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Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
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Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
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Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011
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Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011

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OPENING THE BESIEGED CITY …

OPENING THE BESIEGED CITY
Exploring an inclusive development strategy for Tin Shui Wai in Hong Kong

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  • 1. OPENING THE BESIEGED CITYExploring an Inclusive Development Strategy for Tin Shui Wai in Hong Kong Photograph of Tin Shui Wai in Hong Kong (by HKAVMODE) Graduation Thesis Plan / Jing Feng / 4122623 / Complex Cities Studio / Department of Urbanism / TU Delft / 01/2012
  • 2. COLOPHONOPENING THE BESIEGED CITYExploring an Inclusive Development Strategy for Tin Shui Wai in Hong KongGRADUATION THESIS PLANJing Feng4122623E-mail: fengjing1618@gmail.comFirst Mentor: QU Lei (Complex Cities)Second Mentor: Gregory Bracken (DSD)Complex Cities StudioDepartment of UrbanismFaculty of Architecture TU DelftCover: Photograph of Tin Shui Wai in Hong Kong (by HKAVMODE)Date: 01/2012
  • 3. Content1. Introduction 12. Problem Statement 2 2.1 Hong Kong - Location 2 2.2 Hong Kong - Economy and Social Inequality 4 2.3 Hong Kong - Housing Problem 6 2.4 Public Housing in Hong Kong 10 2.5 Conclusion 233. Project Area - Tin Shui Wai 24 3.1 Besieged city 24 3.2 From ‘Besieged city’ to the ‘City of Misery’ 304. Project Objective 325. Research question 346. Methodology 357. Final Product 388. Relevance 389. Literature Review 4010. Vision 48 10.1 Regional scale 48 10.2 WNT scale 58 10.3 TSW scale 7411. Reference 92
  • 4. 1. Introduction A single mother lived with his son in Tin Shui Wai, a place called ‘Besieged City’ in Hong Kong. She worked in a local supermarket now. But, inthe 1970s, she worked in a textile factory and supported her little brothers finishing their studies. With the dramatic socio-economic changes,now she had a hard life compared to her brothers. One day, she met a single living granny and helped her repairing television and changingthe lamp. Then, it comes to the mid-autumn day, a special festival for Chinese family gathering together. So, the single mother, the son and thegranny sitting together around the table, tasting the mooncake, watching the beautiful moon outside, and thinking about the past and future.This is the simple but powerful and touching story in a movie called ‘The Way We Are’ by Ann Hui (fig.1). Tin Shui Wai, the so called ‘BesiegedCity’ in Hong Kong would be the study area of my graduation project. Tin Shui Wai is a place where public housing gathered, with many socio-spatial problems happening in recent years, the ‘Besieged City’ has became the ‘City of Misery’. So, my graduation project would explore aninclusive development strategy to open the ‘Besieged City’.Fig. 1: Film shots from the movie ‘The way we are’. source: Google Image 1
  • 5. NEW TERRITORIES Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China (HKSAR) IMPRESSION: Trade Port & International Financial Metropolis KOWLOON AREA: 1,104 km2 ( less than 25% of land developed) POPULATION: 7.1 million population (2010) LANTAU ISLAND HONG KONG ISLAND POLITICAL SYSTEM: ‘one country, two systems’ policy since 1997 Fig. 3: The territory map of Hong Kong (left) shows Hong Kong consists of four parts: Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Territory and Lantau Island 10Km General information of Hong Kong (right), source: Gov HK, 2011 Shaogua n 梅州 Meizho u 河源 潮州 Qingyuan Heyuan Chaozhou Jieyan g Shen Zhen ¶¬¿Y Shantou Guangzhou Zhaoqing • • • 惠州 Huizhou 佛山 Foshan • • Dongguan 汕尾 Shanwei Yunfu 中山 Zhongshan • • 深圳 Shenzhen Jiangmen • 珠海 Zhuhai • • 香港 Hong Kong Hong Kong • Macao 茂名 Yangjiang Maomin g 湛江 Zhanjian g Pearl River Delt a region 10km Hong Kong 0 10 50 100km Fig. 5: The location of Hong Kong on different scales, from China (Left) to Greater Pearl River Delta region and PRD region (middle), then to Hong Kong -Shen Zhen (right).2
  • 6. 2. Problem Statement Fig. 2: Hong Kong Skyline, source: google image,20112.1 Hong Kong - Location Hong Kong is an important trade port and one of the leadinginternational financial metropolis (fig.2), as well as a Special Ad-ministrative Region (HKSAR) (fig.3) in the south of China with ‘onecountry, two systems’ policy after the British-colony period. If com- Hong Kong Randstadpared the size of Hong Kong and Randstad (fig.4), it is obvious tofound out that the population density of Hong Kong is extremely AREA: 1,104 km2 8,287 km2high, with almost the same amount of population living on 1/7 of POPULATION: 7.1 million 7.5 millionthe size of land.After returning to China from Britain in 1997, the mainland Chinahas become the most significant trading partner of Hong Kong. As aresult, Hong Kong emphasized more and more economic develop-ment inside the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in the past decades.Hong Kong would have more intense links inside the Greater PRDRegion (fig.5) in the coming decades in the context of the evolu-tion of the PRD Region as a multi-centred city-region, especiallyfocusing on the cooperation between Hong Kong and Shen Zhen(HK 2030, 2009). Fig. 4: Hong Kong and Randstad comparison 3
  • 7. GDP 25,000 2,000,000 1,800,000 20,000 20,027 1,600,000 18,622 18,586 17,909 1,400,000 1,200,000 15,000 14,630 1,000,000 Cleaner GDP 10,950 10,482 800,000 10,000 9,699 9,509 General worker 9,000 8,384 600,000 7,770 7,918 7,276 7,495 6,175 5,394 5,633 400,000 5,000 4,831 4,502 4,453 3,643 3,909 200,000 3,585 0 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 Fig. 7: Hong Kong GDP and Average salaries improvement 1990-2010,they showd that the GDP of HK doubled but the income of low class people hasn’t changed too much. Source: Censtatd HK, Made by T. Wen from DSD AT studio, 2011 Poverty Population Poverty Rate in Hong Ko 2001-2010 1st half and ng, 1300 18.1% 18.2% Average Monthly Household Expenditure (HK$) 18.0% 17.8% lation (1000) 1,260.0 1260 17.8% Sec on 9 : Miscellaneous services pove rate% 17.6% Sec on 8 : Transport Sec on 7 : Miscellaneous goodspove popu 1220 17.4% rty 17.2% Sec on 6 : Durable goods 1,186.6 17.2% rty Sec on 5 : Clothing and footwear 1180 17.0% 1,160.7 Sec on 4 : Alcoholic drinks and tobacco 16.8% Sec on 3 : Electricity, gas and water 1140 16.6% Sec on 2 : Housing Sec on 1 : Food 02 04 05 06 08 01 03 07 09 alf 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 th 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 1s 10 poverty population poverty rat e 20 Fig. 8: Poverty population and poverty rate in Hong Kong 2001-2010 1st half, source: HKCSS, 2010 Fig. 9: Average monthly household expenditure shows Housing cost the most for HK residents Source: Censtatd HK, Made by T. Wen from DSD AT studio, 2011 4
  • 8. 2. Problem Statement Fig. 6: Comparison of Economy and Social Inequality in Hong Kong (top)2.2 Hong Kong - Economy and Social Inequality Hong Kong tops world rich-poor gap (bottom), source: Cagape, 2009 Hong Kong is well known for the freest economy and low-tax Economyshopping heaven with dense skyscrapers, however, the glass cur- GDP per capita: HK$246,677 (2010) (13th in the world) (CIA, 2011)tain walls not only reflect the dazzling modern life, but also conceal Free trade, Low taxation & Minimum government interventionthe hard life of many common people. The sharp comparison is The world’s freest, most competitive & service-oriented economy(Gov HK,2011)shown in the diagram of Economy and Social Inequality (fig.6). Social Inequality Hong Kong tops World rich-poor gap (Cagape, 2009)The GDP of Hong Kong doubled in the last two decades, however,the income of low class people hasn’t changed too much (fig.7). 1,260,000 people live in poverty (18% of population)For example, the average salary of a administrative supervisor in- 210,000 people live in inadequate housingcreased by 11,000 HK$, and the average salary increased by 4,000 100,000 households live in cagehome, cocklofts & cubicles (SoCO, 2010)HK$ for a general worker, but for a cleaner, it only increased by2,000 HK$. In 2009, Hong Kong tops world rich-poor gap (fig.6). Thenumber of population live in poverty increased from 1,186,600 in2001 to 1,260,000 in 2010 which covers 18.1% of total population(fig.8).Hong Kong, as one of the so-called global cities of finance and com-mand functions has become a spectacular island of wealth andprivilege, especially speculative urban property market has be-come prime engines of capital accumulation (Harvey, 2005,p.157).The ever-growing housing price pushes the city to the top of theranking list in property assets and rental fee in the world (Savills,2011). As a result, housing cost covers the largest part of householdexpenditure (fig.9) and gradually becomes the heaviest burden onthe shoulders of common people in Hong Kong. 5
  • 9. ab c6 Fig. 10: Inadequate housing in Hong Kong, cubicle housing (a) and cage home (b) in Sham Shui Po (c) in the city center of HK. source: (a) and (b) from SOCo,2011
  • 10. 2. Problem Statement Fig.11.Protest in Hong Kong 2011, the signs said ‘we need more public housing’, ‘the real estate corporations are controlling HK and HK will die’, etc. source: Oriental Daily,2011 2.3 Hong Kong - Housing Problem For Hong Kong, Housing has always been one of the most crucial problems along the urbanization process. Because of lacking af- fordable housing in the property market for majority of inhabitants in Hong Kong, many people turned to public housing. However, public housing stock is far from the demand. That is the result of changes of public housing policy which will be illustrated in detail in next chapter. Moreover, there are about 210,000 people live in inadequate housing, and 100,000 households live in cage home, cocklofts and cubicles (fig.10)(SoCO, 2010). So, people demonstrat- ed on the street (fig.11), complaining that the government helps the real estate developer killing people. On 14 Oct 2011, the chief executive (fig.12) said housing solutions would be the first priority in the coming government policies. The current housing problems is the outcome of complicated rela- tionships among the government (both colonial government and HKSAR government), property market, developers and urbanists. Fig. 12: Regonal Consultation Forum in Hong Kong, the Chief Executive noted that the Their positions and relations changed in different periods of socio- housing solution would be the first priority in the coming government policies source: Gov HK,2011 economic development. It is not possible to illustrate the compli- cated relationships through the whole history in detail, however a general understanding of land use and the relation between land sale and property market would help to understand the current housing problem. 71
  • 11. Bodies Land ure cial Agricult Barren Water mer l tria n/ Com io ce us ut Spa Ind it st n In pe O tion sp orta Tran an or Other Urb nd Built-up La Residential W Sh ood Gra rubl land/ We ssla and/ tla nd nd / 2. 31 Land Use Class Area (sq.km) Currently, only less than 25% of the land has been developed and Residential 72 Commercial Industrial 4 26 40% of the land is preserved as country parks and nature reserves (Gov Institution/Open Space Transportation 49 66 HK, 2011). The land for residential use is only 72 km2 (fig.13). Because Other Urban or Built-up Land 52 Agriculture Woodland/Shrubland/Grassland/Wetland 68 740 of the hilly terrain (fig.14), the solution to get more land is by terracing Barren Land Water Bodies 7 30 of hillslopes, reclamation of land from the sea and conversion of flat TOTAL 1108 agricultural land (Pun, 1987:41), so land is precious and extremely ex- Fig. 13: Hong Kong Land usage distribution in 2010, Based on source: Pland HK,2010 pensive in Hong Kong. As a result, most buildings in Hong Kong follows closely to the height limitation in order to make full use of the value of the land. Since 1970s, development of nine new towns (fig.15) changed a large number of rural land into urban land. The aim of new town was to release the population pressure in city center with the concept of self- sufficient development. However, the principal impetus behind new town construction was public housing programme (Pun, 1987:42). 2.32 Land sale and Property market ‘ Virtually all land in Hong Kong is leased or otherwise held from the Government of the HKSAR’ (Landsd HK, 2005). The Land Tenure System followed the British rule before returning to China. Now, the new lease of land is granted for a term of 50 years (Landsd HK, 2005). Since 1855 when the colonial government was asked to earn money by them- selves, land sale has been an important revenue for the government. Later, land sale was closely connected with the boom of property mar- Fig. 14: Hong Kong territory condition ket which was called ‘land (re)development regime’ (Tang,2008).8
  • 12. 2. Problem Statement New Town Design Urbanist Fanling/ Public Housing Sheung Shui Tin Shui Tai Po Housing Intervention Wai Yuen Long demand Government Economy Tuen growth Market Mun Sha Tin Tsuen Wan Revenue complicated system with business cycle Tseung Kwan O Land sale Agreement Tung Stock Property Chung 1973 New Town Plan market market Land control 1979 New Town Plan 1980s New Town Plan Investment Real Estate 0 10km Developer Fig. 17: Housing problem relation schemeFig. 15: New Town development in HK, Based on source: HK Pland 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010Since 1968, property market was bound with stock market, the re-lationship between property market and land sale became more 200complicated and difficult to handle (Deng, 2008). Many Chinese- 180 160funded enterprises emerged and defeated foreign-funded enter- 140prises in this period mainly because of the development of proper- 120 100ty market. Some big Chinese-funded enterprises later monopolized 80 60the property market and became the dominant power of Hong 40Kong economy. Housing price in property market changed dramati- Property market 20 0cally based on the land sale change by the government (fig.16).As shown in the diagram (fig.17), on the one hand, the colonialgovernment, due to subtle political reasons, didn’t want to disturb 1,000,000 925,039the prospering property market to gloom the future of Hong Kong, 750,000so the government and developer reached some agreement for 500,000profit; on the other hand, the property bubble was expanding day 250,000 174,427by day, so, public housing became a tool of government interven- 0 (m2)tion to the property market. Land Auction AreaReviewing the public housing policy changes in the context of spe-cific socio-economic condition would help to clarify the complicat-ed urbanization process and understand the causality of housing 60,000 51,244.48problems. 45,000 32,349.67 30,000 15,000 0 (million HK$) Land Auction Premium Fig. 16: Top: Housing price change in property market 1980-2011, source: Zarathustra,2011 Middle: Land Auction Area 1985-2011, Bottom: Land Auction Premium1985-2011, source: Landsd HK,2011 9
