspetar .......................................... 278  IS-PM11 Muscle mass regulation in humans: relative importance of protein synthesis and protein breakdown * ...................................... 279  OP-PM28 Physiology [PH] 5 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 280  IS-BN01 What the dynamics of team sports tell us about collective behaviours ............................................................................................... 283  IS-BN04 Cyclic sports: energetics, evaluation and constraints *......................................................................................................................... 284  IS-SH04 The impact of sport for all policies on elite sporting success ............................................................................................................... 285  IS-SH09 Towards a theory of sports coaching...................................................................................................................................................... 286  OP-SH15 Sport Statistics and Analyses [SA] 1 ........................................................................................................................................................ 287  OP-BN01 Biomechanics [BM] 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 289  18:00 - 19:30 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 292  OP-PM21 Nutrition [NU] 2........................................................................................................................................................................................ 292  OP-PM27 Physiology [PH] 4 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 294  OP-PM05 Health and Fitness [HF] 1 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 296  OP-PM56 Training and Testing [TT] 10 ................................................................................................................................................................... 298  OP-BN03 Biomechanics [BM] 3 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 301  OP-BN12 Motor Learning [ML] 3 ............................................................................................................................................................................. 303  OP-BN04 Biomechanics [BM] 4 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 305  OP-PM19 Neuromuscular Physiology [NP] 6......................................................................................................................................................... 307  OP-SH10 Psychology [PS] 6 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 310  OP-PM42 Sports Medicine [SM] 3 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 312  OP-PM32 Physiology [PH] 9 ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 314  FRIDAY, JUNE 28TH, 2013 ..................................................................................................................... 317  08:30 - 10:00 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 317  OP-PM10 Health and Fitness [HF] 6 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 317  OP-PM49 Training and Testing [TT] 3 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 318  IS-PM14 Hypoxia for health and fitness * ............................................................................................................................................................... 321  OP-PM01 Adapted Physical Activity [AP] 1 .............................................................................................................................................................. 321  OP-BN07 Biomechanics [BM] 7 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 323  OP-PM13 Molecular Biology [MB] 3 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 325  OP-PM04 Biochemistry [BC] 1 Biochemistry .......................................................................................................................................................... 328  11 18 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE TH
  12. 12. OP-SH04 Physical Education and Pedagogics [PP] 3........................................................................................................................................... 330  OP-SH08 Psychology [PS] 4 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 332  OP-SH11 Sociology [SO] 1 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 335  OP-PM44 Sports Medicine [SM] 5 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 336  10:20 - 11:50 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 338  IS-PM02 ACSM Exchange symposium: Exercise - Thermoregulation * ............................................................................................................. 338  OP-PM45 Sports Medicine [SM] 6 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 339  IS-PM15 Can exercise damage the heart * ........................................................................................................................................................... 340  IS-PM04 Mitochondrial structural organization, dynamics and function ............................................................................................................ 341  IS-BN07 New trends in motor learning.................................................................................................................................................................. 342  OP-PM17 Neuromuscular Physiology [NP] 4 ......................................................................................................................................................... 343  IS-BN03 Biomechanical human-environment interaction ................................................................................................................................... 345  IS-SH06 Ethico-legal perspectives on justice in sport........................................................................................................................................... 346  IS-SH02 Body projects and the embodiment of gender and ethnicity ............................................................................................................... 347  OP-PM02 Adapted Physical Activity [AP] 2 ............................................................................................................................................................ 348  OP-PM41 Sports Medicine [SM] 2 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 350  12:00 - 13:15 .................................................................................................................................................................................. 352  PS-PL03 The choreography of movement and the brain .................................................................................................................................... 352  14:00 - 15:00 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 353  PP-PM29 Nutrition [NU] 3........................................................................................................................................................................................ 353  PP-PM36 Physiology [PH] 3 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 357  PP-PM41 Physiology [PH] 8 ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 363  PP-PM47 Physiology [PH] 14 ................................................................................................................................................................................... 369  PP-PM55 Rehabilitation [RE] 2 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 373  PP-PM59 Sports Medicine [SM] 3 ............................................................................................................................................................................377  PP-PM65 Sports Medicine [SM] 9 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 382  PP-PM18 Health and Fitness [HF] 12....................................................................................................................................................................... 386  PP-PM09 Health and Fitness [HF] 3 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 391  PP-PM02 Adapted Physical Activity [AP] 2 ............................................................................................................................................................ 394  PP-PM24 Neuromuscular Physiology [PH] 2......................................................................................................................................................... 398  PP-PM69 Training and Testing [TT] 4 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 402  PP-PM75 Training and Testing [TT] 10 .................................................................................................................................................................... 408  PP-PM81 Training and Testing [TT] 16 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 412  PP-BN03 Biomechanics [BM] 3 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 415  PP-BN06 Biomechanics [BM] 6 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 421  PP-BN11 Coaching [CO] 2 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 426  PP-SH04 Physical Education and Pedagogics [PP] 2 ........................................................................................................................................... 430  PP-SH09 Psychology [PS] 2 ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 435  PP-SH13 Psychology [PS] 6 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 440  PP-SH21 Sport Management [SP] 2 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 444  15:00 - 16:00 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 448  PP-PM30 Nutrition [NU] 4........................................................................................................................................................................................ 448  PP-PM37 Physiology [PH] 4..................................................................................................................................................................................... 453  INEFC-BARCELONA/SPAIN, 26-29 JUNE 2013 12
