Abacus It was invented about 3000 B.C. It consists of beads divided into 2 parts which are movable on the 2 rods. It is mainly used to calculate addition and multiplication by using the place value of the digit.
Napier’s Logs and Bones Invented by John Napier who developed the idea of logarithms. It is used to perform addition multiplication and division. Due to the idea of logarithm developed in 1614, the tedium of repetitive calculations reduced.
Pascal’s Adding Machine Invented by Blaise Pascal. Also known as Pascaline. It consists of numbers toothed wheels having unique position values. It was capable of doing additions and subtractions.
Leibnitz’s Calculator Invented by Gottfried Leibnitz a German mathematician . It was able to perform multiplications and divisions & multiplications through repeated addition. Leibnitz’s machine used stepped cylinder each with 9 teeth of varying lengths instead of wheels used by Pascal.
Jacquard’s Loom Invented by Joseph Jacquard. He manufactured punched cards at the end of the American Revolution. It was completely automatic and controlled by the process called weaving.
Babbage’s Difference Engine Developed by Charles Babbage. It was able to perform mathematical functions and calculate logarithmic tables. Its operation was automatic, multi stop operations.
Babbage’s Analytical Engine Designed by Charles Babbage. It was able to perform all four mathematical operation, along with comparison. It was included with the concept of central processor, storage area, memory, input and output devices.
Hollerith’s Machine Invented by Herman Hollerith It was the first electro mathematical punched-card tabulator that used punched cards for input ,output and instructions. It was used by the American Department
Mark - I It was invented by Professor Howard Aiken. It could multiply any two ten digit numbers in 5 seconds which was a record at that time. It was the first machine which could perform according to pre programmed instructions automatically without any manual interface.
By :- Burhanuddin Jitesh Pravin Shivam Soubhik