  • 13. Fig. 21: Abercrombie Report 1948, Source: Sit, 2001 Hong Kong Urban settlement Main port CBD Road Rail line 0 10km Fig. 22: Urban development till 1954 Based on Source: Shelton, Karakiewicz & Kvan 2011; Leung 197110
  • 14. 2. Problem StatementFig. 20: Victoria City of Hong Kong, Source: Google Image Fig. 23: Squatters of Tiu Keng Kowloon in 1952, Source: Google Image2.4 Public Housing in Hong Kong2.41 History Public housing was constructed after the Shek Kip Mei squatterfire (fig.18) on Christmas Eve 1953. Since then, a series public hous-ing policy and construction came out through the urban develop-ment history. A detail illustration of socio-economic condition, ur-ban plan and public housing development would be shown basedon five stages of housing policy development (Yung, 2007,p.125)as follows: Fig. 18: Shek Kei Mei squatter settlement Fire (left), Fire victims after the fire (right), Source: Google Image 1) Pre-1954 (fig.19): Socio-economic conditionDuring this period, Hong Kong was mainly a transit port. The main urbandevelopment was Victoria city as the CBD of Hong Kong (fig.20). At the WW II, China civil warsame period, many migrants from China mainland poured to Hong Kongbecause of WW II and China Civil War. So, urban squatting became a vexing Transit portissue (Dwyer 1970,p.609) Urban PlanIn 1948, Abercrombie made an urban plan (fig.21) for Hong Kong govern- No government intervention in housingment. It suggested a large area of new residential zones in New Territory.But the plan was not fulfilled at last. The urban development area till 1954 Squatter Low-income social/political event economy conditionis shown in Fig.22. & migrant housing policy Public Housing housing type target groupThere was no government intervention in housing, many people including Housing Society Housing middle institutionmigrants lived in squatters on the peripheral of the city (fig.23). ‘However, civil organization supported by government assistance income market purposethe government gave limited and indirect housing assistance to the low-er-middle- and middle-income households through the Housing Society’(Yung, 2007,p.117) Fig. 19: Socio-economic condition,Public housing policy & Housing relations Scheme till 1954 11
  • 15. Hong Kong Urban settlement Production industry Main port CBD Road Rail line Development area in Tsuen Wan 0 10km Reclamation area in Kwun Tong Fig. 26: Urban development and new industry area till 1972, Fig. 27: Reclamation 1946-1967 in Kwun Tong, Source: Ling,2011; Based on Source: Shelton, Karakiewicz & Kvan, 2011; Dawyer, 1971 Tsuen Wan district outline development plan in 1963, Source: Bristow,1989 PRH/TPS Estates HOS/PSPS Courts Shopping Centers Main port CBD Industrial area Road 0 10km Rail line Fig. 29: Public housing distribution in HK 1954-1972, Based on Source: HA, 201112
  • 16. 2. Problem Statement Fig. 25: Factory Estate in Kwun Tung, Source: Hong Kong Place; Fig. 28: Lok Fu Resettlement housing in 1966 in Wong Tai Sin District of Kowloon, Source: Google Image 2) 1954-1972 (fig.24): Socio-economic condition Culture Revolution in ChinaIn this period, Hong Kong became an export-oriented light industrial city Social roitswith new industrial areas (fig.25). The small business, from textile andclothing industry later to electronic industry greatly prospered the econ- Export-oriented light industrial cityomy condition in Hong Kong. On the social aspect, the Culture Revolution Small business:happened in China mainland influenced the atmosphere in Hong Kong. Textile & Closing industrySome social riots against colonial government happened. Electronic industry Urban PlanSince 1954, Kwun Tong developed as a satellite town with new industrial resettlement programmeareas (fig.26). In 1963, an outline plan was made to develop Tsuen Wan low-cost housing programmedistrict (fig.27). In 1969, ‘Colony Outline Plan’ was made with five recom-mended plans of new town development, still giving priority to Tsuen Wan Firedistrict. resettlement Public Housing ColonialBecause of the Shek Kip Mei fire, fire resettlements were built up for fire welfare state Squatter residents ofvictims. However, the primary reason for fire resettlement was not home- resettlement planned arealess but economic. The relief cost for fire victims was the same amount Clear land forwith the cost to build a six-storey resettlement block (Drakakis-Smith 1979 developmentin Yung 2007). So, public housing could be considered as an accidental out-come of an accidental fire. Later, ‘because the community can no longerafford to carry the fire risk, health risk and threat to public order and public Single/ Twin tower Slabprestige which squatter areas present’(Lai 1994,p.190-191), squatter re- social/political eventsettlements with low-cost housing program (fig.28) were built up. Moreo- economy condition housing policyver, the government wanted to clear land for urban development, so only housing typesquatters occupying land urgently needed for planned development were target groupresettled (Yung, 2007,p.118). So, in this period, the resettlement was institution marketmainly for urban development especially new industrial areas (fig.29) in purposeorder to keep social stability and economic growth. Fig. 24: Socio-economic condition,Public housing policy, Housing relations & Public housing typology Scheme 1954-1972, Housing typology Source: Studio RE,2009 13
  • 17. Hong Kong Retail & Catering Production industry Main port CBD Highway Rail line MTR line Base Growth Areas (existing & committed development) Strategic Growth Areas 0 10km Other Potential Growth Areas New Highway New Railway Fig. 33: New town development with new industry area till 1987, Based on Source: HK Place,2011 Fig. 32: Territorial Development Strategy (1984), Based on Source: Ling,2011 PRH/TPS Estates HOS/PSPS Courts Shopping Centers existing new town Highway 0 10km Rail line MTR line Fig. 35: Public housing distribution in HK 1972-1987, Based on Source: HA, 201114
  • 18. 2. Problem StatementFig. 31: Chai Wan Kok industrial area in Tsuen Wan, Source: Google Image Fig. 34: Low-cost rent home plan Kowloon, Source: Google Image 3) 1973-1986 (fig.30) : New colonial governor Socio-economic condition Social RiotsDuring this period, diverse industry appeared in Hong Kong. Because ofthe Open Door Policy in China in 1978, labour intensive industry moved 1978: Open Door Policy in Chinatowards north and finally to PRD region in mainland China. The dominant Diverse industry in HK:force was technology intensive industry in new town areas (fig.31) and the Labour intensive industryemerging financial industry in the existing CBD area. Technology intensive industry Financial industry Urban PlanThe New Town Programme, which complemented the Ten-year Housing Ten-year Housing ProgrammeProgramme, was embarked on in 1973 (Pun, 1987,p.46). In 1984, ‘Territo- HOS Home Ownership Schemerial Development Strategy’ (fig.32) was made which mainly focused on the Private Sector Participation Schemedevelopment of new town area with both residential and industrial usewithin the territory of Hong Kong (fig.33). However, due to the economic Colonial Public Rental Working classchange, many industrial land use were changed to office and other use welfare state Housinglater. Public HousingWith the aim to stabilize social riots and promote economic growth, the Economic Growth Industrializationcolonial welfare state (Castells,2010,p.278) with a new governor started Social stability developmentTen-year Housing Program (fig.34) for the working class. In 1978, Home Slab CruciformOwnership Scheme started the privatization process of public housing. Tillthis period, the public housing were mainly built up next to industrial areas Single/ Twin tower Linear(fig.35) to support industry growth, so working class benefited from thesehousing policies. Government’s intervention to housing was releasing the social/political eventpressure of industry owners. economy condition housing policy H Y housing type target group institution market purpose Fig. 30: Socio-economic condition,Public housing policy, Housing relations & Public housing typology Scheme 1973-1986, Housing typology Source: Studio RE,2009 15
  • 19. Yantian Shen Zhen Shen Zhen Shekou Tin Shui Wai Au Tau - Kam Tin Tuen Mun West Hung Shui Kiu Tsuen Wan/Kwai Tsing l ne an Ch ter Wa gu ng To Chek Lap Kok Airport North Lantau Port Kowloon Central Metro East Lantau Hong Kong Shen Zhen Retail & Catering Rezoned industry for other use Production industry Main port CBD Key activity node Highway Possible new activity node Rail line Mayor port facilities MTR line 0 10km Port back up uses Strategic growth area Exising/planned transport corridor Possible new transport corridor Possible new marine channel Fig. 37: Rezoned industry area till 2002, Based on Source: Pland HK, 2006 Fig. 39: Territorial Development Strategy Review (1996), Based on Source: Ling,2011 Shen Zhen PRH/TPS Estates HOS/PSPS Courts Shopping Centers existing new town Highway Rail line MTR line 0 10km Fig. 41: Public housing distribution in HK 1987-2002, Based on Source: HA, 201116
  • 20. 2. Problem StatementFig. 38: Office Building of Millennium City in Kwun Tung, Source: Millennium City Fig. 40: Home Ownership Scheme Housing, Source: Google Image 4) 1987-2002 (fig.36): Socio-economic condition China British agreementIn 1984, the agreement between China and British government cleared Hong Kong return Chinathe rumors of the future of Hong Kong. This gave confidence to the econ- Asian Economic Crisisomy development. Hong Kong as one of the Four Asian Tigers, becameone of the leading international financial centers in the 1980s. Most of International Financial Centerthe production industry has moved to PRD region. This resulted in a large Decrease of production industrynumber of rezoned industrial area (fig.37). Many industrial areas turned to Property and Tourism industryoffice and other business areas (fig.38). But, the property market boomed The Long Term Housing Strategytill 1997, when the Asian Financial Crisis happened after Hong Kong re-turned to China. SCHS/ FFSS/ BRO/ TPS/ MSS Urban Plan Public Rental Low SpeculationIn 1996, ‘Territorial Development Strategy Review’ (fig.39) was published. Housing Housing incomeThe most important part of this plan was putting Shen Zhen into the mas- Authority Propertyterplan. Though connections between Shen Zhen and Hong Kong increased Subdisized Middle bubblesince 1978, the government realized the importance of those connections Government housing sale income negative equitytill the 1990s. Public Housing Controlled Private HighOn the one hand, government controlled land sale for high revenue, which land sale Real estate housing incomeindirectly raised the private housing price. On the other hand, Housing Au- High revenuethority provided Public Rental Housing to low-income People and subsi- incomedized housing sale to middle income people with Home Ownership Scheme Harmony Slab(fig.40). This government intervention into property market couldn’t coolthe over heated proper market. Speculation of housing happened not only social/political eventin private housing but also in public housing. Property bubble began to Y Linear economy condition housing policyexpand till the Asian Economic Crisis in 1997, making hundreds of people housing typebecame negative equity. During this period, the process of privatization of target grouppublic housing sped up with a huge number of construction all over the institution marketterritory (fig.41). purpose Fig. 36: Socio-economic condition,Public housing policy, Housing relations & Public housing typology Scheme 1987-2002, Housing typology Source: Studio RE,2009 17
  • 21. Bao’An Shen Zhen Luo Hu Shen Zhen Nan Shan Fu Tian She Kou Tai Po Industrial Estate Yuen Long Industrial Estate Hong Kong Science Park Innovation Centre Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate Schematic Spatial Concepts Hong Kong Metro core Shen Zhen Northern development axis Retail & Catering Southern development axis Production industry Central development axis Main port Regional transport corridor CBD Recommended development pattern Highway New development area (mixed use) MTR line Reinforcement area (residential) Cross boundary way Reinforcement area (non-residential) 24 hour Cross boundary buses 0 10km Possible strategic highway by 2030 Border crossing point Possible railway line by 2030 Fig. 43: New industry area distribution till 2011, Based on Source: HKSTRC,2011 Fig. 45: HK 2030 recommended development pattern (2007), Based on Source: HK 2030,2009 Shen Zhen PRH/TPS Estates HOS/PSPS Courts Shopping Centers existing new town Highway MTR line Cross boundary way 0 10km 24 hour Cross boundary buses Border crossing point Fig. 46: Public housing distribution in HK 2002-2011, Based on Source: HA, 201118
  • 22. 2. Problem StatementFig. 44: Hong Kong Science Park, Source: Google Image Fig. 47: Low-cost rent home plan Kowloon, Source: Google Image 5) 2002-2011 (fig.42): Socio-economic conditionNow, the main economic sector of Hong Kong is financial service, Trading and logis- Cooperation with PRD regiontics, tourism and producer and professional service (Gov HK, 2011). In this period, International Financial Centeron the PRD regional scale, Hong Kong - Shen Zhen city region is expected to be one Financial servicesof the three main cores. In Hong Kong, the main industrial estates (fig.43) focus on Trading and logisticsnew technology and innovation industry (fig.44). The CBD area expands through Tourismthe renewal of city center and provides a large number of service employments, Producer & professional servicesfrom the highest level like administrative executive to the lowest level like cleaners. Urban Plan Big market small governmentInfrastructure is well constructed till this moment, especially the efficiency MTRsystem has reached most part of urban settlement. In 2007, ‘Hong Kong 2030’ Housing Public Rental Lowwas published. ‘Hong Kong 2030’ suggested more links within the Greater PRD Authority Housing income Governmentregion, especially cooperation with Shen Zhen. The recommended developmentpattern (fig.45) focusing on three axes development: 1). Metro Development Core: Supply Real estate Private High land housing incomeIntensive commercial/business zones and housinfor urban-style living; 2).CentralDevelopment Axis: Community-type housing and education/knowledge-building High revenue Boost Highfacilities; 3).Southern Development Axis: Logistics and major tourism facilities; property price income housing price4).Northern Development Axis: Non-intensive technology and business zones andother uses that capitalise on the strategic advantage of the boundary location. (HK2030, 2009) social/political event economy condition Public Housing housing policyAfter the financial crisis in 1997, housing price continued decreasing till 2003. Gov- Concord housing typeernment decided to free the property market in order to boost property price. target group institutionHousing policy changed to Big Market Small Government (HK 2030, 2009), which market purposemeans that the government only focused on supplying land for developers andproviding public rental housing only for low-income people. From this period on,public housing is still in construction (fig.46) in large amount in new towns (fig.47).However, it has detached from economic growth, but becomes a social burden. So, Fig. 36: Socio-economic condition,Public housing policy, Housing relations &a new ideology of public housing forms in Hong Kong, together with new problems. Public housing typology Scheme 2002-2011, Housing typology Source: Studio RE,2009 19