  13. 13. PP-PM42 Physiology [PH] 9 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 457  PP-PM48 Physiology [PH] 15 ................................................................................................................................................................................... 462  PP-PM56 Rehabilitation [RE] 3 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 466  PP-PM60 Sports Medicine [SM] 4 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 471  PP-PM13 Health and Fitness [HF] 7 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 476  PP-PM19 Health and Fitness [HF] 13....................................................................................................................................................................... 482  PP-PM10 Health and Fitness [HF] 4 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 487  PP-PM03 Adapted Physical Activity [AP] 3 ............................................................................................................................................................ 492  PP-PM25 Neuromuscular Physiology [PH] 3......................................................................................................................................................... 495  PP-PM70 Training and Testing [TT] 5 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 500  PP-PM76 Training and Testing [TT] 11..................................................................................................................................................................... 504  PP-PM82 Training and Testing [TT] 17 .................................................................................................................................................................... 509  PP-PM85 Training and Testing [TT] 20 .................................................................................................................................................................... 513  PP-BN07 Biomechanics [BM] 7 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 518  PP-BN12 Coaching [CO] 3 ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 523  PP-SH05 Physical Education and Pedagogics [PP] 3 ........................................................................................................................................... 526  PP-SH10 Psychology [PS] 3 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 530  PP-SH14 Psychology [PS] 7 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 535  PP-SH23 Sport Statistics and Analyses [SA] 2 ....................................................................................................................................................... 540  16:20 - 17:50 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 545  IS-PM09 The brain at work * ................................................................................................................................................................................... 545  OP-PM46 Sports Medicine [SM] 7 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 546  IS-BN09 Biomechanics in disability sport: Challenges and solutions * .............................................................................................................. 548  OP-PM09 Health and Fitness [HF] 5....................................................................................................................................................................... 549  OP-BN05 Biomechanics [BM] 5 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 551  IS-BN08 Biomechanics of sport equipment: Triad of performance, comfort and injury prevention * ............................................................. 554  IS-BN06 Evolution and adaptation in human locomotion * ................................................................................................................................ 555  OP-PM52 Training and Testing [TT] 6 .................................................................................................................................................................... 556  IS-SH08 Strategies for preventing sexual harassment in sport – in between voluntariness and obligation ................................................. 558  OP-PM07 Health and Fitness [HF] 3 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 559  OP-PM57 Training and Testing [TT] 11 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 561  18:00 - 19:30 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 564  OP-PM33 Physiology [PH] 10 .................................................................................................................................................................................. 564  OP-PM55 Training and Testing [TT] 9 .................................................................................................................................................................... 566  OP-PM35 Physiology [PH] 12 .................................................................................................................................................................................. 568  OP-PM06 Health and Fitness [HF] 2....................................................................................................................................................................... 570  OP-PM23 Nutrition [NU] 4 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 571  OP-PM08 Health and Fitness [HF] 4....................................................................................................................................................................... 573  OP-PM16 Neuromuscular Physiology [NP] 3......................................................................................................................................................... 576  OP-PM51 Training and Testing [TT] 5 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 578  OP-SH09 Psychology [PS] 5 ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 581  OP-PM15 Neuromuscular Physiology [NP] 2......................................................................................................................................................... 583  OP-PM38 Rehabilitation [RE] 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 585  13 18 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE TH
  14. 14. SATURDAY, JUNE 29TH, 2013 ............................................................................................................... 587  08:30 - 10:00 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 587  OP-PM53 Training and Testing [TT] 7 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 587  OP-PM36 Physiology [PH] 13 .................................................................................................................................................................................. 589  IS-PM12 Regulation skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat utilisation in exercise and disease in humans * ................................................. 591  OP-PM03 Adapted Physical Activity [AP] 3 ............................................................................................................................................................ 593  OP-PM37 Physiotherapy [PT] 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 594  OP-BN06 Biomechanics [BM] 6 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 597  OP-PM39 Rehabilitation [RE] 2................................................................................................................................................................................ 599  OP-PM34 Physiology [PH] 11 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 601  OP-PM50 Training and Testing [TT] 4 .................................................................................................................................................................... 603  OP-SH02 Physical Education and Pedagogics [PP] 1 ........................................................................................................................................... 605  OP-SH13 Sport Management [SM] 1....................................................................................................................................................................... 606  10:20 - 11:50 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 609  OP-PM54 Training and Testing [TT] 8 .................................................................................................................................................................... 609  OP-PM29 Physiology [PH] 6 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 611  IS-PM05 Obesity, diabetes and exercise: new developments * .......................................................................................................................... 613  IS-PM10 Dietary nitrate as an ergogenic aid * ....................................................................................................................................................... 614  IS-BN10 Evidence Based Sports Physiotherapy: Core stability in sports – myth or reality .................................................................................. 615  OP-BN08 Biomechanics [BM] 8 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 616  OP-BN11 Motor Learning [ML] 2 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 618  IS-SH07 Sport sciences to improve dance performance and participation, an interdisciplinary proposal .................................................... 620  OP-PM18 Neuromuscular Physiology [NP] 5......................................................................................................................................................... 622  OP-SH03 Physical Education and Pedagogics [PP] 2........................................................................................................................................... 624  OP-SH12 Sociology [SO] 2........................................................................................................................................................................................ 626  12:00 - 13:15 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 628  PS-PL04 Rehabilitation through exercise * ............................................................................................................................................................ 628  14:00 - 15:00 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 628  PP-PM31 Nutrition [NU] 5 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 628  PP-PM38 Physiology [PH] 5 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 632  PP-PM43 Physiology [PH] 10 ................................................................................................................................................................................... 