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ระบบนิเวศ1
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ระบบนิเวศ1

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  • 1. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ (Ecosystem)
  • 2. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ(ecosystem) ¤×Í Ãкº¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ ã¹áËŋ§·ÕèÍÂًáËŋ§ ÇÈ( ã´áËŋ§Ë¹Ö觫Öè§ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¡Ñ¹ ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ ¡Ñ¹¹Õé¨ÐÁÕ 2 ÅѡɳР¤×Í 1. ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ÃÐËNjҧ¡Å؋ÁÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ·ÕèÍÂًÍÒÈÑÂÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹ã¹áËŋ§·Õè ÍÂً¹Ñé¹ ¨Ñ´à»š¹ ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸·Ò§ªÕÇÀÒ¾ 2. ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ÃÐËNjҧ¡Å؋ÁÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ¡ÑºÊÔè§áǴŌÍÁ¢Í§áËŋ§·ÕèÍÂً «Öè§à»š¹ ÊÔè§áǴŌÍÁ·Ò§¡ÒÂÀÒ¾ 䴌ᡋ ´Ô¹ ¹éíÒ ÍÒ¡ÒÈ áË¸ÒµØ áʧ ÊNjҧ ໚¹µŒ¹ ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸·Ñé§ 2 Åѡɳдѧ¡Å‹ÒÇ ¨Ðà¡Ô´¢Ö鹾ÌÍÁæ ¡Ñ¹ ã¹Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ·Ø¡ ÃкºµŒÍ§¾Ö觾ÒÍÒÈÑ«Ö觡ѹáÅСѹ ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµäÁ‹ÊÒÁÒöÍÂً Í‹ҧⴴà´ÕèÂÇ䴌 ËÒ¡ ÊÔè§áǴŌÍÁÍ‹ҧã´Í‹ҧ˹Ö觶١ú¡Ç¹¡ç¨Ð ʋ§¼Å¡Ãзº¶Ö§¡ÒôíÒçªÕÇÔµ¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ ª¹Ô´Í×è¹ áÅШÐʋ§¼Å¶Ö§ ¡Ñ¹áÅСѹ·Ñé§Ãкº
  • 3. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. »ÃÐàÀ·¢Í§Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ âš໚¹Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ·ÕèãË­‹·ÕèÊØ´ àÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò âÅ¡¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ ËÃ×ͪÕÇÀÒ¤ (biosphere) áÅÐÊÔè§áǴŌÍÁã¹âÅ¡¢Í§àÃÒᵋÅкÃÔàdz¨ÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹ä»µÒÁ ÊÀÒ¾·Ò§ÀÙÁÔÈÒʵÏ áÅÐ ÊÀÒ¾ÀÙÁÔÍÒ¡ÒÈ ¡‹Íãˌà¡Ô´Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ·ÕèËÅÒ¡ËÅÒÂᵡµ‹Ò§ ¡Ñ¹ä»ÁÕÁÒ¡ÁÒÂËÅÒÂÃкº ¢¹Ò´ ãË­‹ºŒÒ§ àÅ硺ŒÒ§ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊÅѺ«Ñº«ŒÍ¹áµ¡µ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹ ä» «Öè§àÃÒÊÒÁÒö¨íÒṡÃкº¹ÔàÇÈÍ͡໚¹ 2 ÃкºãË­‹ ¤×Í