  • 23. Housing type in Hong Kong (Domestic Households, total 2,343,000 in 2011)Public Temporary Housing (0%) Rental Flats (30.8%) (All cleared in 2001) PRH & IH by HA PRH & SEN by HSPublic Permanent Housing (46.9%) Subsidized Sale Flats (16.2%) TPS,HOS,PSPS,MIHS,BRO,MSS by HA FFSS, SCHS by HSPrivate Temporary Housing (0.7%) HA Hong Kong Housing AuthorityPrivate Permanent Housing (52.4%) HS Hong Kong Housing Society Fig. 48: Housing type in HK, Based on source: HA,2011 PRH Public Rental Housing IH Interim Housing This diagram shows the basic housing type in HK, basically, there are two types: Public housing and Private SEN Senior Citizen Residences Scheme housing, then each type consists of temporary housing and permanent housing. HA (Hong Kong Housing TPS Tenants Purchase Scheme HOS Home Ownership Scheme Authority) is a government department in charge of public housing, HS (Hong Kong Housing Society) is a Flats of Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation Limited PSPS Private Sector Participation Scheme non-government organisation helping with some housing programs. At the beginning, there were only MIHS Middle Income Housing Scheme Public Rental Housing (PRH), later, a series of programs like HOS, TPS,help middle-income people purchas- BRO Buy or Rent Option Scheme MSS Mortgage Subsidy Scheme ing their own house with a discount, it is called Subsidized Sales Flats. Then all the programs stopped FFSS Flat-For-Sale Scheme because the dramatic change in economic and housing market. Right now, the government is only respon- SCHS Sandwich Class Housing Scheme sible to provide PRH for low-income people. However, some people propose to restart programs like HOS so that more people can buy their own houses. 55 (%) 160 152 No. of Live Applicants (Thousands) Private housing 120 52.3% 108 97 80 50 Public housing 40 47.7% 0 45 2001/02 2005/06 2010/11 1998 2003 2011 Fig. 49: Number of live applicants for public housing 2001-2011, Fig. 50: Distribution of Population by type of housing 1998-2011,the number of applicants increased dramatically because the extreme high housing price in market. it shows that more and more people live in private housing, partly because of the privatilization of public housing. Based on source: HA, 2011 Based on source: HA, 201120
  • 24. 2. Problem Statement2.42 Current condition There are two main categories of housing type in Hong Kong: the public 1600and the private (fig.48). In the public sector, there is a distinction between No. of flats (Thousands)_ 1400 Private Flats 1 153 1 433Public Rental Flats (PRH) and Subsidized Sale Flats. PRH is mainly for low- 1200income people with mean-tested subject subsidies. Applicants usually 1000 800 HA PRH Flats 708have to wait 2-3 years for a PRH house, however the waiting time is get- 653 600ting longer in recent years. The number of applicants for public housing in- 400 356 374creased from 108,000 in 2001 to 152,000 in 2011 (fig.49). Subsidized Sale 200 HA Subsidized Sale FlatsFlats is mainly for higher low-income people and middle-income people 0 2001 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11to buy their own houses, and many related housing policies, like HOS, TPS Yearand PSPS, were launched to support the privatization of public housing. Fig. 51: Stock of major types of permanent residential flats 2001-2011, Based on source: HA, 2011 it shows the number of public housing increased much less than private housing.According to the latest figure (fig.50), about 46.9% of the domestic house-holds live in public housing, which consist of 47.7% of total population.Due to the privatization of public housing, the proportion of population liv- %ing in public housing decreased in the past decade. Moreover, the housing 45 20 Public expenditure on housing_ 40stock in the public sector increased far more less than in the private sec- 35 15tor, that 280,000 flats were added in the private sector in the past decade 30 (HK$ billion)while only 73,000 flats increased in the public sector (fig.51). 25 10 20 15Since 2002, the public expenditure on housing from the government de- 10 5creased (fig.52). From 2003, private housing price began to rise again, 5 0 0almost reach the price in 1997 when the property bubble broke down. 2000/01 01/02 02/03 03/04 04/05 05/06 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 #People can’t afford to buy a house in the market, at the same time, hous- Yearing became a speculation tool attracting rich people from China mainland # Revised Estimate Public expenditure on housing As % of Total Public Expenditurewhich again raise the housing price. Many people began to protest for af- Fig. 52: Public expenditure on housing by government 2001-2011, Based on source: HA, 2011fordable housing and more public housing. Currently, housing problem is it shows the government spend less money on public housing in recent years.the main root of social discontent in Hong Kong. 21
  • 25. Pre - 1954 1954-1972 1972-1986 1987-2002 2002 - now Dominant Market Government intervention (land and housing sale) Big market power small government Target residents of working class low-income groups Fire victims low-income planned area middle-income Housing low-cost subsidized sale housing type Squatter resettlement housing public rental housing Fig. 54: Housing policy trend in HK After studying the public housing history in HK, several trends are clearly shown. The dominant power changed from market to government who has a great power over land and housing sale, then recently the government retreat as a land provider and leave the housing to the market. The target groups of public hous- ing also changed along the time, because it is never for the poor but for ones who can contribute to economic growth. But now, since the economics rely on the ones who don’t need public housing, so public housing became a kind of welfare for low-income people. Finally, the housing types changed with the residents. They showed vividly how public housing evolved with the socio-economic changes and the living condition of HK people.2.43 Housing Trend on the theoretical level Social-democratic Corporatist Liberal There are differences between the housing systems of threewelfare state regimes in western countries (Esping-Andersen,1990; low high,based on high,based social status on incomeHoekstra, 2003,p.62) (fig.53). Through the history of Housing Policy,several trends are clearly shown in dominant power, target groups Dominant power statef amily, NGO marketand housing types(fig.54). Though Hong Kong doesn’t belong to housing universal high state only supportany of the welfare state regimes on the theoretical level, however objectives housing quality marginal groupsaccording to the criteria, Hong Kong currently is heading for theLiberal welfare state which gives priority to market determination subsidisation large scale mean-testedand concentrates mainly on low-income groups with mean-tested production subsidies subject subsidies subject subsidies for few productionsubject subsidies. The future of public housing in Hong Kong might large target groups subsidiesbe foreseen in the socially and spatially segregated and notoriousneighborhoods in the United States. price setting & regulation market determinationIt is important to realize that the purpose of Hong Kong govern-ment to build public housing was never for welfare like the Social- housing on basis of need state intervention market determinationdemocratic welfare state regime, but always with hidden agenda allocation to correct market regulated allocation certain groups be in small partof economic growth and control the land for further development. favoured (reserve for low-income groups)Also the target group of public housing was not low-income groups organisation moderate strict no strictbut low-income and middle-income workers who were the main strict spatial planning spatial planning spatial planningforce of economic development. The housing policy worked wellin the past decades because the housing provision was based on housing state takes initiative private sector private sector provision for new housing (households,small companies) (mainly big companies)existing employment, and people were grateful for the government production takes initiative takes initiativealthough the original intention was not purely to give them hous- Fig. 53: Differences between the housing systems of the welfare state regimes, Based on source: Hoekstra, 2003ing.However, with the tremendous change in economic structure,the working class were no longer the main force of development,especially the low-income people without professional skill and where the worthless population disconnected with the networkknowledge are thrown into the fourth world (Castells, 2010) of valuable functions and people.22
  • 26. 2. Problem Statement Housing Problem Public housing clusters (Lack of Housing) without living opportunities Public housing in New Town of HK Provide a living for low-income people Urban Problem Infrastructure (Lack of Living environment) Urban facilities Socio-economic life ... HK center - New Town New Town in Regional scale: PRD region, HK-SZ Urban Spatial structure New Town region: WNT-ENT-NNT Fig. 55: Problem definition of the project Relation between New Towns2.5 Conclusion Nowadays, public housing is no longer appreciated by citizens On the other hand, new towns of HK shouldn’t be constrainedlike before. Public housing became an excuse to send the worthless in simple urban spatial structure of HK center and New Town.people to the remote New Towns. But due to socio-economic rea- The spatial position of new towns should be reflected on differ-sons, some new towns were not built up as the planned concept of ent scales: regional scale like PRD region and HK-SZ region; Newself-sufficient and balanced development. Then some new towns town regions like West New Territory (WNT) and East New Ter-became public housing clusters without basic living opportunities. ritory (ENT); and the relation between different New towns. TheAlthough, new towns were connected to city center by efficient potential of new towns on spatial structure of different scalesMTR system, but for the large number of low-income people who would provide new development opportunities.lived in public rental housing, the expensive transportation fee be-came the barrier of getting a job in city center. Without a stable In the following chapters, this project would try to explore anjob, public housing problems finally resulted in social problems like inclusive development strategy in a public housing cluster - thecrime and poverty. new town of Tin Shui Wai (TSW).On one hand, the housing problem of Hong Kong shouldn’t be con-sidered as merely lack of housing, but as an urban problem withurban issues like infrastructure, urban facilities and socio-economiclife. The history of public housing in Hong Kong has already toldus that purely building more housing would result in worse urbanand social problems. So, the problem definition (fig.55) of housingproblem in Hong Kong is lack of good living environment wherepeople not only have housing, but a living. Since the target groupof public housing is low-income people, the future plan for publichousing should be how to provide good living environment for low-income people, a place where they can earn a living. 23
  • 27. 1980s 1992 North Yuen Long Tai Po Public Rental Flats Tuen Mun 61.5% Tsuen Wan Sha Tin Kwai Tsing Sai Kung Wong Tai Sin Sham Shui Po Kowloon City Kwun Tong Yau Tsim Mong Private Central and Western Islands Wan Chai Eastern Subsidized Southern Residential Sale Flats Flats 21.9% 10Km 16.6% Type of Quarters Households Yuen Long 165,319 Tin Shui Wai 58,900 44,703 268,922 10Km Fig. 58: Population by type of quarters in Tin Shui Wai, Based on source: Censtatd HK, 2006Fig. 56: the location of Tin Shui Wai in HK (top) and Yuen Long district (bottom) The figures shows TSW is a public housing cluster with 61.5% of households live in PRH, and 21.9% in SSF24
  • 28. 3. Project Area - Tin Shui Wai 1997 2005 Fig. 59: Tin Shui Wai development, source: Google Image3.1 The Besieged City Tin Shui Wai is one of the two new towns developed in the dis-trict of Yuen Long in the northwest of Hong Kong (fig.56). It has thehighest density among all the new towns with nearly 300,000 peo-ple living on the area of 4.88 km2. The size of Tin Shui Wai is smallerthan the city center of Amsterdam (fig.57), but the population den-sity is much higher. A large number of public housing clustered inTin Shui Wai, 61.5% of population live in Public Rental Flats (fig.58),especially in the northern part, the proportion is 85%. Also 20% ofpopulation live on the subsidies from the government.Tin Shui Wai is 25 km from the city center and developed from afishing village in the late 1980s (fig.59). The development of TSWwas prompted by real estate development and sped up by publichousing policies (fig. 60). The government couldn’t launch otherprojects in this area partly because of a private agreement whichwas recently discovered by media between the government andthe developer (Kwok, 2010). As a result, living expense is not cheapbecause most shopping malls are monopolized by big corporations.Right now, there is quite a few cheap consumption spaces for low-income residents. Fig. 57: Tin Shui Wai and Amsterdam center comparison of size 25
  • 29. Hong Kong Wetland Park Tin roa Sau dp ar k park k road Tin Pa Tin Shui Wai park Fig. 60: the development history of Tin Shui Wai The map on the left shows construction period of different housing estates. The scheme on the right shows the changes k of public housing policies which effect the development plan r pa d of TSW. It was started with private housing estate in the south a ro ui part. Later, because of the changing public housing policies, Sh Tin more and more public housing were build up in a short period. From 1991 till 2008, 13.8% of the total production of public housing in HK were in TSW. Especially between 1999-2005, 21% of total public housing production happened in TSW. As a result, nearly 100,000 residents moved to TSW in the short 5 years time. MTR station in 2003 1992-93 1997-99 2000-03 2004-09 Light rail network in 2003 housing estate park Public Rental Housing Subdisized Sale Housing Private Housing river main road MTR metro line 0 50 100 200m light rail line26