636  PP-PM49 Physiology [PH] 17 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 641  PP-PM52 Physiotherapy [PT] 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 645  PP-PM61 Sports Medicine [SM] 5 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 649  PP-PM14 Health and Fitness [HF] 8 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 654  PP-PM20 Health and Fitness [HF] 14 ...................................................................................................................................................................... 659  PP-PM11 Health and Fitness [HF] 5 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 664  PP-PM04 Adapted Physical Activity [AP] 4 ............................................................................................................................................................ 668  PP-PM26 Neuromuscular Physiology [PH] 4.......................................................................................................................................................... 671  PP-PM71 Training and Testing [TT] 6 ...................................................................................................................................................................... 676  PP-PM77 Training and Testing [TT] 12 .................................................................................................................................................................... 680  PP-PM83 Training and Testing [TT] 18 .................................................................................................................................................................... 685  PP-PM86 Training and Testing [TT] 21 .................................................................................................................................................................... 690  INEFC-BARCELONA/SPAIN, 26-29 JUNE 2013 14
  15. 15. PP-BN08 Biomechanics [BM] 8 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 693  PP-BN14 Motor Learning [ML] 3 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 697  PP-SH06 Physical Education and Pedagogics [PP] 4 ............................................................................................................................................ 701  PP-SH11 Psychology [PS] 4 ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 706  PP-SH15 Psychology [PS] 8 ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 710  PP-SH24 Sport Statistics and Analyses [SA] 3 ........................................................................................................................................................ 714  15:00 - 16:00 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 719  PP-PM32 Nutrition [NU] 6......................................................................................................................................................................................... 719  PP-PM33 Nutrition [NU] 7 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 723  PP-PM44 Physiology [PH] 11 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 729  PP-PM50 Physiology [PH] 16 ................................................................................................................................................................................... 734  PP-PM53 Misc. topics 4 .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 738  PP-PM62 Sports Medicine [SM] 6 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 743  PP-PM15 Health and Fitness [HF] 9 .........................................................................................................................................................................747  PP-PM06 Biochemistry [BC] 2 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 752  PP-PM12 Health and Fitness [HF] 6 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 754  PP-PM22 Molecular Biology [MB] 2 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 759  PP-PM67 Training and Testing [TT] 2 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 763  PP-PM72 Training and Testing [TT] 7.......................................................................................................................................................................767  PP-PM78 Training and Testing [TT] 13 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 771  PP-PM84 Training and Testing [TT] 19 .....................................................................................................................................................................776  PP-PM87 Misc. topics 3............................................................................................................................................................................................779  PP-BN09 Biomechanics [BM] 9 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 784  PP-BN15 Motor Learning [ML] 2 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 789  PP-SH07 Physical Education and Pedagogics [PP] 5 ........................................................................................................................................... 794  PP-SH12 Psychology [PS] 5 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 798  PP-SH16 Misc. topics 3 ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 803  PP-SH19 Sociology [SO] 3 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 806  E-POSTER NOT DEBATED ....................................................................................................................... 811  Adapted Physical Activity .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 811  Biochemistry .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 813  Biomechanics ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 815  Coaching ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 824  Computer Sciences................................................................................................................................................................................................... 831  Health and Fitness .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 831  History ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 846  Molecular Biology .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 848  Motor Learning ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 850  Neuromuscular Physiology .................................................................................................................................................................................... 854  Nutrition ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 857  Philosophy and Ethics ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 862  Physical Education and Pedagogics...................................................................................................................................................................... 863  Physiology ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 865  Physiotherapy .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 880  15 18 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE TH
  16. 16. Psychology ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 881  Rehabilitation ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 886  Sociology ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 888  Sport Management ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 889  Sport Statistics and Analyses .................................................................................................................................................................................. 890  Sports Medicine ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 894  Training and Testing ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 906  Traumatology ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 934  AUTHORS INDEX ..................................................................................................................................935  * Clinical track INEFC-BARCELONA/SPAIN, 26-29 JUNE 2013 16
  17. 17. Honorary session PS-HS01 Sport Science, in the World of Science SPORT SCIENCE, IN THE WORLD OF SCIENCE Saltin, B. Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Denmark In the world of science, sport science is one of the fields that have has changed dramatically over the last century. From having had a sports medicine focus the science component has taken over and become enlarged; now encompassing most academic disciplines ranging from philosophy over biomedicine to advanced technology, sometimes also in combination. Ever since I published my first paper in 1960 and defended my thesis in 1964 I have been close to this transformation and I have noticed how my field, human physiology, has changed stepwise in many universities, first into exercise science and later into sport science. Regardless of these paradigmatic modifications, I have continued to do what I was taught. Thus, in this presentation I will highlight one area where major advances have been possible thanks to the reintroduction of the muscle biopsy technique and the developments of biochemical and molecular methods. Muscles from humans could be studied, unravelling both contractile and metabolic adaptations at the muscle fibre and subcellular levels, including key factors for the mechanisms by which these adaptations are regulated and their functional role. To me an important source of information and perspective originates from a study in Greenland. During 42 days Danes were crossing the ice with 5-7 daily hours of strenuous skiing and pulling a sledge. They were compared to traditional Inuit. Our hypothesis was that the higher fat combustion capacity in the Inuit was to be explained by key differences in their skeletal muscle metabolic machinery in both arms and legs. The 42 days of skiing on the ice improved the fat combusting capacity in the Danes’ muscles, but they did not reach “Inuit status” when it came to some critical enzymes and the relative role of fat oxidation. The question is then: why not? Until the complete answers have been found, the researchers’ task is not fulfilled. The fact that sport science today is hypothesis driven is one important reason why the field has got a voice in the world of science. For this voice to be heard and appreciated, the “why” and “how” questions of sport science also have to be attacked and solved.