  • 4. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. 1. Ãкº¹ÔàÇȵÒÁ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ ໚¹Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹àͧáÅÐÁÕÍÂً㹸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ 䴌ᡋ Ãкº¹ÔàÇȹéíÒà¤çÁ ઋ¹ Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ·ÐàÅ ÁËÒÊÁطà ໚¹µŒ¹ Ãкº¹ÔàÇȹéíҨ״ ઋ¹ Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈáÁ‹¹éíÒ ÅíÒ¤Åͧ ˹ͧ ºÖ§ ໚¹µŒ¹ Ãкº¹ÔàÇȺ¹º¡ ઋ¹ Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ»†ÒäÁŒ ·Ø§Ë­ŒÒ ·ÐàÅ·ÃÒ ໚¹µŒ¹ ‹ 2. Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ·ÕèÁ¹ØɏÊÌҧ¢Öé¹ à»š¹Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ·ÕèÁ¹ØɏÊÌҧ¢Öé¹ àª‹¹ Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ àÁ×ͧ Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈáËŋ§à¡ÉµÃ Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈáËŋ§ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ ໚¹µŒ¹
  • 5. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ¡ÑºÊÔè§áǴŌÍÁ ã¹Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ¡ÑºÊÔè§áǴŌÍÁÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸µ‹Í¡Ñ¹ ઋ¹ ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ¡ÑºÊÔè§áǴŌÍÁ·Ò§¡ÒÂÀÒ¾ ઋ¹ ´Ô¹ ¹éíÒ áʧÊNjҧ ÍÒ¡ÒÈ áË¸ÒµØ ¤ÇÒÁª×é¹ ÍسËÀÙÁÔ à»š¹µŒ¹ ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§¢Í§ÊÔè§áǴŌÍÁ·Ò§¡ÒÂÀÒ¾ ´Ñ§¡Å‹ÒÇ ¨Ðʋ§¼Å¡Ãзºµ‹Í¡ÒôíÒçªÕÇÔµ¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ áÅСÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§¢Í§ ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ ¡ç¨Ðʋ§¼Å¡Ãзºµ‹ÍÊÔè§áǴŌÍÁઋ¹¡Ñ¹ Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅÃÐËNjҧ ÊÔè§áǴŌÍÁáÅÐÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ¨Ð¡‹Íãˌà¡Ô´ÊÁ´ØŠ㹸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ
  • 6. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ¡ÑºÊÔè§áǴŌÍÁ·Ò§¡ÒÂÀÒ¾ ÊÔè§áǴŌÍÁ·Ò§¡ÒÂÀÒ¾ ͧ¤»ÃСͺ·ÕèäÁ‹ÁÕªÕÇÔµ·Ø¡Í‹ҧ·ÕèÁÕÍÂً㹸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ ઋ¹ áʧÊNjҧÍسËÀÙÁÔ áË¸ÒµØ ¤ÇÒÁª×é¹ ÍÒ¡ÒÈáÅСÒ«µ‹Ò§æ ¤ÇÒÁ໚¹¡Ã´-àºÊ¢Í§´Ô¹áÅйéíÒ ¤ÇÒÁà¤çÁ ¡ÃÐáÊÅÁ ¡ÃÐáʹéíÒ ¨ÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§ÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸«Ö觡ѹáÅСѹã¹Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ áÅШÐÁÕÍÔ·¸Ô¾Åµ‹Í ¡ÒôíÒçªÕÇÔµ¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµã¹Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ ´Ñ§¹Õé