  • 30. 3. Project Area - Tin Shui Wai 200 160 120 80 40 0 Property Market change source:Also Sparch Analyst 2011.Nearly 300,000 residents in TSW 2010 1991-2008: 13.8% of total public housing production in HK was in TSW 1999-2005: 48,073 public 2004.100,000 residents in TSW housing units 2003.Cessation of HOS and PSPS because of slump in property market. (21% of HK) 100,000 new residents to TSW 2000.Population intake in TSW north. TSW south had a population of 187,000. 2000 1998.Under TSW Outline Zoning Plan, the new town was plan for 350,000 people with 75% intended for public housing. 1997.Chief Executive announced 85,000 housing unit production per year. 1994.Policy Address announced housing demand: 50,000 public housing/year till 2001. 1992.Population intake in TSW south. 1990 1987.Long Term Housing Strategy (40,000 public housing/year till 2001). 1983.First Master Development Plan(MDP) for TSW submitted to be self-contained new town. 1982.Ten-year Housing Programme extended to 1987 1982.Agreement between the government and MCL was signed, the government bought land back in TSW and handed over 38.8 ha to MCL for development into a private housing estate and a commercial complex. 1980 1979.Mightycity Company Limited(MCL) bought the land of TSW and proposed a new town project plan to the government 1978.Home Ownership Scheme (HOS) started. 1979.Private Sector Participation Scheme (PSPS) started. 1973.Housing Authority (HA) established 1972.Ten-year Housing Programme (45,000 housing units/ year) 1970 1961.The Government Low-cost Housing Programme was introduced 1960Public Housing PolicyPlan and Development in TSWPublic housing production in TSW 1950 27
  • 31. Hong Kong Wetland Park Hong Kong Wetland Park 天富苑 Tin Fu Court 2000, HOS/PSPS Sale Blocks: 16 Saleable Area of Flats (m2): 47 - 60 No. of Flats: 5 120 Sale Price (HK$): 544,200 - 1,004,500 天盛苑 Tin Shing Court 1999, HOS/PSPS Sale Blocks: 17 Saleable Area of Flats (m2): 39 - 60 No. of Flats: 6 580 Sale Price (HK$):423,200 - 1,285,400 Public Rental Housing Public Sale Housing Private Housing Green space River 0 50 100 200m 0 50 100 200m Main road Main road MTR rail wayFig. 61: Building Typology of Tin Shui Wai MTR rail way Fig. 62: Housing estates in Tin Shui Wai Church Market/ cooked food stall28
  • 32. 3. Project Area - Tin Shui Wai Fig. 64: Tin Shui Wai overview, Photo by HKAVMODE The building typology of Tin Shui Wai (fig.61)is very simple.There are 11 public rental housing estates, 6 subsidized sale hous-ing courts and 3 private estates (fig.62). A typology sample ofpublic housing estates (fig.63) – over 40-story housing buildings, aprimary school and a middle school with playgrounds, some havea service building and a sharing shopping center in the edge of the Housingblock – copying 15 times on the ground. Public transport stationdistributed averagely along the ring road which connects all the Primary schoolestates. Housing, in many cases, are connected directed to shop- Playgroundping center and station with skywalk which is a typical architec- Middle schoolture structure in Hong Kong. The only variation is that a big parkand most of the green space surround the private estate. Service building Public spaceFor the majority of the residents here, namely low-income people, Shopping centerexpensive and inconvenient transportation trapped them in theperiphery of Hong Kong, while inadequate job opportunities in Tin Bus stop Light rail station MTR StationShui Wai and surrounding new towns trapped them in the smallpublic housing waiting for the subsidy from government to live on. 0 50 100 200mSo, Tin Shui Wai became a Besieged City (fig.64). Fig. 63: Typology sample of public housing estate 29
  • 33. Fig. 65: Median household income in TSW and HK in 2001 & 2006, source: HKU SWSA,2009Fig. 66: Birth place of residents of Tin Shui Wai and HK, source: HKU SWSA,2009 Fig. 67: Age distribution in TSW and HK in 2006, source: HKU SWSA,200930
  • 34. 3. Project Area - Tin Shui Wai3.2 From the Besieged City to the ‘City of Misery’ The situation got even worse in the past decade with more andmore low-income people settled here, especially new migrants.The median household income in TSW is lower than in HK (fig.65),and the gap increased in recent years. The percentage of newmigrants in TSW is higher than that of HK (fig.66), 36.6% of thepopulation in TSW were born in China mainland. The unemploy-ment rate of TSW is 9.1% in 2006 (HKU SWSA,2009), the highest inHK. Moreover, the percentage of young population in TSW is quitelarge compared to HK (fig.67). Many young people couldn’t find ajob nearby, so youth crime is particularly high in TSW. A film called‘Besieged city’ (fig.68) just represented youth cirme happened inTSW.Several shocking murders happened in Tin Shui Wai in the begin-ning of the new millennium and brought Tin Shui Wai to thespotlight of public media. Another film called ‘Night and Fog’ wasmade based on a true murder case in TSW (fig.68).Later, City ofMisery was entitled to Tin Shui Wai because the high rate of pov-erty, unemployment, suicide and crime.In 2003, the new MTR line extended to Tin Shui Wai, but it is stillnot a good deal to get a waitress or cleaner job in the city centerwith the long and expensive trip everyday. Many NGOs help theresidents to release pressure. The government paid some budget Fig. 68: Left: film poster of ‘Night and Fog’, a movie based on a true murder case in Tin Shui Waifor psychological assistance of the residents rather than any sub- Right: film poster of ‘Besieged City’, a movie based on youth crimes happened in Tin Shui Wai,stantial solutions. However, the future of TSW is still in the misery. Source: Google Image 31
  • 35. YL district TSW HSK YL TM district TM Guang Dong (part) WNT (West New Territory) Hong Kong Macao 0 20 40km Bay Area scale WNT scale PRD region (part) TM-YL-TSW-HSK Regional scale TSW scale HK-SZ Hong Kong Wetland Park P P P P P P Shen Zhen (SZ) P P P P P P P P PWNT: YL-TM-TSW-(HSK) Hong Kong (HK) P P P P P 0 5 10km P MTR StationFig. 69: Different scales used in this project: Tin Shui Wai left above: Bay area scale (part of PRD region) 0 50 100 200m left below: Regional scale (HK and SZ) right above: West New Territory (WNT) scale (four new towns, TM in TM district, YL,TSW & HSK in YL district, HSK is a new development area) right below: TSW scale32
  • 36. 4. Project Objective4. Project Objective - ‘Opening the Besieged City’ Tin Shui Wai could be considered as a fourth world which is The aim of the project is to improve the daily life quality of low-out of the network of the mainstream of Hong Kong as a global income groups, creating spatial opportunities for local economyfinancial metropolis and deserted at the edge of the metropolitan development, promoting bicycle as a transportation mode to de-area. However, from Urbanism views, it still has potentials on dif- crease living cost and make good use of new public space to ben-ferent scales (fig. 69). Right now, the government is pushing a new efit low-income groups. The main problem of HK society is notdevelopment area called HSK next to TSW. With the big investment economic development, but growing rich-poor gap. Improving theof infrastructure connection, WNT area would attract more devel- living condition of low-income groups would help to improve theopment on regional scale in the coming future. Since the develop- society of HK. So, the other aim of this project is to call the atten-ment plan of HSK is not decided yet, it is hard to say whether the tion of planning department and our ever-developing society, don’tnew development could bring a bright future to TSW. Especially, forget the ones behind and we can help them as long as you givethe new development might hardly improve the living condition of priority to them.low-income groups in TSW.The basic idea of this project is to develop a development strategythat could benefit the low-income groups in TSW. The developmentstrategy, as a supplement to the government’s plan, would followthe development trend of WNT area and make good use of natureand human resources in local environment. Unlike government’splan which focusing on economic growth and large scale benefits,this development strategy will focus on the benefits low-incomegroups and small scale interventions. 33
  • 37. 5. Research Question5. Research QuestionMain research question:How to develop an inclusive development strategy that may benefit the low-income groups of TSW, a newtown with deprived public housing communities in HK, in line with the regional development of HK-SZ ( differ-ent scales are shown in Fig.69)?Sub-research questions:1) What are the problems of TSW within the public housing, socio-economic and spatial networks in HK? a. What are the public housing, socio-economic and spatial networks in HK on regional and metropolitan scale? b. What is the position of TSW in those networks?2) What are the potentials for a development strategy that can benefit low-income groups in TSW on three scales: regional, WNT and TSW scale? a. On regional scale, what are the potentials of WNT area as a new connecting zone between HK and SZ? b. On WNT scale, what are the potentials to develop local economy for low-income groups? c. On TSW scale, what are the potentials for community development and how to make good use of potentials created on different scale?3) What kind of spatial condition and urban management can socio-spatially realize the development strategy? a. How to empower low-income communities to realize the development plan? b. How to realize the development plan spatially in places like public space?34
  • 38. 6. Methodology6. MethodologyDifferent methods will be used to answer each sub-reasearch questions will be shown in a diagram withinthe time schedule framework (fig. 70), The theoritical framework of the whole graduation project is shown infig.71. Here is the discription for detail methods:For Sub- RQ1:-- Literature study: policy document, official statistics and maps, academic papers, professional books-- Mapping: HKscale: transport network, socio-economic & urban spatial structure, public housing policy & distribution. TSW scale: transport network, building typology analysis, service facility analysis.-- Site visit: experience Tin Shui Wai, interview residentsFor Sub- RQ2:-- Literature study: policy document, official statistics and maps, academic papers-- Mapping: Regional scale: HK-SZ cross-boundary transport connection, HK-SZ urban structure, HK new town analysis WNT scale: transport / landscape / local service analysis TSW scale: local service analysis, public space analysis-- Space syntax: analysis on WNT scaleFor Sub- RQ3:-- Reference Study for strategy and design interventions 35
  • 39. Sub Research Question 1: P1What are the problems of TSW withinthe public housing, socio-economicand spatial networks in HK?a. What are the public housing, socio-economic and spatial OCT networks in HK on regional and metropolitan scale?b. What is the position of TSW in those networks? Literature study Mapping Site visit Problem statement Thesis plan a. On regional scale, what are the potentials of WNT area as a new P2 connecting zone between HK and SZ? JAN b. On WNT scale, how to develop local economy for low-income groups? c. On TSW scale, what are the potentials for community development and Sub Research Question 3: What kind of spatial condition and urban P3 how to make good use of potentials created on all scales? Literature study management can socio-spatially realize Mapping Vision (regional/WNT/TSW scale) the development strategy? Strategy (regional/WNT scale) Space syntax a. How to empower low-income communities to realize the development plan? APR b.How to realize the development plan in space like public space? P4 Strategy (TSW scale) Reference Study Design (TSW scale) Thesis MAY Evaluation Graduation P5 JUN Main RQ Sub-RQ Detail Sub-RQ Methods Product Fig. 70: Methodology scheme by Research Question in time schedule Evaluation 36
  • 40. 6. Methodology Problem statement Project objectives Thesis Plan Research questions Final product Project Context & Problems Potentials & Vision Strategy & DesignTheoritical Framework Public housing welfare Transforming deprived public Theory Study regimes in HK case housing communities Community enpowerment Evaluation History line & Current condition Bay area scale Green network PRD region Green transport system Regional Social mix strategy Cross-boundary commuter scale Transport network Regional scale HK-SZ urban structure HK-SZ HK new town structure HK scale Socio-economic network Urban spatial structure Space syntax Local economy Public housing network Socio-economic condition WNT scale development strategy WNT scale Urban Analysis TSW-YL-TSW-HSK Transport network Landscape Transport network Local service Economic condition Community TSW scale Transport network development strategy Socio network TSW scale Public housing TSW scale Local service Design intervention Service facility Housing typology Public space Methods & Tool Literature study Literature study Reference study Mapping / Site visit Mapping / Space syntax Thesis plan Theory study Research questions Urban analysis Methods & Tool Final Product Fig. 71: Theoritical framework of the graduation project Evaluation 37
  • 41. 7. Final Product7. Final Product 8. RelevanceThe final product would be an integrated development strategy Social relevancefor Tin Shui Wai includs: “Some young people can’t afford to buy a house or a flat and they don’t have a place to live. So it means they can’t get married. And public housing isn’t sufficient,” said Helen-- A social mix strategy on regional scale Yip, a clerk in her 40s who joined the march with three friends.-- A local economy development strategy on WNT scale -- Kevin Drew, The New York Times, July 1, 2011-- A community development strategy on TSW scale-- Some design interventions on TSW scale Housing problem is the main root of social discontent in Hong Kong. Unaffordable housing price and lacking of public housing increased so- cial inequality. However, the housing problem couldn’t be solved by purely building new housing, but without considering other urban is- sues like infrastructure, employment and social life. This lack of consid- eration resulted in public housing clusters like TSW and finally caused many social problems. So, the problem definition of housing is not lack of housing, but lack of good living environment where people not only have housing, but a living. In cities like Hong Kong, poverty is not the problem of individual but because of the socio-economic system. This system couldn’t provide opportunities for poor people living a descent life through hard work. The existing public housing clusters like TSW are not helping the poor but pushing them into a more desperate and helpless condition. The public media called TSW the ‘Besieged City’ and ‘City of Misery’ be- cause of the murder cases happened in recent years. These titles made the impression of TSW even more misery in public eyes. This project will illustrate the causality of TSW problem and public housing prob- lem in HK. The residents of TSW are the victims of the socio-economic structure and public housing policy, so they shouldn’t be discriminated by the public. Instead, the government and the whole society should38 help them.