  18. 18. Wednesday, June 26th, 2013 15:00 - 16:30 Invited symposia IS-PM07 Antioxidants in physical exercise: points and counterpoints * OVERVIEW OF THE ROLE OF FREE RADICALS AND ANTIOXIDANTS IN PHYSICAL EXERCISE Gratas-Delamarche, A. University of Rennes2 Since the mid-70 when searchers (Davies et al. 1982) demonstrate that single bouts of exhaustive exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress, intensive researches have been conducted to clarify the role of oxidative stress in the exercise- adaptations of the human body. Oxidative stress was first defined by Sies (1985) as an « imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the occurrence of cell antioxidant defenses ». Since then, research in this area has grown spectacularly, showing that high levels of ROS produced during intense exercise result in oxidative stress and are associated with muscle damage and impaired muscle function. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as training and antioxidant intakes (AO) impact the extent of oxidation. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis (Radak et al. 2008), such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. Now it is clear that humans that engage in long-term heavy exercise are more resistant to oxidative stress (Machefer et al. 2007). Evidence is growing that the continued presence of a small stimulus, such as low concentrations of ROS, can induce the expression of antioxidant enzymes and other defense mechanisms (Gomez- Cabrera et al. 2008). Thus within a concentration range, ROS are “friends” rather than “foes”. Based on the abundant research done on this topic (Peternelj and Coombes 2011) this review seeks to give recommandations in daily antioxidant intakes for sportmen and active people. Nowadays there is a lack of evidence-for justifying antioxidant supplementation during usual exercise training. An adequate intake of vitamins and minerals through a varied and balanced diet remains the best approach to maintain the optimal antioxidant status in exercising individuals. References Sies H.: In: Oxidative stress, London: Academic Press; 1985: 1-8 Davies KJ, Quintanilha AT, Brooks GA, Packer L. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1982;107(4):1198-205.  Peternelj TT, Coombes JS. Sports Med. 2011, 41(12): 104369 Machefer G, Groussard C, Vincent S, Zouhal H, Faure H, Cillard J, Radák Z, Gratas- sZ Grat er . J Am Coll Nutr. 2007, 26(2):111-20. , Gomez-Cabrera MC, Domenech E, Viña J. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008; 44(2):126-31. Radak Z, Chung HY, Goto S. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008; 44(2):153-9. ANTIOXIDANTS IN EXERCISE: WORSE THAN USELESS? Gomez-Cabrera, M.C. University of Valencia Exercise causes oxidative stress. Antioxidants may reduce the adverse effects of exercise-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, ROS are not only toxic but rather play an important role in cell signalling and in the regulation of gene expression in skeletal muscle. Thus, the supplementation with antioxidant vitamins during training has been recently questioned. Training studies conducted to determine whether antioxidant vitamins improve exercise performance have generally shown that supplementation is useless (1-3). However, recent evidence shows that antioxidants may have detrimental effects on performance. As early as 1971, it was shown that vitamin E supplementation (400 IU/d for 6 wk) caused unfavourable effects on endurance performance in swimmers (4). Malm and co-workers showed the deleterious effects of ubiquinone-10 supplementation on the performance of humans after a high-intensity training program (5). In 2002, it was shown that supplementation of racing greyhounds with 1g vitamin C a day for 4 wk significantly slowed their speed (6). Moreover, in a human study, the negative effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on the adaptive responses of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and stress proteins were demonstrated (7). Furthermore, it has been shown that supplementation with ascorbic acid to prevent delayed onset muscle soreness after exercise, does not preserve muscle function but hinders the recovery process thereby being detrimental to future performance (8). In an animal study, we found that vitamin C supplementation decreases training efficiency because it prevents exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis (9). These results have been subsequently confirmed in humans. Dr. Ristow’s research group showed that antioxidant supplementation with vitamins C and E prevents the induction of molecular regulators of insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial biogenesis, and endogenous antioxidant defense by physical exercise (10). A large proportion of athletes take vitamin supplements, often large doses, seeking their beneficial effects on performance (11). The complete lack of any positive effect of antioxidant supplementation on physiologic and biochemical outcomes consistently found in human and animal studies raises questions about the validity of using oral antioxidant supplementation during training. C. Yfanti et al., Med Sci Sports Exerc 42, 1388 R. J. Maughan, Nutr Res Rev 12, 255 A. A. Theodorou et al., Am J Clin Nutr 93, 1373 I. M. Sharman et al., Br J Nutr 26, 265 C. Malm et al., Acta Physiol Scand 157, 