  • 7. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. áʧÊNjҧ áʧ¨Ò¡´Ç§ÍҷԵ໚¹¾Åѧ§Ò¹·ÕèÁÕÍÔ·¸Ô¾Åµ‹ÍÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ·Ø¡ª¹Ô´º¹âÅ¡ »ÃÔÁÒ³áʧ㹠¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔᵋÅÐáˋ§¨Ðᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹·íÒãˌÊÔè§ÁÕªÇÔµã¹áµ‹ÅÐáˋ§áµ¡ µ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹ä» ¾×ªµŒÍ§¡ÒÃáʧ¨Ò¡´Ç§ Õ ÍҷԵÁÒ¡¡Ç‹ÒÊѵǏ ¾×ªãªŒáʧ໚¹¾Åѧ§Ò¹ã¹¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃÊѧà¤ÃÒÐˏáʧà¾×èÍÊÌҧÊÒÃÍÒËÒà ÊÒÃÍÒËÒÃÊÌҧ¢Ö鹨ж‹Ò·ʹä»ÂѧÊѵǏã¹Ë‹Ç§â«‹ÍÒËÒà ¤ÇÒÁµŒÍ§¡ÒÃáʧ¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ¨ÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ ᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹·íÒãˌ¾×ª·ÕèÁÕáʧÊNjҧʋͧ ¶Ö§ ¨ÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ˹Òṋ¹ÁÒ¡¡Ç‹ÒºÃÔàdz·ÕèÁÕáʧʋͧ¶Ö§¹ŒÍ ¾×ª ᵋÅЪ¹Ô´µŒÍ§¡ÒÃáʧ㹻ÃÔÁҳᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹ áʧ¨ÐÁÕÍÔ·¸Ô¾Åµ‹Í¡ÒôíÒçªÕÇÔµ¢Í§ÊѵǏ´ÇÂઋ¹¡Ñ¹ ÊѵǏºÒ§ª¹Ô´µŒÍ§¡ÒÃáʧ¹ŒÍ ÁÑ¡ Œ ÍÒÈÑÂÍÂًã¹Ã‹Áà§ÒËÃ×Íã¹·ÕèÁ×´ ઋ¹ µÑÇ͋͹¢Í§áÁŧ㹷ÐàÅ·ÃÒ«Öè§ÁÕáʧÁÒ¡ã¹àÇÅÒ¡ÅÒ§Çѹ ÊѵǏ ¨ÐËź«Í¹µÑÇáÅШÐÍÍ¡ËÒ¡Ô¹ã¹àÇÅÒ¡ÅÒ§¤×¹ ã¹·ÐàÅÅÖ¡¨ÐÁÕáʧÊNjҧ¹ŒÍÂÁÒ¡ËÃ×ÍäÁ‹ÁÕàÅ ÊѵǏ ¨ÐÁÕÍÇÑÂÇзÕè·íÒ˹ŒÒ·Õè¡íÒà¹Ô´áʧ䴌àͧ໚¹µŒ¹
  • 8. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. á˸ҵØáÅСÒ« ¾×ªáÅÐÊѵǏ¹íÒá˸ҵØáÅСÒ«µ‹Ò§æ ä»ãªŒã¹¡ÒÃÊÌҧÍÒËÒÃáÅÐâ¤Ã§ÊÌҧ¢Í§ Ëҧ¡Ò ¤ÇÒÁµŒÍ§¡ÒÃá˸ҵØáÅСÒ«¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ¨ÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹ ¾×ªµŒÍ§¡Òà ÍÍ¡«ÔਹµèíҡNjÒÊѵǏà¾ÃÒÐÊѵǏÁÕ¡ÒÃà¤Å×è͹äËǡNjҾת ¾×ªµŒÍ§¡ÒáÒ« ¤ÒϺ͹ä´ÍÍ¡ä«´ÊÙ§¡Ç‹ÒÊѵǏà¾×è͹íÒä»ãªŒã¹¡Ãкǹ¡Òà Êѧà¤ÃÒÐˏáʧ ໚¹µŒ¹ ¡Ò«áÅÐá˸ҵطÕèÊíҤѭ 䴌ᡋ ÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ¤ÒϺ͹ ä¹âµÃਹ ¿ÍÊ¿ÍÃÑÊ â¾á·Êà«ÕÂÁ áÁ¡¹Õà«ÕÂÁ ÏÅÏ «Ö觨ÐÁÕÍÂًã¹Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈã¹»ÃÔÁÒ³·Õèᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹ ã¹´Ô¹¨ÐÁÕá˸ҵطÕè ¨íÒ໚¹µ‹Í¾×ª¾Ç¡ä¹âµÃਹ¿ÍÊ¿ÍÃÑÊ â¾á·Êà«ÕÂÁã¹»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÙ§ áÅлÃÔÁÒ³¢Í§áË ¸ÒµØ´Ñ§¡Å‹ÒǨÐᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹ä»µÒÁÊÀÒ¾¾×é¹·Õ贌Ç ¨Ö§·íÒãˌÅѡɳÐ੾ÒТͧ¾×ªáÅÐÊѵǏ ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹´ŒÇÂ
  • 9. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. ¤ÇÒÁ໚¹¡Ã´-àºÊ¢Í§´Ô¹áÅйéíÒ ¡Ã´- ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ¨ÐÍÒÈÑÂÍÂً㹴ԹáÅÐáËŋ§¹éíÒ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ໚¹¡Ã´-àºÊ ¢Í§ ´Ô¹áÅйéíÒ·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁ ¨Ö§¨ÐÊÒÁÒöà¨ÃÔ­àµÔºâµáÅдíÒçªÕÇÔµÍÂً䴌µÒÁ»¡µÔ ¤ÇÒÁ໚¹¡Ã´-àºÊ¢Í§´Ô¹áÅйéíҨТÖé¹ÍÂً¡Ñº»ÃÔÁÒ³¢Í§á˸ҵطÕèÅÐÅÒ »Ð»¹ÍÂً