  • 42. 8. RelevanceOn the social level, the improvement of TSW could decrease the government’s plans are wrong, but the government should con-rich-poor gap of HK and social discontent caused by social inequal- cern the benefit of low-income groups more in the future. Theity. main problem of HK society is not economic development, but growing rich-poor gap. Improving the living condition of the poorAcademic relevance would help to improve the society of HK. So, this urbanism project,Transforming deprived public housing communities is an interest- as an experiment, will try to figure out what will happen if develop-ing but hard issue in the academic field, not only in Urbanism, but ment plan give priority to low-income groups? Will the benefits ofalso in sociology and economics. That is because this is a very prac- low-income groups bring development on local scale? As urbanists,tical question covering the knowledge the different disciplines. The we can’t save the world, but we might do a little help to the peoplecausality of those problems varies in specific areas due to socio- in hard condition as long as we can.economic conditions. So, the solution of those problems would bebased on local conditions. There are quite a few successful cases Studio relevancelike Bijlmermeer in Amsterdam. However, the problems of deprived My graduation studio is Complex Cities studio, and I also attendedpublic housing communities are happening everywhere. Based on another studio before P1 - Architecture Thinking studio of DSDmy limited research and reading, most of the studies were done in which studied Hong Kong. Complex Cities studio aims to investi-western cities. So, this project would be a new example of trans- gate spatial changes under the context of globalization and studyforming deprived public housing communities. Moreover, it would the complexity of urban environment. This is exactly the conditionadd some study about public housing issues of Chinese cities to the I am facing in my project. These two studios helps me to definebody of knowledge in Urbanism. the complicated urban problems with sharp viewpoints. The meth- odology of Complex Cities studio is to formulate plans, strategiesEthical relevance and designs as positive interventions to the project area with socio-This project is searching for a method to integrate the low-income economic and sustainable concerns. With the help of Complex Cit-groups into the development plan and finally the low-income ies studio in the future, I think I would finally submit a convincinggroups could get benefit from the development. Generally speak- and well-developed proposal as an inclusive development strategying, development plan in HK give priority to economic growth and to my project area - TSW, using urban solutions to solve existinglarge scale benefits, even to the interest of corporations and in- urban problems.dividuals sometimes. As a result, low-income groups could hardlybenefit from those developments. It doesn’t mean that the 39
  • 43. 9. Literature ReviewLiterature Review is the final result of the course Theory Transforming deprived public housingof Urbanism as part of the theory support of the gradua- communitiestion project. The aim of literature review is to study some From housing and community development perspectivestheories of one general research topic, and finally use thetheories to convince the project and also contribute to the Abstract –‘A central feature of recent economic restructuring is theknowledge body of Urbanism. development of new spatial patterns of unemployment and workless- ness throughout advanced industrial economies’ (North & Syrett, 2006,The aim of this paper is to find some theories and methods p.6). On the spatial term, it resulted in deprived public housing com-to support my future vision and strategy. This paper helps munities both in the city centres like the United States and in the newme to formulate some basic directions of my graduation pro- towns on the periphery of the city like UK and Hong Kong. Becauseject. these deprived public housing areas are cut off from spatial connec- tion, economic opportunities and social resources of the mainstream network, the residents there lost the opportunities to upward social mobility. The aim of this paper is to illustrate two types of theory that might bring light to the transformation of deprived public housing communities: housing solutions and community development strat- egy. The conclusion is that the combination of two theories on differ- ent scales might be a more comprehensive solution for the problem. Finally, if different experts could sit together, talk with local residents, encourage and help residents improving their living environment on different scales and perspectives, more valuable theory will come out in the future. Key words – deprived public housing communities; de-concentra- tion; social mix; community development; public space; local economy development40
  • 44. 9. Literature Review1 Introduction housing communities: social mix housing and community devel-Under the background of globalization and neoliberalism eco- opment, because they are more likely to be realized in my projectnomic system, many cities in developed world emphasis on area. Of course, there are also other fields that could contributefree economy, competitive environment and service-oriented to the problem like spatial segregation, regional development,development. As a result, ‘a central feature of recent econom- etc. This short paper could be the beginning of the big problem.ic restructuring is the development of new spatial patterns ofunemployment and worklessness throughout advanced indus- Following the introduction, two sections will be unfolded to il-trial economies’ (North & Syrett, 2006, p.6). In the spatial term, lustrate theories and methods in:the outcome is uneven geographical development, which is 1) housing solution in way of de-concentration and social mixingdescribed as the ‘fourth world’ (Castells, 2010) where the low- 2) community development in way of local economy developmentincome people without professional skill and knowledge are and social integration. In this paper, social integration will bethrown into. discussed in terms of the need for public space.There are five causalities of urban poverty based on the theory In the last part, some evaluation of the above theories and meth-of Bradshaw (2007): 1) poverty caused by individual deficien- ods will be given in the conclusion part. Also, a recommendedcies; 2) poverty caused by cultural belief systems that support theoretical strategy will be shown for my graduation project. Fi-subcultures of poverty; 3) poverty caused by Economic, political nally, several recommendations will be added to further reflectand social distortions; 4) poverty caused by geographical dispari- on the transformation of deprived public housing communities.ties; and 5) poverty caused by cumulative and cyclical interde-pendencies. ‘In some urban districts, the homogeneity of the 2 Housing solutionhousing stock has resulted in significant concentrations of low-income households and, indirectly, minority ethnic groups that At first glance, the problems of deprived public housing commu-are over-represented amongst the urban poor’ (Bolt, Phillips nities are housing problems. In other words, high rate of public& Van Kempen, 2010, p.130). In this paper, the poverty prob- housing with low-income people caused social-spatial problems.lems of deprived communities with public housing are caused So, two kinds of housing solution came up following this logic,by mainly socio-economic distortions or geographic disparities. one is de-concentration, the other is social mixing.In most cases, these deprived communities locate both in thecity centres like the United States and in the new towns on the Inspired by the classic work by Wilson who studied the inner cityperiphery of the city like UK and Hong Kong. poverty concentration, development strategies and programs of ‘De-concentration’ of poverty appeared (Stal & Zuberi, 2010).‘When socially deprived individuals and households live in the De-concentration is to de-concentrating poor residents of de-same neighbourhood, this clustering of poverty, unemploy- prived communities to better developed areas. ‘In the US, Fed-ment, and welfare dependency could create a local climate, a erally sponsored de-concentration attempts to disperse povertyneighbourhood culture, generating attitudes and practices that via two linked federal policy initiatives. First, through the demoli-would further deepen the social isolation of the local residents’ tion of public housing and, second, through the use of housing(Bolt, Burgers & van Kempen, 1998,p.86). Because these de- vouchers intended to provide the displaced residents of publicprived public housing areas are cut off from spatial connection, housing with greater economic opportunity through increasedeconomic opportunities and social resources of the mainstream residential choice.’ (Crump, 2002, p.586). However, Crump (2002)network, so the residents here lost the opportunities to upward argued that the strategies of these de-concentration programssocial mobility. were not for the interests of local residents of the deprived com- munities, but merely for the area’s economic benefits. There areThe aim of this paper is to find some practical solutions to trans- also some other opponents (Goetz, 2003 cited by Stal & Zuberi,form deprived public housing communities after a brief review 2010) think that de-concentration programs should be used toof related theories and methods. It is a very complicated prob- promote local neighbourhoods and bring more chances to up-lem that needs spatial, economic and social considerations. Also, ward social mobility of local residents on local scale.it is a very practical problem that is strongly context based. So,there is no ready-made theories just for the topic, especially the In European countries, ‘the creation of areas of mixed housingone that could fit into my graduation project in the next step. tenure, sometimes called ‘balanced communities’ became aHowever, after a broad range of literature review searching for a popular strategic intervention to transform deprived communi-theory, I found two fields that bring light to deprived public ties’ (Bolt, Phillips & Van Kempen, 2010, p.130). 41
  • 45. Musterd and van Kempen (2007) argued that social mixing hous- of deprived communities, some might rely on government wel-ing strategy has the good wish that if there are diverse hous- fare subsidy, a stable job or economic opportunity in local oring types and residents from different social class, some affluent regional area might be the most crucial issue that can directlyhouseholds would remain in these areas and bring more socio- upgrade their living condition. Although employment and eco-economic dynamics. Strategic interventions to attract more af- nomic development are the central issue of policy initiatives tofluent households may include demolition of some public rental regenerate deprived neighbourhoods, but there are quite a fewhousing, construction of higher quality housing and mixed ten- strong economic dimension in the current renewal projets, andure dwellings (Bolt, Phillips & Van Kempen, 2010). this lack of consideration is seriously constraining the efficiency of current projects (North & Syrett, 2006).After studying on collection of papers on social mix housingstrategies, Bolt, Phillips & Van Kempen (2010) concluded that For deprived communities, who lack of optimal combination ofsuch social mix policies rarely reach the goal, because, ‘first, resi- resources, how to make good use of existing and hidden assetsdential mixing cannot be assumed to enhance community cohe- through bottom-up approaches are crucial element for localsion or people’s social capital. On the contrary, urban renewal economy development (Squazzoni, 2008). Following this staringpolicies have been found to disrupt communities. Displaced point, there are several new ideas to think about local economyhouseholds experience difficulties in establishing new social development in deprived areas.ties. Second, tenure diversification does not always lead to moreopportunities for a housing career within the neighbourhood’ One idea is the reconsideration of marketplace. Burkett (2011)(Bolt, Phillips & Van Kempen, 2010, p.132). argued that, people normally had a binary interpretation of the markets that people living in poverty access, as shown in Illus-Both de-concentration and social mixing housing policies simpli- tration 1. It means residents of deprived communities eitherfied the complexity of deprived community problems as housing get goods and service for free or funded, or they access fromproblem rather than urban problem. So, housing solutions alone fully commercialized providers. However, Burkett suggested thatcouldn’t solve the problem of deprived communities. Moreo- there is a broader spectrum of ‘marketplaces’ that people canver, they are very effective in deflecting attention away from the potentially access – that is, places and spaces where people aremain causes of the ‘urban problem’ (Bolt, Phillips & Van Kem- able to access goods and services that they need to survive. Ifpen, 2010). people would develop the potential marketplaces like mutual aid market, family market, informal market and social market shown3 Community development in Illustration 2, there would be much more opportunities andAs mentioned in the introduction part, there are different cau- spaces that can contribute to the development of deprived com-salities of urban poverty, so different anti-poverty programs in munities and finally improve the living quality of local residents.community development are implemented. For poverty typesstudied in this paper, several suggestions were made by Brad-shaw (2007) : 1). change the socio-economic system by grass-roots social movement, independent institution willing to helpthe poor and change the policies; 2). Build self-sustaining com-munities through good visioning and planning and create op-portunities for local resident. But, how to implement these sug-gestions in reality is a hard question for urbanists and planners.After some literature review, I found that there are two aspectsthat are more relevant for urbanism studies: local economy de-velopment and social integration by public space.3.1 Local economy development‘If the global economy no longer provides at affordable pricesthen we increasingly have to refocus on how things can be done(with less energy input) at the local level—and, it is contended, Illustration 1. Binary interpretation of the markets that people living in povertyrethinking what kind of consumption processes are realistic and access. source: (Burkett, 2011)appropriate for these circumstances’ (Atkinson, 2005, p.292).This is especially true for deprived communities. For the resident42
  • 46. 9. Literature Review On the regional level, ‘the challenge is to extend the market area beyond the local arena, or to focus on people who will bring money into the area (tourists)’ (Marais & Botes, 2007, p.391). For example, industry area disappeared or decayed in some de- veloped areas, tourism might become a new development po- tential if it has good natural or cultural resources, and this will bring new opportunities to local residents, especially for peo- ple without professional skills and knowledge to work in other areas. The important thing here is to reveal the potentials on regional scale and surrounding areas that could make direct con- nections to the resident of deprived communities. This could be implemented by both big projects and small interventions. 3.2 Social integration by Public space If local economy development could improve the living condi- tion of low-income groups by material revenue, then social inte-Illustration 2. A more complex understanding of the many different ‘marketplac- gration will improve the quality of their social life through morees’ with which people living in poverty engage. source: (Burkett, 2011) communication and connection to the outside world.The sencond idea is to develop local economy on different spatial In the project called ‘promoting the mobilization of low-incomelevels. North & Syrett (2006) noted that it is the central concern people to reduce and eliminate poverty’ in Canadian cities, sev-to effectively linked deprived areas into the process of economic eral recommendations were listed. The first recommendationgrowth, that the interventions should best operate on different is to ‘Provide opportunities and spaces for people living in pov-spatial levels. erty to come together, and name, explore, and address issues’. Shared community spaces are strongly needed from the partici-On the neighbourhood level, although economic initiatives are pants. This includes a range of physical spaces: gathering places,not able to create large scale employment opportunities, how- artistic places or ‘cultural sanctuaries’, recreation places (includ-ever, some bottom-up initiatives could develop local capacities, ing lower priced recreation centres, access to local schools inencourage mutual aid and self-help on community and individ- summer, and bike lanes), green space and community gardensual scale, and finally promote the quality of quality of everyday (with sheds and bathrooms), and places for children (Ravensber-life, social inclusion and political participation (North & Syrett, gen & VanderPlaat, 2009, p.398).2006). Public space in deprived communities could contribute to the‘The poor people are experts in making the most of scarce re- regeneration of deprived communities in several terms, like thesources under adverse circumstances, and have always used in- space for social communication, the space for local economystitutions of mutual support and risk- sharing in order to do so development, and the space for leisure activities with nice land-[...] Self-help approaches can and should be part of strategies scape.to tackle exploitation and marginalization … to accessible publicservices and the redistribution of income and wealth’ (Berner ‘As Jacobs (1961) long ago emphasized, specific physical char-& Phillips, 2005,p.19, 27). The failure of some top-down inter- acteristics of streets and land uses (e.g. relatively dense, mixedventions by the government might because the real need of use spaces) can bring together people engaged in a diversity oflocal poor residents is never the first priority but behind other activities at all hours of the day and night. This, in turn, creates asocio-economic interests. However, self-help will not be realized safe and pleasurable environment, which functions, on the oneby their own because community is neither ‘havens of coopera- hand, to reproduce existing social relations and facilitate com-tion’ nor ‘homogeneous’ group (Berner & Phillips, 2005, p.27) munity bonding and, on the other hand, to create the conditionsbut a complicated urban area. So, the guide and suggestions to support local economic activity. As such, the economic poten-from both public sector and private sector, like the government, tial of public space is entwined with and may even be dependentNGOs, and independent organizations, would help to realize on social and environmental features’ (Grodach, 2009, p.477).self-help programs. 43