511 R. J. Marshall et al., J Nutr 132, 1616S M. Khassaf et al., J Physiol 549, 645 G. L. Close et al., Br J Nutr 95, 976 M. C. GomezCabrera et al., Am J Clin Nutr 87, 142 M. Ristow et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106, 8665 J. Sobal et al., Int J Sport Nutr 4, 320 ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE Radak, Z. Semmelweis University In toxicology, hormesis is a dose response phenomenon characterized by a low dose of stimulation, high dose of inhibition, resulting in either a J-shaped or an inverted U-shaped dose response, which is a non-monotonic response. Recently we have extended the hormesis theory to free radical species which, level significantly modulated by physical exercise and we proposed that the effects of exercise in the context of free radicals can be described by the hormesis curve (1). Therefore, supplementation of antioxidants “on the
  19. 19. OP-PM20 Nutrition [NU] 1 malfunctional side” of hormesis curve could be beneficial and can lead to delayed fatigue, enhanced performance and/or better regeneration. 1. Radak et al. Biogerontology 2005 6:71-5. 15:00 - 16:30 Oral presentations OP-PM20 Nutrition [NU] 1 TRAINING INCREASES MUSCLE CARNOSINE LOADING BY BETA-ALANINE SUPPLEMENTATION Bex, T., Chung, W., Baguet, A., Stegen, S., Derave, W. University Ghent TRAINING INCREASES MUSCLE CARNOSINE LOADING BY BETA-ALANINE SUPPLEMENTATION Bex, T.1, Chung, W.1,2, Baguet, A.1,Stegen, S.1, Derave, W.1 1: GHENT University (Ghent, Belgium),2: Victoria University (Canberra, Australia) Introduction Carnosine occurs in high concentrations in human skeletal muscle where it works as a proton buffer and calcium regulator (Derave et al, 2010). Therefore, increased muscle carnosine concentration in athletes likely promotes high-intensity exercise performance. Beta-alanine (BA) supplementation over 4-10 weeks has consistently been shown to augment muscle carnosine concentration with 40–80%, but the effect of concomitant training on the loading efficiency is poorly understood. A one-legged training study found that carnosine loading after BA supplementation was not influenced by isokinetic training with limited training volume (Kendrick et al, 2009). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether muscle carnosine loading via BA supplementation is enhanced by prolonged exercise training, by comparing loading in arm and leg muscles that are specifically trained in different athlete groups. Methods Participants (n=24; 9 cyclists, 7 swimmers and 8 controls) were supplemented with 6.4g/day of slow-release BA (Carnosyn, Natural Alternative International) for 23 days. Athletes were well-trained at baseline and trained at least 8 hours a week in their specific sports (cycling or swimming) during the supplementation period, whereas the controls were sedentary throughout. Measurements (before and after supplementation) included carnosine content in soleus, gastrocnemius medialis and deltoid muscles by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Results Cyclists (p = 0.026) and swimmers (p = 0.032) have a significantly higher absolute increase of carnosine after BA supplementation in the leg muscles compared to controls. In the deltoid muscle, a higher absolute increase of carnosine was found in the group of swimmers compared to cyclists (p = 0.025) and controls (p = 0.073). The highest relative increases in muscle carnosine were observed in the soleus muscles of cyclists (+94%) and the deltoid muscles of swimmers (+93%). Discussion We have shown that muscle carnosine loading is more pronounced in endurance-trained vs. untrained muscles. We observed a nearly doubling of muscle carnosine content in just 23 days in specifically trained muscles (calf muscle of cyclists and arm muscle of swimmers), which is markedly faster than ever observed (Derave et al, 2010). It remains to be determined whether differences in loading efficiency are due to the acute effects of muscle contractile activity on BA uptake and/or carnosine synthesis, or to the beneficial structural and metabolic properties of muscle induced by prior training. References Derave W, Everaert I, Beeckman S, Baguet A.(2010). Sports Med, 40(3): 247 – 263. Kendrick I, Kim H, Harris R, Kim C, Dang V, Lam T, Bui T, Wise J (2009). Eur J Appl Physiol, 106:131-138. REGULATION OF PG1-1A AND FNDC5 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE: INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE VOLUME AND PROTEIN CONTENT OF THE DIET Ponce-Gonzalez, J.G.1, Losa-Reyna, J.1, De La Calle-Herrero, J.1, Perez-Suarez, I.1, Santana, A.1, Holmberg, H.C.2, Calbet, J.A.L.1 1.UNIVERSITY OF LAS PALMAS DE GRAN CANARIA. 