Epidemiology

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Epidemiology

  1. 1. EPIDEMIOLOGY DR.J.S BHAWALKAR, REGISTRAR, DR. D.Y. PATIL UNIVERSITY, PIMPRI, PUNE
  2. 2. EPIDEMIOLOGY ‘I KEEP SIX HONEST SERVING MEN,THEY TAUGHT ME ALL I KNOW. THEIR NAMES ARE WHAT , WHY, WHEN, HOW, WHERE AND WHO’ EPIDEMIOLOGY IS A BASIC SCIENCE IT IS A STUDY OF DISEASE DISTRIBUTION, CAUSATION,PREVENTION AS WELL AS HEALTH AND HEALTH RELATED EVENTS OCCURING IN HUMAN POPULATION
  3. 3. HISTORY ‘FORBIDDEN FRUIT’ ( EPI = AMONG; DEMOS=PEOPLE, LOGOS = STUDY) 3RD CENTURY B.C. 1850 EPIDEMILOGICAL SOCIETY – LONDON EARL OF SHAFTESBURY U.S. - WINSLOW AND SEDGWICK 1920 U.S. - W.H. FROST 1St PROF. 1927 U.K. - MJ. GREEN WOOD 1St
  4. 4. DEFINATIONS 1) THAT BRANCH OF MEDICAL SCIENCE WHICH TREATS OF EPIDEMICS (PARKIN, 1873) 2) THE SCIENCE OF THE MASS PHENOMENA OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES (FROST, 1927) 3) THE STUDY OF DIESEASE, AND DISEASE, AS A MASS PHENOMENON (GREENWOOD, 1934) 4) THE STUDY OF DISTRIBUTION AND DETERMINANTS OF DISEASE FREQUENCY IN MAN (MAC MAHON,
  5. 5. JOHN M. LAST 1988 “ THE STUDY OF THE DISTRUBUTION AND DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH RELATED STATES OR EVENTS IN SPECIFIED POPULATIONS, AND THE APPLICATION OF THIS STUDY TO THE CONTROL OF HEALTH PROBLEMS”
  6. 6. KEY WORDS: • DISEASE FREQUENCY • DISTRIBUTION • DETERMINANTS
  7. 7. AIMS OF EPIDEMIOLOGYInternational Epidemiological Association (IEA) a) To describe the distribution & magnitude of health and disease problems in human population. b) To identify etiological factors (risk factors) in the pathogenesis of disease & c) To provide the data essential to the planning, implementation & evaluation of services for the prevention, control & treatment of disease & to the setting up of the priorities among those services.
  8. 8. BASIC MEASURAMENTS IN EPIDEMIOLOGY a) Measurement of mortality b) Measurement of morbidity c) Measurement of disability d) Measurement of natality e) Measurement of the presence, absence or distribution of the characteristics or attributes of the disease f) Measurement of medical needs, health care facilities, utilization of health services & other health-related events
  9. 9. g) Measurement of presence, absence or distribution of the environmental and other factors suspected of causing the disease. h) Measurement of demographic variables.
  10. 10. AIMS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY a) TO DESCRIBE THE DISTRIBUTION & MAGNITUDE OF HEALTH & DIS. b) TO IDENTIFY RISK FACTORS c) TO PROVIDE DATA ESENTIAL TO THE PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF SERVICES FOR PREV., CONTROL AND T/T OF DISEASE. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MEDICINE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL APPROACH a) ASKING QUESTIONS b) MAKING COMPARISON
  11. 11. USES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY EPIDEMIOLOGY : ( WORKING DEFINATION) ‘A means of learning or asking questions… and getting answers that lead to further questions’ Epidemiology helps in understanding the strengths & weaknesses of clinical evidence, such as reports of research, gives intellectual satisfaction & confidence. It can increase efficiency in acquiring sound information It provides sounder alternatives for conviction, rhetoric, seniority or speciality of proponent.
  12. 12. The investigators are on a more equal footing, all depending mainly on the interpretation of the same set of strong studies. It gives a perspective on the extent to which efforts, relative to other factors, such as biology of the disease & the physical & social environment, determines health outcomes, so that they can know what they can & cannot change. ( they – clinicians)
  13. 13. 1) To study historically the rise & of disease in the population. Winston Churchill : “ The farther back you look, the further forward you can see” 2) Community Diagnosis ( Epidemiology-diagnostic tool – Comm. Med. ) 3) Planning & Evaluation 4) Evaluation of individual risks & chances 5) Syndrome identification 6) Completing the natural history of disease. 7) Searching for causes & risk factors.
  14. 14. THANK YOU!!!

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