  • 47. ‘When public spaces are successful [...] they will increase op- Housing solutions, evolved from sociology studies, derived fromportunities to participate in communal activity. This fellowship de-concentration of poverty in the United States to social mixin the open nurtures the growth of public life, which is stunted housing strategies in Europe. Till now, it is still a popular devel-by the social isolation of ghettos and suburbs. In the parks, pla- opment strategy in urban regeneration project. There seemszas, markets, waterfronts, and natural areas of our cities, people no doubt in the research field that social mix is the right goalfrom different cultural groups can come together in a supportive to achieve. Social mix means communities built up with publiccontext of mutual enjoyment. As these experiences are repeat- housing at a proper rate and residents with different socio-eco-ed, public spaces become vessels to carry positive communal nomic background and ethnics. Indeed, social mix could bringmeanings’ (Carr, Francis, Rivlin & Stone, 1993, p. 344). more diversity and dynamic to the neighbourhoods. But, will so- cial mix solve the basic living problems of poor residents who areSo, if the public space in deprived communities can develop into eager to find a job and find someone to talk in the time of eco-a place with lively social and economic activities. It will greatly nomic recession? As mentioned above, to some extent, housingimprove the living environment of the whole area and even be- solutions are deflecting attention away from the main causes ofcame a precious value to attract other people. Finally, it could the ‘urban problem’. Generally speaking, housing solutions arepromote the social integration of deprived communities into top-down projects on a higher level and the aim is not to helplarger urban area. the real poor. So, some other strategies should concentrate help the poor residents on a lower level. For example, urban strategy4 Conclusions could be community development.Transforming deprived public housing community is a complicat-ed and practical issue. It needs varieties of research disciplines Kotval (2006, p.87) argues that the goal of community planningand studying fields both in theory and practice. So, it is impor- is to ‘create a better physical, social and economic environmenttant to realize that the problems will not be solved by a solution for communities and the people that invest their social and eco-within one studying field, but need interdisciplinary coopera- nomic capital in a place’. There are many ways for communitytion. As illustrated in this short paper, after a limited literature development, and two aspects are more relevant for urbanismreview, the theory of housing solution and community develop- studies: local economy development and social integration byment might bring light to the transformation of deprived public public space. Several new ideas in local economy developmenthousing communities. Illustration 3 shows the basic finding of brought new light to deprived communities. First, the broaderthis paper. It will be illustrated in the next paragraph. definition of market place, including mutual aid market, informal market, social market, would bring more life chances to poor residents who need cheap consumption. Second, different levels of spatial interventions should coordinate to achieve economic development. On the neighbourhood level, bottom-up initia- tives, like self help programs, would not only create employment and additional sources of income, but also build social networks, local participation and cooperation, and develop community and individual capacities. On the regional level, links to regional context should be built up. For example, attracting people who will bring money to the area, like tourists. For many socially segregated residents of deprived communi- ties, social integration will improve the quality of their social life through more communication and connection to the outside world. This could happened in public space, where enables lively social and economic activities. Illustration 4 shows the recommendation strategy for transform-Illustration 3. Theories and methods of Transforming deprived public housing ing deprived public housing communities: the combination ofcommunities illustrated in the paper. housing solution by more top-down approaches on larger scale and community development by more bottom-up approaches on local scale. These two methods should compensate and44
  • 48. 9. Literature Review ATKINSON, A., 2005, Urban development: reviving and activating Utopian strategies, City, Vol.9, No.3, 279-295. Retrieved Nov, 2011, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13604810500392548 BERNER, E., & PHILLIPS, B., 2005, Left to their own devices? Community self-help between alternative development and neo-liberalism. Community Development Journal, Vol 40 No 1, pp. 17-29. Retrieved Dec,2011, from Oxford Journals database BOLT, G., BURGERS, J., & VAN KEMPEN, R., 1998, On the social significance of spatial location; spatial segregation and social inclusion. Housing and the Built Environment, Vol.13, No.1. 83-95 BOLT,G., PHILLIPS, D.& VAN KEMPEN, R., 2010, Housing Policy, (De)segregation and Social Mixing: An International Perspective, Housing Studies, 25:2, 129- 135. Retrieved Nov, 2011, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02673030903564838 BRADSHAW,T.D., 2007, Theories of poverty and anti-poverty programs in community development. Community Development Journal, Vol 38 No 1, pp. 7–25. Retrieved Jan, 2012, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15575330709490182 BURKETT, I., 2011, Organizing in the new marketplace: contradictions and opportunities for community development organizations in the ashes of neoliberalism. Community Development Journal, Vol 46 No S2, pp. ii111–ii127. Retrieved Dec, 2011, from Oxford Journals database CARR, S., FRANCIS, M., RIVLIN, L.G., & STONE, A.M., 1993, Public Space.Illustration 4.Recommended strategy for transforming deprived public housing Cambridge: Cambridge University Press CASTELLS, M., 2010, The information age: economy, society and culture Volume IIIcommunities. End of millennium. UK: Willey – Blackwell CRUMP, J., 2002, De-concentration by demolition: public housing, poverty, andpromote each other. Finally this recommended strategy would urban policy. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 2002, volume 20,become a more comprehensive theoretical solution for my pp.581-596. Retrieved Nov, 2011, from Taylor & Francis online database GRODACH, C., 2009, Art spaces, public space, and the link to communitygraduation project. Under the context of social mix with diverse development. Community Development Journal, Vol 45 No 4, pp. 474–493.socio-economic sources on larger scale, local economy develop- Retrieved Nov, 2011, from Oxford Journals databasement and social integration could promote each other on local JACOBS, J., 1961, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Vintage, New York.scale in the process of development. KOTVAL, Z., 2006, The link between community development practice and theory: intuitive or irrelevant? A case study of New Britain, Connecticut. Community Development Journal, Vol 41 No 1, pp. 75-88. Retrieved Dec, 2011, from OxfordSince most of the theories available are under the context of Journals databasewestern cities. It is still a question whether these theories and MARAIS, L. & BOTES, L., 2007, Income generation, local economic developmentmethods could be directly used in other areas, especially Chi- and community development: paying the price for lacking business skills?nese cities. However, the basic concept of these theories should Community Development Journal, Vol 42 No 3, pp. 379-395. Retrieved Dec, 2011, from Oxford Journals databasehave a universal meaning that only by giving priority to the needs MUSTERD, S. & VAN KEMPEN, R., 2007, Trapped or on the springboard? Housingof local residents during the development process, can the prob- careers in large housing estates in European Cities, Journal of Urban Affairs,lems of deprived public housing communities be solved on root. 29(3), pp. 311–329. NORTH, D. & SYRETT, S., 2006, The dynamics of local economies and Deprived5 Recommendations Neighborhoods. London: Department for Communities and Local Government RAVENSBERGEN, F., & VANDER PLAAT, M., 2009, Barriers to citizenThrough the limited reading, it is quite a pity to find that, soci- participation: the missing voices of people living with low income. Communityology researchers have great ideas to development communi- Development Journal, Vol 45 No 4, pp. 389–403. Retrieved Dec, 2011, fromties but constrained on the spatial level; urbanists have strong Oxford Journals databasespatial analysis but lack of small but smart ideas; policy makers RAVENSBERGEN, F., & VANDER PLAAT, M., 2009, Barriers to citizen participation: the missing voices of people living with low income. Community Developmenthave ambitious plan for economic development but forget the Journal, Vol 45 No 4, pp. 389–403. Retrieved Dec, 2011, from Oxford Journalspoor people. If different experts could sit together, talk with lo- databasecal residents, encourage and help them improve their living en- SQUAZZONI, F., 2009, Local economic development initiatives from the bottom-up:vironment from different scales and perspectives, maybe in the the role of community development corporations. Community Developmentfuture, more valuable and strong theory and methods will come Journal, Vol 44 No 4, pp. 500-514. Retrieved Dec, 2011, from Oxford Journals databaseout in the knowledge body of urbanism. STAL, G.Y., & ZUBERI, D.M., 2010, Ending the cycle of poverty through socio-economic integration: A comparison of Moving to Opportunity (MTO) inBibliography the United States and the Bijlmermeer Revival Project in the Netherlands. Cities 27 (2010) pp.3–12.Retrieved Nov, 2011, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264275109001115 45
  • 49. Housing solution macro economy Regional scale + ECONOMIC BENEFIT corporation SOCIAL MIX high-income middle-income IMPROVING LIVING ENVIRONMENT OF LOCAL RESIDENTS Local scale low-income Community developmentFig. 72: Conclusion from literature review PUBLIC SPACE new marketplaces new service riverfront lively street LOCAL ECONOMY places DEVELOPMENT park, square gathering places children’s community playground garden recreation places GREEN SOCIAL mutual aid SPACE INTEGRATION market cultrual places bicycle lane and network recreation places sportsFig. 73: The function of public space in this project46
  • 50. 9. Literature ReviewTheory support for the projectThe conclustion of literature review (fig.72) will guide the directionof the project and make theory support to the project. The theorystudy suggests that the combination of Housing solution on the re-gional scale and community development on the local scale will bea comprehensive solution for the project.On the regional scale - the HK-SZ scale, more high-income peoplecould be attracted to WNT area by the development chance of HSK.On the local scale - the WNT scale and TSW scale, community de-velopment would improve the living condition of local residents.This will include local economy development and social integra-tion. And public space (fig.73) will be the spatial condition to real-ize it. Public space will be the place where different socio-economicand leisure activities could happen.The detail of vision will be illustated in the next part. 47
  • 51. Fig. 72: Bay area of the Pearl River Estuary Action Plan by the Planning Department of HK, Guang Dong & Macao,01/2011. Source: PRD Bay, 2011 10.1 Regional Scale Bay Area Scale The Planning Department of Hong Kong, Guang Dong and Macao published ‘Study on the Action Plan for the Bay Area of the Pearl River Estuary’ (fig.72) in Jan 2011. The Bay Area (fig.73) is part of PRD region with areas just next to the Pearl River Delta. This study shows that the government is taking action to realize more devel- opments on regional scale.By studying a series of planning maps, the position of WNT area in the Bay Area is shown clearly. On the Green Network plan (fig.74), WNT area is on the Bay Area Guang Dong (part) Greenway with a large area of Green Buffer zone because of its good natural environment and the wetland park of Hong Kong. While on WNT (West New Territory) another plan (fig.75), this area is consider to be a World-class ‘City Hallways’ in the future with the new development in HSK. On the Hong Kong transport level, WNT area is planned to be a Green Transport area (fig.76) which means giving priority to public and non-motorized Macao transport. Moreover, the cross-boundary connections between HK and SZ (fig.74) will be more comprehensive in the future. It will be explained in detail on HK - SZ scale in next chapter. 0 20 40km Generally speaking, on the Bay Area scale, the position of WNT area is quite clear. The potential of WNT area is green environmentFig. 73: Bay area scale and location of WNT on this scale and convenient connection to SZ as well as to other Bay areas.48
  • 52. 10. Vision World-class ‘City Hallways Public open spaceFig. 74: Green Network of Bay Area,Source: PRD Bay, 2011 Fig. 75: World-class ‘City Hallways’ of Bay Area,Source: PRD Bay, 2011Green transport area: Priority of Public and non-motorized transport HK-SZ cross boundary connections: Western Express line GZ-SZ-HK Express rail line East /West rail + Northern link HighwayFig. 76: Green Transport System of Bay Area, Source: PRD Bay, 2011 Fig. 77: Cross boundary Transport System of Bay Area, Source: PRD Bay, 2011 49
  • 53. GZ-SZ-HK Express Rail line to Huizhou to Guangzhou to Zhongshan to Conghua to ShantouSZ-HK Western Express line Beijing-Guangdong rail line to Dayawan to Dayawan Lok Ma Chau $ $$ Shenzhen Bay Port Northern Link TSW YL existing rail/metro line WNT: YL-TM-TSW-(HSK) HSK $$ $$ existing light rail line planned rail/metro line $$ $ Sha Tin main road TM Tsuen Wan planned road HK SZ YL-TM-TSW-HSK $$$ existing railway station $$$ $$ $$$ planned railway station $$ Kwun Tong airport Airport $$ Yau Ma Tei harbor crossing point new crossing point Central $$$ MTR station new MTR station-HSK pointed MTR station Time and cost on regional scale MTR from TSW, 10 min Bus from TSW, 10min $ 10 HK$ 0 5 10km Fig. 78: Inter-city transport between HK - SZ and Inner-city transport from TSW in HK 50
  • 54. 10. VisionHK - SZ Scale: TransportThe connection and cooperation between HK and SZ are gettingmore and more intensive since the Open Door Policy in 1978, es-pecially after 1997 when HK returned China. In recent years, somepeople presumed that in the future, these two cities might emergeinto one metropolitan.As shown in fig.78, more inter-city connection are planned: besideshighway connections, GZ-SZ-HK Express rail line will shorten thetraveling time enormously between the three cities; Western Ex-press Line will connect the airport of SZ and HK directly with a stopin HSK, by then there might be a new MTR station in HSK and a newcrossing border point nearby; moreover, the existing MTR line ofEast rail and West rail will be connected by Norther link, right nowonly West rail is directly connected with the main crossing-point toSZ, so it means in the future, West rail can also directly connectedto SZ.However, the inner-city transport from TSW to other parts of HKis both time and money consuming compare to the connection toSZ. So, the conclusion is WNT area will be the new connecting zonebetween HK and SZ. For WNT area, it should take advantage of itsgeographical location as a boundary as well as a middle-point be-tween two cities. 51
  • 55. Fig. 79: Cross-boundary trend figure, source: Northbound Southbound 2009 Top: ‘Averagy daily number of cross-boundary passenger trips’ shows that the number of trips increased dramatically in the last decade. Middle: ‘Number of passenger trips by usual place of residence’ shows that cross-boundary passengers increased. In 2009, a large part of passengers are people living in HK (69%), visitors from the mainland (18%) and HK residents living in mainland (10%). Bottom: ‘Number of passenger trips made by visitors from the mainland by trip ends in the mainland’ shows that mainland visitors increased a lot in recent years, especially visitors from SZ, the number of SZ visitors reaches nearly 41,000 which covers 42% of total mainland visitors in 2009. Fig. 80: Trip purpose to HK, source: Northbound Southbound 2009 Top: ‘ Number of passenger trips made by visitors from the mainland by trip purpose to HK’ shows most of the mainland visitors come to HK for leisure. Bottom: ‘ Number of passenger trips made by HK residents living in main land by trip purpose to HK’ shows that for HK residents who live in the mainland, they come to HK mainly for work, and also school and leisure.52