2.SWSRC, Mid Sweden Univ, Sweden PGC-1a overexpression in mouse skeletal muscle induces FNDC5, a membrane protein that is cleaved and secreted as irisin. Irisin causes browning of subcutaneous fat, increases basal VO2, reduces body weight and increases insulin sensitivity (Bostrom et al. 2012). In humans, it has been reported that FNDC5 is induced by exercise in skeletal muscle (Bostrom et al. 2012) and reduced with weight loss after bariatric surgery (Huh et al. 2012). The molecular and endocrine mechanisms that control muscle FNDC5 expression in humans remain unknown. Aim: To determine the role played by PGC-1a in human skeletal muscle FNDC5 expression and to determine whether exercise and the protein content of the diet blunt the expected reduction in FNDC5 expression induced by weight loss. Methods: PGC1alpha and FNDC5 mRNA, and the protein levels of AMPKa (total and phosphorylated), PGC-1a and SIRT3 (under PGC-1a control) were determined in skeletal muscle by Real Time PCR (with two housekeeping genes) and Western blot, before (PRE), after four days of prolonged exercise with caloric restriction (PE+CR), and three days later under control diet (isonergetic with PRE) with reduced exercise (CD), in 15 overweight men. Muscle biopsies were obtained from both deltoid and one vastus lateralis muscles (135 biopsies in total). During PE+CR, subjects performed 45 min of one-arm cranking (at 15% of their maximal intensity) followed by 8 h walking each day, and only ingested 0.8 g per kg of body weight per day of either whey protein (n=8) or sucrose (n=7). Results: Compared to PRE, the whole-body fat mass and lean mass were reduced by 2.9 and 1.1 kg after PE+CR (P<0.05) while basal metabolic rate remained at the same level. AMPKa phosphorylation was increased by 26 and 54%, after PE+CR and CD, respectively in all muscles (P<0.05). PGC-1a protein expression was reduced by 17% and mRNA by 26% (PRE vs CD, P<0.05). There was a good correlation between the mean values of PGC-1a protein and mRNA expression levels (r=0.75, P<0.05, n=8). Compared to PRE, FNDC5 mRNA expression was decreased by 41 and 44% (after PE+CR and CD, respectively, P<0.05). Exercise, prevented the reduction of PGC-1a and FNDC5 mRNA in the legs but not the arms. Similar changes were observed in SIRT3 protein expression which was related to PGC-1a protein (r=0.94, P<0.001, n=8). FNDC5 mRNA paralleled PGC-1a mRNA (r=0.90, P<0.001, n=8) and protein expression (r=0.92, P<0.001, n=8). The type of supplement ingested had no influence on PGC-1a and FNDC5 mRNA changes. Conclusion: FNDC5 expression in human skeletal muscle is appears to be under tight control by PGC-1a. A negative energy balance causes an overall reduction of FNDC5 expression in the musculature which is attenuated by prolonged (several hours) but not short (45 min) low intensity exercise. Basal metabolic rate does not appear to be under control by muscular FNDC5 expression in humans. Granted by MEC (DEP2010-21866). 20 18 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE TH
  20. 20. Wednesday, June 26th, 2013 15:00 - 16:30 FACTORS INFLUENCING SERUM CAFFEINE CONCENTRATIONS FOLLOWING CAFFEINE INGESTION Skinner, T., Jenkins, D., Leveritt, M., McGorm, A., Bolam, K., Coombes, J., Taaffe, D. The University of Queensland (Brisbane, Australia) Introduction The majority of studies investigating the potential for caffeine to improve exercise performance have used a dose of 3-6 mg/kg caffeine administered 1 h pre-exercise based on the assumption that peak circulating levels are achieved 1 h following ingestion, and that peak levels will provide the greatest ergogenic benefit. However, between-individual variations in caffeine concentrations following ingestion have been reported to be ~79% (Balogh et al., 1992). Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether differences in training status, body composition and/or usual caffeine intake influenced serum caffeine concentrations following caffeine ingestion. Methods Trained cyclists and triathletes (n=14) and active (n=14) males aged 18-40 years (a) consumed a high carbohydrate meal the night before testing; (b) fasted overnight (≥12 h); (c) refrained from caffeine consumption (including substances that potentially affect the metabolism of caffeine) and alcohol for 48 h; and (d) maintained a hydrated state. On arrival at the laboratory participants ingested a high carbohydrate meal (2.0 g/kg carbohydrates, 42.4±0.6 kJ/kg) prior to consuming 6 mg/kg anhydrous caffeine. Peak, total and time to peak serum caffeine concentrations were determined from venous blood samples at baseline and 6 time-points over 4 h following intake. Body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and usual caffeine intake by a questionnaire. Results Peak serum caffeine concentrations (36±7 µmol/L) occurred 135±36 minutes following ingestion. Trained cyclists/triathletes had similar (p>0.05) body composition but significantly lower (p=0.028) peak serum caffeine concentrations compared to active individuals (trained cyclists/triathletes=32±5 µmol/L, active=38±8 µmol/L). Percent body fat was significantly associated with area under the serum caffeine concentration curve (r=0.414, p=0.036) but not peak (r=0.345, p=0.085) or time to peak serum caffeine concentration (rho=0.147, p=0.474). When all participants were divided into tertiles according to daily caffeine intake there were no significant differences in peak (p=0.618), time-to-peak (p=0.225) or total serum caffeine concentrations (p=0.444). Discussion Three findings from the study were evident: 1) highly trained endurance athletes exhibit lower peak caffeine concentrations than active males following caffeine ingestion; 2) higher % body fat was associated with higher concentrations of caffeine in the blood for 4 h following caffeine ingestion, and 3) the amount of caffeine consumed in a typical week does not appear to influence the concentration of caffeine in the blood following ingestion. Identification of the optimal conditions to ensure peak availability of caffeine within the blood and/or