  • 10. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. ¤ÇÒÁª×é¹ »ÃÔÁÒ³¢Í§ä͹éíÒ·ÕèÍÂًã¹ÍÒ¡ÒÈ ¨Ðà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ä»µÒÁ¾×é¹·Õè Ä´Ù¡ÒŠઋ¹ ã¹à¢µÃŒÍ¹»ÃÔÁÒ³¤ÇÒÁª×鹨ÐÊÙ§ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡ÁÕ½¹µ¡Í‹ҧÊÁèíÒàÊÁÍ ã¹ à¢µË¹ÒǨÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁª×é¹¹ŒÍ ¤ÇÒÁª×鹨ÐÁÕ¼Åâ´ÂµÃ§µ‹ÍÊÁ´ØŢͧ¹éíÒã¹Ã‹Ò§¡Ò ¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ ·íÒãˌ»ÃÔÁÒ³ ª¹Ô´ áÅСÒáÃШÒ¢ͧÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµã¹à¢µÃŒÍ¹ÁÕ ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒÂÁÒ¡¡Ç‹Òã¹à¢µË¹ÒÇ
  • 11. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. ¤ÇÒÁà¤çÁ ¤ÇÒÁà¤çÁ¢Í§´Ô¹áÅйéíÒ à»š¹»˜¨¨Ñ·ҧ¡ÒÂÀÒ¾·ÕèÁռŵ‹Í¡ÒôíÒçªÕÇÔµ¢Í§ ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ ·Ñ駾תáÅÐÊѵǏ ¾×ªºÒ§ª¹Ô´äÁ‹ÊÒÁÒö·Õè¨Ðà¨ÃÔ­àµÔºâµä´Œã¹´Ô¹à¤çÁ ᵋºÒ§ª¹Ô´ÊÒÁÒöà¨ÃÔ­àµÔºâµä´Œ´Õ ઋ¹ ¼Ñ¡ºØŒ§·ÐàÅ ã¹»˜¨¨ØºÑ¹¾×é¹·Õè ªÒ·Ðàźҧ¾×é¹·Õè»ÃÐʺ»˜­ËÒàÃ×èͧ´Ô¹à¤çÁ Íѹà¹×èͧÁÒ¨Ò¡¡Ò÷íҹҡ،§ ¡Òà ·íÒ¹Òà¡Å×Í
  • 12. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. ¡ÃÐáʹéíÒ ¡ÃÐáʹéíÒ໚¹»˜¨¨Ñ·ҧ¡ÒÂÀÒ¾·ÕèÁռŵ‹Í¡ÒÃá¾Ã‹¡ÃШÒ¢ͧÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇԵ㹹éíÒ ¤ÇÒÁࢌÁ¢Œ¹ ¢Í§¡Ò« áÅÐÍÒËÒ÷ÕèÅÐÅÒÂËÃ×ÍÅÍÂÍÂً㹹éíÒ ¾ÄµÔ¡ÃÃÁ ¨íҹǹ¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ·ÕèÍÂًã¹áËŋ§¹éíÒ ¤ÇÒÁࢌÁ¢Œ¹¢Í§¡Ò« áÅÐÍÒËÒ÷ÕèÅÐÅÒ ËÃ×ÍÅÍÂÍÂً㹹éíÒ ¾ÄµÔ¡ÃÃÁ ¨íҹǹ¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµÍÂًã¹áËŋ§¹éíÒ¹Ôè§áÅйéíÒ äËŨÐᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹
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  • 14. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµã¹Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ÃÐËNjҧÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµª¹Ô´à´ÕÂǡѹ «Ö觴íÒçªÕÇÔµÍÂًËÇÁ¡Ñ¹à»š¹ËÁً໚¹¡Å؋Á ໚¹½Ù§ ÁÕ ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸·Ñé§ã¹´ŒÒ¹ºÇ¡áÅÐź ¼Å´Õ¡ç¤×Í ¡ÒÃÍÂًËÇÁ¡Ñ¹à»š¹½Ù§ ¨Ð·íÒ ãˌÁÕ¡Òû¡»‡Í§ÍѹµÃÒÂãˌ¡Ñ¹ ÁÕ¡ÒâÂÒ¾ѹ¸Øä´ŒÃÇ´àÃçÇ¢Öé¹ ÁÕ¡ÒÃẋ§ º·ºÒ·Ë¹ŒÒ·Õè ໚¹¼ÙŒ¹íÒ½Ù§ ઋ¹ ¡ÒÃÃÇÁ½Ù§¢Í§ªŒÒ§ ÅÔ§ ¼Öé§ µ‹Í áµ¹ áÅÐ ¹¡ ¢³Ðà´ÕÂǡѹ¡çÁÕ¼Å㹷ҧź à¾ÃÒСÒÃÍÂًËÇÁ¡Ñ¹à»š¹¡Å؋ÁáÅдíÒçªÕÇÔµ Ẻà´ÕÂǡѹ¹Ñé¹ ¡‹Íãˌà¡Ô´¡ÒÃᡋ§á‹§á¢‹§¢Ñ¹ áÅÐà¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁ˹Òṋ¹¢Í§ »ÃЪҡÃÁÒ¡à¡Ô¹ä»
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