  • 56. 10. VisionHK - SZ Scale: Cross-boundary trend The relationship between HK and SZ is very interesting and sub-Since Hong Kong is still under the political policy of ‘One Country tle. They are so close but so different. The residents of the twoTwo Systems’, there are some crossing-points between HK and cities are clever enough to take advantage of each city.SZ. Both HK residents and other Chinese need special documentto cross the boundary. In recent years, some policies in favor of So, for WNT area, how to make make good use of the differentia-tourism in HK sped up the cross-boundary procedure. As shown in tion of the two cities, and how to attract commuters betweenfig.79, the number of passenger trips increased enormously in the the two cities as well as citizens from the two cities are all greatpast decade, and a large part of passengers are people living in HK, potentials for future development.followed by mainland visitors and HK residents living in mainland.It also shows that a large part of mainland visitors are from SZ andnumber is increasing every year.For HK residents living in the mainland, the trip purpose to HK(fig.80) is mainly for work, and some for schooling and leisure.They live in mainland because of cheap housing, better living en-vironment and cheaper living cost. For mainland visitors especiallyvisitors from SZ, the trip purpose to HK (fig.80) is mostly for lei-sure. They would go shopping for low-tax product like electronics,clothing and cosmetics, and high-quality product that are hard totrust in the mainland like milk powder. They would also do the tour-ist things to fancy sightseeing or natrual environment. In the past,housewives in TSW would go to SZ for cheap daily stuff like otherHK residents, however, since 2010, more and more housewives ofSZ began to buy daily stuff in HK because the inflation in the main-land and the depreciation of HK$. Fig. 81: Housewife of SZ shopping in HK, source: Chinacity.org.cn,2011 53
  • 57. Bao’An Luo Hu Nan Shan Fu Tian She Kou NNT WNT: YL-TM-TSW-(HSK) ENT: Sha Tin-Dai Po HK 2030 Schematic Spatial Concepts Metro core Northern development axis Southern development axis Central development axis New development area (mixed use) Existing urban structure HK SZ WNT (West New Territory) NNT (North New Territory) ENT (East New Territory) other urban area in HK Industrial estate existing rail/metro line planned rail/metro line Metro Core existing railway station planned railway station airport harbor crossing point 0 5 10kmFig. 82: Urban structure of HK-SZ54
  • 58. 10. Vision WNT: YL-TM-TSW-(HSK) WNT: YL-TM-TSW-(HSK) Tin Shui Wai Tai Po Tin Shui Wai Yuen Long Tai Po Yuen Long ENT: ST-DP- MOS ENT: ST-DP- MOS Ma On Shan Hong Shui Kiu Ma On Shan Sha Tin Sha Tin Tuen Mun Tuen Mun Metro Core 1973 New Town Plan Metro Core 1979 New Town Plan 1980s New Town Plan Fig. 83: The comparison of WNT and ENT, existing condition (left) and future (right)HK - SZ Scale: Urban structure the development of ENT. In the coming future, with the new con-The existing urban structure of HK-SZ is shown in fig. 82, three de- nection route in WNT (fig. 83), WNT area would be on the rightvelopment axis in New Territory (NT) will release some pressure of track to follow the successful road of ENT. However, besides infra-the Metro Core in the future. All these three axes are developed structure connection, WNT area should also focus on building goodas new towns. ENT is considered to be a successful new town area living environment to attract diverse residents and exploring otherby many HK citizens. ENT consists of Sha Tin (fig. 84), the most suc- development potentials.cessful new town in HK; Tai Po, which has a legal dawn market tohelp elderly people earn some living; and Mo On Shan (fig. 85), The success of new towns would help to restructure the urbanmainly a residential area like TSW and was transformed from a structure of Hong Kong. WNT area has the potential to develop intomine area. The construction time of the new towns in both ENT a new centre both in Hong Kong and HK-SZ in the future.and WNT are quite the same, and the spatial relationships betweenthe new towns are also similar. However, after several decades ofdevelopment, they are in totally different condition.Compared to WNT, the successful elements of ENT might be: 1)direct connection to SZ and HK metro core by MTR line (fig. 83); 2)good natrual environment and used to be a popular excursion areafor HK citizen; 3) well-developed pedestrian and bicycle network;4) regional shopping centre near MTR station which attract a lotof SZ citizens; and 5) appropriate proportion of private and publichousing, with a large number of middle-class residents.The government must also realize the huge difference betweenWNT and ENT, so they propose a series of infrastructure construc- Fig. 84: Sha Tin town plan, source: Shatin.hk ,2011 Fig. 85: Mo On Shan satellite map,tion on regional scale in the coming future. The direct connection source: MOS.hk ,2011of East rail line to both SZ and HK core might be the basic stone for 55
  • 59. GZ-SZ-HK Express Rail lineSZ-HK Western Express line Beijing-Guangdong rail line SZ Lok Ma Chau Shenzhen Bay Port Northern Link TSW YL HSK new MTR station - HSK existing rail/metro line WNT: YL-TM-TSW-(HSK) planned rail/metro line planned road TM HK SZ YL-TM-TSW new development area: HSK existing railway station planned railway station new crossing point airport harbor crossing point new crossing point HK new MTR station- HSK connection living & leisure zone 0 5 10km Fig. 86: Vision on Regional scale 56
  • 60. 10. VisionVision on Regional scaleBased on the above analysis on both Bay Area and HK-SZ scale. Theposition and vision of WNT area in the future urban developmentare show in fig. 86 and as follows: 1). WNT area would be a new connecting zone between HK and Government’s plan macro economySZ with the new infrastructure connections; HSK development corporation 2). WNT area should develop into a high-quality living area with New living areanew development in HSK, it should be a ideal living place to attract Infrastructure high-income Business area ...citizens from both HK and SZ with a new living style, especially for Public space Hospitalcross-boundary commuters; ... Local economy middle-income 3). Based on the natural environment quality in WNT area, it has Bicycle network New marketplacethe potential to develop into a multi-function leisure area for HK Community developmentand SZ residents. New strategy & plan low-incomeHowever, the vision is based on development trend from the gov-ernment’s plan and the final detail plan is still not decided yet. Fig. 87: The relationship between the government’s plan and new strategy & planWhether the existing local residents of WNT area will benefit fromthe plan is not sure yet, especially the low-income people. The re-lationship between my strategy & plan and the goverment’s planis shown in fig. 87. The new strategy & plan of this project wouldsupplement the government’s plan from a bottom-up view. In thenext chapter, an inclusive vision on WNT scale will be illustrated toshow how to benefit the low-income people. 57
  • 61. $ Median monthly household income by district, 2010 30,000 28,400 25,300 25,000 22,500 21,500 20,000 20,000 20,500 19,900 19,600 20,000 18,000 17,800 18,000 17,000 16,000 15,000 14,500 15,000 15,000 13,800 14,000 10,000 5,000 0 Central and Wan Chai Eastern Southern Yau Tsim Sham Shui Kowloon Wong Tai Kwun Tong Kwai TsingT suen Wan Tuen Mun Yuen Long North Tai Po Sha TinS ai KungI slands Overall Western Mong Po City Sin % 20 Proportion of households with income below average CSSA payment by district, 2010 18 15.7 16 13.3 13.7 13.4 13.7 14 12.8 11.9 12 10.5 10.7 10 9.4 9.3 8.8 8.7 8.7 7.5 7.4 7.0 8 6.9 5.9 6 4 2 0 Central and Wan Chai Eastern Southern Yau Tsim Sham Shui Kowloon Wong Tai Kwun Tong Kwai TsingT suen Wan Tuen Mun Yuen Long North Tai Po Sha Tin Sai Kung Islands Overall Western Mong Po City Sin % Proportion of workless households by district, 2010 14 11.8 11.5 12 11.1 10.2 10.4 9.9 9.7 9.5 10 9.0 9.1 7.9 8.3 8.08 .0 8.1 7.8 8 6.6 6.2 6.0 6 4 2 0 Central and Wan Chai Eastern Southern Yau Tsim Sham Shui Kowloon Wong Tai Kwun Tong Kwai Tsing Tsuen Wan Tuen Mun Yuen Long North Tai Po Sha TinS ai Kung Islands Overall Western Mong Po City Sin Fig. 89: Social figures by districts, source: Census and Statistics Department, 2011 Top: ‘Median monthly household income by district,2010’ shows the household income in YL and TM is not high, lower than the overall figure of HK. Middle: ‘Proportion of households with income below average CSSA payment by district, 2010’ shows that the low-income households proportion in YL and TM are quite high, especially YL tops the low-income proportion because of TSW. Bottom: ‘Proportion of workless households by district, 2010’ shows that the workless households proportion is also high in YL and TM, higher than the overall figure of HK. % Unemployment rate* by district, 2010 7 6.3 6 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.1 4.9 5 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.2 3.63 .6 3.7 3.8 3.8 4 3.4 3 2.5 2.4 2 1 0 Central and Wan Chai EasternS outhernY au Tsim Sham Shui Kowloon Wong Tai Kwun Tong Kwai Tsing Tsuen WanT ai Po Sha Tin Sai Kung Islands Overall Western Mong Po City Sin Fig. 90: Employment rate, source: Census and Statistics Department, 2011 Top: ‘Employment status of population aged 15+ in administrative districts and unemployment rate in TSW, 2006’ shows that in 2006, the unemployment rate in TSW, YL and TM are the top three in HK.Also, the job available which means the number of jobs per person in the labour force was only 0.4 compared to the overall figure of 0.8 (HKU SWSA, 2009) Bottom: ‘Unemployment rate by district,2010’ shows the unemployment rate in TM and YL is still higher than the overall figure.58
  • 62. 10. Vision Fig. 91: Percentage of population by new town and type of housing, 2006, source: HKU SWSA, 200910.2 WNT ScaleSocio-economic conditionWest New Territory (WNT) scale (fig.88) is another important scalestudied in this project, which consists of YL district and TM dis- YL districttrict, with three new towns (YL, TM and TSW) and a new develop- TSWment area HSK. Some social figures (fig.89) shows that the medianmonthly household income in YL and TM are lower than the over- HSK YLall figure of HK, but the proportion of low-income households andworkless households are all higher than overall figure of HK. This TM district TMmeans that there is a large part of low-income residents in WNTarea. Other figures (fig.90) shows that the unemployment rate ofTSW, YL and TM are the highest in HK in 2006, and this rate is stillhigh in 2010. Moreover, the job available, which means the num-ber of jobs per person in the labour force, in TM and YL was only0.4 compared to the overall figure of 0.8 (HKU SWSA,2009).From the housing type perspective (fig. 91), the population per-centage living in public rental flats is high in three new towns com-pared to other new towns, especially TSW has the percentage of61.5%.All these social figures shows that the socio-economic condition in Fig. 88: WNT scale consists of YL district and TM district with three new towns: YL, TM & TSW and a newWNT area is not well at the moment. It needs some development development area HSKto improve the current socio-economic conditions. 59
  • 63. Sea Urban settlement Village settlement Fire Range Country park Wetland Fishing pond village River Coast line MTR line Light rail line Bus line Road Bicycle line Border line MTR station Light rail station Bus terminal Tun Men ferry pier 0 606mFig. 92: Transport analysis on WNT scale60
  • 64. 10. Vision MTR station Light rail station Road Foot bridge (for pedestrian & bicycle)Fig. 93: MTR system map of HK and images of transport, Source: Google Image Transport Analysis There are different types of public transport in WNT area, from metro to light rail, bus and bicycle as shown in fig.88. MTR system (fig.93) of HK consisting of metro and light rail, is well-known around the world for its effeciency and convenience. However, MTR system is expensive for low-income people in WNT area, especially if they have a job in the city centre, the transport cost and time consuming would often stop them from the work in the end. The road is often occupied by car and light rail, so pedestrians and bicycles must use foot bridge to cross the road. Bus network is well connnected and also cheaper. But bus will take longer time especially in the traffic jam during rush hours. Generally speaking, on the ground level, pedestrian and bicycle don’t have priority. The road is made for the automobile, and it is the overall condition in HK as well as many Asian cities. Recently, the government give some subsidies to residents of TSW who work in the city center. However residents still have to pay a large part of their salary on transport. The subsidy is not the solution for the problem, on the contrary, it is encouraging the uneven develop- ment and monocentric urban structure in HK. Instead, efforts should be taken to promote local development on WNT scale so that people don’t have to commute to the center everyday. 61
  • 65. Fig. 94: Proposed NT cycle track networkFig. 95: Bicycle use condition in HK62
  • 66. 10. VisionBicycleUnlike European cities that encourage the use of bicycle, bicycle dangerous transport.in HK is in an embarrassed condition. It might because of the hillyterrain and crowed street in the city center, so the government However, if the government could upgrade the position of bi-consider bicycle as a leisure activity rather than a type of transport cycle and make well-designed bicycle network, bicycle couldmode. But things are a bit different in the new towns in New Ter- become a new alternative for low-income people who want toritory where it is flatter and less populated. Bicycle network was save some transport money. It is not saying that a well-devel-planned in most new towns and bicycle can be seen everywhere oped bicycle network will attract many people to abandon otherin WNT area. transport modes. It is just offering another choice for people es- pecially those have no choice at the moment.The government also propose a public bicycle network in New Ter-ritory (fig. 94) which is supposed to finish in 2015. This network There are already many people using bicycle to go shopping orwilll link different view sites and several bike rental spots will be go to work in WNT area no matter how dangerous the road is,built near MTR station. It is obvious that this network is designed because bicycle as a free transport will save them some trans-for tourists. Bicycle is still not encouraged as a transport mode in port cost. So, it is not hard to imagine, a well- developed bicycleHK. network will help more low-income people. Most importantly, if new development in WNT area could bring some employmentThis attitude to bicycle brings many problems in the design of bicy- on local scale, this will further encourage bicycle as a transportcle facilities. There is not enough bicycle parking and other related mode and support local economy development. By then, peo-bicycle facilities like rental and repair, also since bicycle is not seri- ple don’t have to travel hours to the city center, but go to workously taken as a transport mode, many pedestrian walk on bicycle freely by bicycle and exercising themselves on the way.path (fig. 95). Moreover, there is not a well-designed bicycle net-work in WNT area that could all connect together, it means thebicycle path will suddenly stop and bicycle need to share road withcar or pedestrian sometimes. All these problems make bicycle a 63
  • 67. 3 8 12 2 Sea 7 Urban settlement Village settlement Fire Range Country park Wetland Fishing pond village Culture Heritage village and site Tourism village River Coast line 11 MTR line 5 Light rail line Man-made beach Nature beach Border line Hiking route Main visiting site/ local temple 0 606m 10 9 1 6 4Fig. 96: Landscape analysis on WNT scale64
  • 68. 10. VisionNATURE LANDSCAPETai Lam Country park 1 Wetland park 2 Mai Po Nature Reserve 3Tai Lam Country park 1Tai Lam Country park 1 Mai Po Nature Reserve 3Fig. 97: Nature Landscape imags on WNT scale, source: Google Image 65
  • 69. SEASIDE LANDSCAPEGolden Beach 4 Pak Nai sunset 5 Seafood in Lau Fau Hill 7 Lung Kwu Tan seaside 6 Tsim Bei Tsui 8 Lau Fau Hill 7Golden Beach 4 Fig. 98: Seaside Landscape imags on WNT scale, source: Google ImageCULTURE LANDSCAPECastle Peak Temple 9 Heritage village-Ping Shan 11 Traditional event 11Local Temple 10 Heritage village-Ping Shan 11 Fishing pond village 12 Fig. 99: Culture Landscape imags on WNT scale, source: Google Image66