overcoming some of the variation in how individuals respond to caffeine requires consideration of the training status and body composition of the athlete. References Balogh A, Harder S, Vollandt R, Staib AH. (1992). Int J Clin Pharmacol, 30(10), 383-387. MUSCLE CARNOSINE LOADING DOES NOT ENHANCE ENDURANCE CYCLING PERFORMANCE Chung, W.1, Baguet, A.1, Derave, W.1 Ghent University Introduction To date, many studies show increased muscle carnosine concentrations and improved exercise performance with betaalanine supplementation [1]. Most of these studies utilise short duration, high-intensity exercise protocols (< 20 minutes) as muscle carnosine is most commonly regarded as a pH buffer. However, improved muscle contractile function associated with increased muscle carnosine concentrations may also enhance endurance performance [2]. Therefore, we investigated the effect of beta-alanine supplementation on 1-h cycling time trial performance. Methods Well-trained male cyclists (Age = 30.9 ± 7.7 yr, VO2peak = 60.7 ± 7.7 ml.min1.kg-1; mean ± SD) were supplemented with 6.4 g.day-1 of either slow-release beta-alanine (BA; n=14) or placebo (PLA; n = 13) for six weeks. Muscle carnosine concentration (measured via proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) in soleus and gastrocnemius, 1-h cycling time trial performance and physiological data during exercise were compared between baseline and post-supplementation. Results Muscle carnosine content was increased in both soleus (161%) and gastrocnemius (142%) after beta-alanine supplementation. No ergogenic effect of BA was found (p = 0.621), with both groups performing worse post-supplementation. BA was 1.9 seconds slower (p =0.069), while PLA was 2.4 seconds slower (p < 0.01) in 1-h time trial performance following supplementation. No significant differences, induced from exercise, were found in blood bicarbonate and lactate, heart rate and RPE values. Discussion Despite the largest ever reported increases in muscle carnosine concentrations, no ergogenic effect of beta-alanine supplementation was demonstrated on endurance cycling performance in well-trained male cyclists. Currently, the ergogenic benefit of beta-alanine supplementation seems to be limited to short duration, high-intensity exercise performance, which is likely related to the role of carnosine in pH homeostasis. References 1. Hobson, R., et al., Effects of ß-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids, 2012. 43(1): p. 25-37. 2. Dutka, T.L., et al., Effects of carnosine on contractile apparatus Ca(2)(+) sensitivity and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2)(+) release in human skeletal muscle fibers. J Appl Physiol, 2012. 112(5): p. 728-36. KAYAK ROWING PERFORMANCE AND MUSCLE FUNCTION IS UNAFFECTED BY BETA-ALANINE SUPPLEMENTATION IN ELITE KAYAKERS Bech, S., Richter, E., Kiens, B., Nordsborg, N. University of Copenhagen INTRODUCTION: Beta-alanine supplementation may improve performance in untrained and moderately trained athletes (Smith et al. 2011, ), but only few studies have investigated elite level athletes Baguet et al. 2010). (The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that beta-alanine supplementation would improve 4-5 min intense exercise performance, repeated sprint ability and the ability to maintain a high muscular force generation. METHODS: 10 males and 6 female national elite kayakers (age = 19.1± 0.7 yr, height = 1.80± 2.9 m, body mass = 76.0± 3.5 kg, VO2max=4.1±0.3) were randomly assigned in a double blinded manner to either placebo (PL) or a β-alanine (BA) treatment (6.4 g/day for 8 weeks). Participants performed a 1000 m test on day 1 and a 5x250m interspersed by 3 minutes rest on day 2. Before and after the 1000m test three 5 seconds maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) were completed and this were also done before and after the 5x250 and one 5 second MVC between each 250m. After 10 minutes of rest, a 2 minute MVC was performed followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) at 40% of MVCpre. A muscle biopsy (Bergstrom needle modified with suction) was obtained from biceps brachii. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA and the level of significance was set at P<0.05. RESULTS: The 1000m performance was similar at baseline (BA: 255.0±7.7 s; PL: 259.3±9.7 s) and after 8 weeks supplementation (BA: 252.8±6.6 sec (p=0.34, compared to baseline); PL: 259.4±9.5). Likewise 5x250m mean power was similar in all conditions. Two minutes MVC peak force and fatigue index were also similar before and after beta-alanine supplementation. In addition, TTE at 40% of maximal MVC was also similar between groups at baseline (BA: 86.0±4.8 sec; PL: 108.0±20.3 sec) and after supplementation (BA: 104.8±21.4 s; PL: 115.?±16.9 sec). DISCUSSION: Kayak performance and muscle function was similar before and after eight weeks of beta-alanine supple- INEFC-BARCELONA/SPAIN, 26-29 JUNE 2013 21
  21. 21. IS-PM13 Exercise and Training in COPD Patients * mentation in Danish national level elite kayak rowers. Due to the relative low number of subjects, the small changes seen in 1000m for the BA group (255.0±7.7 s at baseline and 252.8± 6.6 s after 8 weeks) and the TTE at 40% MVC (86.0±4.8 sec at baseline and 104.8±21.4 sec after 8 weeks) may reach statistical significance if more subjects are included. REFERENCES Smith A., Stout J, Kendall K, Fukuda D, Cramer T. (2011). Amino Acids, DOI 10.1007/s00726-011-1158-x Bauguet A, Bourgois J, Vanhee L., Achten E., Derave W (2010) EFFECTS OF A CARBOHYDRATE AND CAFFEINE GEL ON INTERMITTENT ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN RECREATIONAL TRAINED MALES Cooper, R., Naclerio, F., Allgrove, A., Larumbe-Zabala, E. University of Greenwich Introduction Intermittent endurance performance has been shown to improve with the ingestion of carbohydrate and caffeine. However, when caffeine and carbohydrate are combined their additive effects seem to be less clear. We investigated the effects of ingesting carbohydrate gels with and without caffeine on a ~90-min, 4 blocks intermittent endurance test (IET), in recreationally athletes. Methods 12 males (age 23±3 years, height 179±6 cm, body mass 79±10 kg) ingested three different doses of gel containing respectively 25 g of carbohydrate with (CHOCAF) or without (CHO) 100 mg of caffeine or a non-caloric placebo (PL) 1 h pre, immediately prior to start, and before the third block (~43 min) of the IET. Each block involved eleven sets of three repetitions of 60 m performed at <60; 80 and 60% of maximal aerobic speed respectively and one 15 m sprint. Blood glucose, rates of perceived exertion (RPE) and fatigue index [FI=100 x (slowest 15 m time – fastest 15 m time)/fastest 15 m time)] were analysed. Results Glucose showed significant higher values (p<0.05) at block 2 and 3 for both CHOCAF and CHO while only for CHOCAF respect to Pl at block 4. Additionally CHOCAF showed a better significant FI score (5.0±1.7) compared with CHO (7.6±2.6; p=0.006) and Pl (7.4±2.4; p=0.005), a lower RPE (14.2±2) compared to PL (15.3±2; p=0.003) and a trend in respect to CHO (14.9±2.3; p=0.056) only after the 3rd block. No other significant interaction effects were observed. Discussion In conclusion, ingesting a gel containing 25 g carbohydrate with 100 mg caffeine 1 h before, prior and during an IET is effective to temporarily reduce fatigue and RPE while maintaining higher glucose levels at the finals stages of an intermittent high intensity exercise. References Jeukendrup AE, (2004) Nutrition, 20, 669-77. Rowlands DS, Thorburn MS Thorp R. Broadbent MS, Shi X, (2008) J Appl Physiol, 104, 1709-19. Conger SA, Warren GL, Hardy MA, Millard-Stafford ML, (2011) Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 21, 71-84. 15:00 - 16:30 Invited symposia IS-PM13 Exercise and Training in COPD Patients * GAS EXCHANGE DURING EXERCISE IN PATIENTS WITH COPD Barbera, J.A. Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona Changes in arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) during exercise are highly variable in COPD. Assessments of ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) relationships have shown that VA/Q distributions usually improve or remain unaltered during exercise, they do not worsen. Distributions of both ventilation and blood flow are more homogeneous on exertion than at rest. Nevertheless, some COPD patients, particularly those with more advanced disease, present a significant fall in PaO2 during exercise. Such a decrease in PaO2 has a multifactorial origin, although the most important is the ability to increase ventilation. Due to the ventilatory impairment, COPD patients have limited ability to increase ventilation during exercise that might be insufficient to offset increased CO2 production leading to hypercapnia. Furthermore, limited ability to increase ventilation impedes the physiological shifting of the perfusion distribution towards alveolar units with higher VA/Q ratios, an effect that compensates for the impact of the fall in PvO2, which normally occurs during exercise, on end-capillary PO2. In turn, the value of PvO2 is determined by the ability to adequately increase the cardiac output to attend metabolic demands. Therefore, any concomitant cardiovascular disease will further reduce exercise PvO2, the effect of which is further amplified by the underlying VA/Q inequality. In COPD, there is no significant limitation in the diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli to the capillary blood during exercise. In summary, the variable effect of exercise on PaO2 in COPD is determined by the complex interaction between intrapulmonary VA/Q relationships and the ventilatory and cardiovascular responses. 15:00 - 16:30 Oral presentations OP-PM25 Physiology [PH] 2 OXYGEN AVAILABILITY IN THE BLOOD OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS DURING 12 DAYS OF ACCLIMATISATION TO 3600M Wachsmuth, N.B., Schmidt, W., Kley, M., Spielvogel, H., Aughey, R., Gore, C., Buchheit, M., Bourdon, P., Soria, R., Jimenes, J., Garvican, L.A. University of Bayreuth Introduction: Playing international football games at La Paz (3600m) is still under debate and many teams opt for a “fly in, fly out” strategy to use the ‘physiological window’ within the first hours at altitude, where performance is assumed to be less compromised. The key factor limiting performance at altitude is the reduced oxygen availability due to decreased arterial PO2 (PaO2) and lower arterial oxygen content (CaO2). The aim of this study was to monitor the time course of changes in PaO2 and CaO2 and the corresponding haematological 22 18 ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE TH

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