  • 70. 10. VisionLandscape AnalysisThe WNT area is rich in landscape recourses. After some landscape 3) Culture landscape (fig.99):analysis (fig.96), three types of landscape are shown: Castle Peak Temple is the most famous temple in HK with some his- torical architecture on the Castle Peak. There are some other famous1) Nature landscape (fig.97): temples in the WNT area and local temples in the village. Tai Lam Country park is the second largest country park in HK, besides Ping Shan is a well-preserved traditional village with a heritage trailbeautiful sightseeings, it provides hiking route and a series of barbucue which connect several declared monument and graded buildings. It is aand picnic sites. perfect place to understand the traditional village culture of HK. The Wetland park is a new tourist attraction to experience the wetland There are also some fishing pond villages on the northern part nearwith the function of ecological mitigation and education. the wetland area, like Nam Sang Wai. Mai Po nature reserve is a precious wetland area and protected as ahome for wild creatures. It attracts many birds every year, as well as visi- The landscape in WNT are diverse and with high quality. The differenttors watching the spectacular view from nearby spots. landscape distribute all over the area. They can be good resources for local economy development to attract visitors from both HK and SZ.2) Seaside landscape (fig.98): Golden Beach is a comprehensive tourism site with beach, shoppingmall, hotel and other recreation facilities. There are also some otherbeaches along the coast. Pak Nai is a natrual seaside beside the village. It is well-known as a placeto watch sunset. Lung Kwu Tan is another natrual seaside next to a village with the amaz-ing view of red trees. There is also a temple nearby. Lau Fau Hill in on the north part nea TSW. It is famous for cheap anddelicious seafood. There are many restaurants selling special seafood andattracting many visitors. Tsim Bei Tsui is at the border point of HK. Besides natrual sight, the cityof SZ is just in the opposite. 67
  • 71. Sea Urban settlement Village settlement Fire Range Country park Wetland Fishing pond village River H Coast line MTR line Light rail line Border line Market Shopping mall Ping Shan Farm: 6 H Food stalls Ha Tsuen Farm: 20 Barbecue /Picnic site H Hotel Accredited farm Leisure farm 0 606m Shap Pat Heung Farm: 8 Lam Tei Farm: 12 H Castle Peak Farm: 17 Tuen Mun Farm: 6 Koon Lam Farm: 17 HFig. 100: Local service analysis68
  • 72. Shopping mall Local market Food stalls 10. Vision Hotel Barbucue & picnic site Fig. 101: Local service images: shopping mall, market, food stalls, hotel, barbucue & picnic site Fig. 101: Leisure farm and accredited farm source: Google imagePat Heung Farm: 20 Local Service Analysis The distribution of local service in WNT area shown in fig.100, the images (fig.101) and conditions are analysed as follows. There is a main shopping center in the town centre of YL and TM respectively, but the quality of scale is not comparable to the one in Sha Tin- a new town of ENT. There are not enough marketplaces for low-income residents. Dawn market and other informal market are illegal in WNT area, while there is a legal informal market in Tai Po - a new town of ENT. However, this type of informal market are essential for low-income groups, providing not only cheap consumption, but also job op- portunities. Moreover, unlike streets full of food stalls in the city centre of HK, there are not that much stalls in WNT area. These food stalls lack of special characteristics that could attract visitors. There are only three hotels in the entire area, one is five star in TM, one is four star in TSW, the other is an ordi- nary one in YL. Several barbucue & picnic sites near the country park are not well used. Agriculture is not supported as an industry in HK. There are two types of farm besides normal farming. One is accredited farm encouraged by government for safe farm product. It has grown to a system with production and sale. The other is leisure and organic farm, with the aim to attract visitors. There are a large number of accredited farms and leisure farms in WNT area. Following the trend that people concern more about the safety of food and slow-speed life, these types of farms became very popular in recent years. In general, the local service condition is not good enough, neither to meet the demand of low-income groups as well as other residents, nor to attract visitors in HK and SZ. There should be some improve- ment to upgrade both the quantity and the quality of local service. The basic line is to meet the de- mand of local people especially low-income groups, and the better scenario is to offer high-quality serive to visitors and improve local development. 69
  • 73. Tsim Bei Tsui Mai Po nature reserve Nam Sang Wai Sea Lau Fau Hill Wetland park Urban settlement Village settlement New development area - HSK Wetland River Coast line green route circle main route in TSW Ha Tsuen secondary green route main/ secondary/ other service center H TSW Ping Shan YL sH MTR Natural landscape s Shopping mall Light rail Cultural site Market Pak Nai Bus Seaside Food stalls Ferry Leisure farm H Hotel Bicycle service HSK s Lam Tei Siu Hong s Tsing Tin s Castle Peak TM s Lung Kwu Tan Tai Lam country park TM town center s Sam Shing Gold coast H sFig. 102: Vision on WNT scale TM ferry70
  • 74. 10. Vision Fig. 103: The Green Route network scheme (left) and the Green Route network (right)Vision on WNT ScaleBased on the above analysis of transport, landscape and local service, avision on WNT scale is shown in fig.102. As a complementary plan to thegovernment’s plan, the focusing point of this vision is local development.The basic idea is to plan a Green Route network (fig.103).This Green Route network includes: 1) Green Route Circle: It is a circle connecting the main landscape sight-seeings, shopping centres, service areas, transportation hubs and impor-tant street. The transport mode on this circle includes metro, light-rail, bus,a well-designed bicycle network with bicycle facilities and services, and aslow-drive route. 2) Main Route in TSW: Based on the Green Route circle, there willbe three main route lines going through TSW connecting important spots.These three lines will be further explained in the next chapter. 3) Secondary Green Route: There will be some other secondary greenroute connecting to the rest important spots outside the green route circle,and also connecting to living areas of local residents. Besides public trans-port, a well-connected bicycle network will be developed. 4) Service Centres: Along the green route, different hierarchy of servicecentres will be established with multi functions nearby like shopping mall,market, food stalls, leisure farm, bicycle service and hotel. These centreswill be combined with transportation hub, sightseeings or other importantfunction areas. On the one hand, they could provide services to local resi-dents and visitors; on the other hand, they could also provide some job op-portunities for local low-income residents. 71
  • 75. bicycle service spot natural landscape cultural site leisure farm local residents s new residents tourist local employment school new housing public housing Fig. 105: The future life scenario scheme of WNT area72
  • 76. 10. Vision s seaside H hotelThis green route network will make good use of existing natural Future life in WNT areaand human resources. It will need the help of the government The green route network will bring benefit to existing local resi-to construct bicycle networks and provide land for service are- dents, new residents and visitors. Their lives will be connected to-as. Then, the local residents themselves will build up their own gether by the green route. Here is the future life scenario of WNTcareers and fulfill the urban management by themselves with area (fig.105):the help of self-organisation, NGOs or others under the free 1) Tourists: Tourists can cycle along the green route and experi-market (fig.104). By then, more and more people and develop- ence the diverse landscape. They will stop by at different servicement will be attracted to WNT area. centres: rent a bicycle , visit a sightseeing, have luch at local food stalls and enjoy the unique home-made food by housewives, do some shopping in shopping malls or local market, visit a leisure farm and pick some fresh vegetables for dinner, go to seaside for Government the sunset and have some seafood, stay in family hotel ... Build bicycle network 2) Local residents: In the morning, mothers will leave public Provide land for service area housing community, send children to school, and then ride a bi- cycle to work on the green route. They work in leisure farm, local + market, food stalls, bicycle rental spot or other service areas. After the work, on their way to take the children home, they will go to local market for some cheap and fresh food. Local residents 3) New residents: New residents are attracted to WNT area be- Self-organization Build up their own career cause of the new lifestyle here: convenient connetion to SZ and HK, NGO & others Manage by themselves new opportunities in HSK, beautiful living environment with fresh air and green, and most importantly, the lively green route. They could also enjoy the service from green route and get on well with local residents. Fig. 104: The position of different stakeholders in the development 73
  • 77. Hong Kong Wetland Park P Tin Heng Wetland park P P Tin Yat P P P Tin Sau Tin Fu P Tin Yuet P Chung Fu P P P Tin Wing P Chestwood P P Ginza P Tin Shui Tin Wu P P Housing Green space Locwood River Tin Tsz P Indoor parking P Outdoor parking P Public Transport interchange P Bus terminal P Main road Secondary road Light rail line Tin Yiu MTR rail line Bus line Bicycle path Bridge P Foot bridge Light rail station MTR station MTR Station Tin Shui Wai Fig. 106: Transport analysis on TSW scale74 0 50 100 200m
  • 78. 10. Vision a b Fig. 107: Transport image in TSW a. a bird eyeview of road with ligh rail station b. the light rail line on ground level, it has become a barrier. c. the crossing point on ground level. Only some parts in TSW have crossing on ground level, many crossing points are foot bridge. d. there is few bicycle parking facilities, and the bicycle path design is not connected and well-designed, many pedestrian walk on bicycle path. c d10.3 TSW ScaleTransport analysis In general, like other places in HK, there is no priority for pedestri-The transport network is shown in fig.106 with images in fig.107. an on ground level. Unfortunately, most of the low-income peopleThe transport inside TSW relies on light rail, but the light rail con- in TSW don’t have cars, so the road failed their mission. TSW is notstruction has become a barrier on ground level. The road is de- big, the light rail only takes 20 minutes to make a circle throughsigned for automobile and not friendly to pedestrian and bicycle. the whole area. Instead of wide and empty road, the future de-Pedestrian and bicycle have to cross the foot bridge. There are velopment in TSW should encourage the street level activity andmany people riding bicycles, however they are facing many difficul- give the road back to pedestrian and bicycles. This will bring moreties: unconnected bicycle path, sharing path with pedestrian and convenient and offer more choices to the residents, especially thecars, carrying bicycle to cross the foot bridge, no parking, etc. low-income groups, as well as bring dynamic street life and local development opportunities.There are two types of pedestrian connections at crossing points inTSW (fig.108). In many parts, it is by foot bridge. This type of sky-walk connection is a linear connection: it connects from home to foot bridge/ skywalk connection pedestrian/ street walk connectionshopping mall, then to light rail station, finally to the metro station.It shows a kind of life trace of many residents in TSW: home- shop-ping- MTR- work- MTR- shopping- home.The other type is on the ground level. This type of street walk con-nection is more convenient and offering more choices. It is notmore dangerous than foot bridge like some people worried, as longas you follow the traffic rule. These two types of connections showthat spatial design will effect people’s activities by connecting routeand the choices offering to people. Fig. 108: Different types of pedestrian connection in TSW 75
  • 79. Tin Heng Wetland park Hong Kong Wetland Park P P P Tin Yat P P P Tin Sau Tin Fu P Tin Yuet P Chung Fu P P P Tin Wing Chestwood P P Ginza P P Tin Shui Tin Wu Housing School Green space River P P Service Shopping center Locwood P Indoor parking Tin Tsz P Outdoor parking Public Transport interchange P Bus terminal P Wet market/cooked food stall P Main road Secondary road Light rail line Tin Yiu MTR rail line Bus line Bicycle path Bridge P Foot bridge Light rail station MTR station MTR Station Tin Shui Wai Fig. 109: Local service analysis on TSW scale76 0 50 100 200m
  • 80. 10. Vision a b cFig. 110: Local service image in TSW a. open space inside housing estate are in good quality b. shopping mall at the corner of the street, it is connected to housing estate and light rail station by sky walk system. There is no people on the street. c. empty parking building at the corner of the street, also connected by skywalk system.Local Service analysisThe local service analysis is shown in fig 109 with images in fig.110. There should be diverse commercial service and safe publicThe open space inside housing estate is generally in good quality space for residents to use, some places always have eyes watch-with diverse facilities. But in the northern part, the quality is not ing like Jacobs described. That will help to improve the livinggood, lacking open space for leisure activity. The commercial ser- quality of residents and promote social life and economic op-vice relies on shopping malls and wet markets run by big corpora- portunities, especially for the low-income groups.tions. Because of commercial monopoly, the price is higher thanother areas like YL. So daily consumption is expensive for low-in-come groups. These shopping malls are all designed as single com-plex building connected by skywalk system with housing estate.The whole TSW only has three places with shops on the street level(fig.111) and the sense of street life like other parts of HK.It is hard to define public space in HK, because many spaces areprivatilized so that people are not free to use. In TSW, it is easy tofind open space with landscape design, but it is only a place forrest. So, there is hardly any public space for social communicationor economic activitives, a place everyone is free to use. Especiallyfor children who covers one fifth of the whole population, there aresome roof gardens on top of the shopping malls for children to play,but the parents think it is not safe. So, children don’t have safe plac-es to play while their mothers can watch them from the window. Fig. 111: One of the few street level shops in TSW. 77
  • 81. Hong Kong Wetland Park Housing Green space River Main road Public Rental Housing Estate Subdisized Sale Housing Estate Private Housing Estate Fig. 112: Housing estate design analysis on TSW scale78 0 50 100 200m
  • 82. 10. VisionFig. 113: Housing estate image in TSW a b c a. housing estate enclosed by fence b. housing estates connected by foot bridge c. road between housing estates are empty and occupied by light rail track and carHousing Estate design analysisThe transport system and service quality resulted in the closedin housing estates shown in fig.112. These housing estates wereoriginally designed as inward-oriented independent communitiessurrounded by fence. This made the basic image of TSW (fig.113)consisits of isolated communities. The foot bridge lifted the routeto shopping malls, so people had to face the empty street (fig.114).As shown before, the spatial structure is so simple with the samehousing estate sample (fig.115) copying 15 times on the emptyground. Inside the housing estate, different facilities and servicesare provided, but there is no connection between housing estates.So, TSW is merely a sleeping area rather than a living area, it is ahuge residential with 300,000 residents rather than a new town. Fig. 114: Space under the foot bridge, a resident sit under the foot bridge surrounded by the empty spaceSuch design problems should be avoid in the future. The essential Housing 0 100mthing right now is to create opportunities in space that could pro- Primary schoolmote lively urban life, and encourage places where people could Middle school Exithave diverse socio-economic and other activities as they wish. Playground Open space Service Shopping center Bus stop Light rail station MTR Station Fig. 115: Housing estate sample in TSW 79
  • 83. Mai Po nature reserve Tsim Bei Tsui P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P MTR Station Tin Shui WaiHSK 0 200 500m s Fig. 116: River line condition analysis 80
  • 84. 10. Vision Mai Po nature reserve Tsim Bei Tsui: the border point of HK with nice natrual view, and the city of SZ is just in the other side of waterThe river at the edge of TSW, it is mainly for flood The riverfront in TSW with pedestrian way, bicycle path and some resting facilities (left) There is a dawn market in the riverfront now, it is lively but illegal (right) Preliminary development plan for HSK 81
  • 85. River line Market area connection from village new public space school park P Fig. 116: River line Vision on TSW scale82 0 200 500m
  • 86. 10. VisionVision on TSW Scale - River lineThe River line is from Tsim Bei Tsui to HSK, and the existing condi-tion is shown in fig.116. Inside TSW, it is mainly the riverfront area.Now, the river is mainly for flood protection without landscapepurpose. The riverfront is designed with pedestrian path, bicycletrack and some resting places. The village is just across the river.So, some farmers bring fresh vegetable and some hawkers bringother daily stuff to an illegal dawn market at the riverfront nearthe bridge and schools, residents will visit the small market whenthey are doing morning exercise and sending children to school.This spontaneous market is very lively but risky. Some NGOs arehelping them fighting for a legal market.So, the vision for the River line (fig.117) is to meet the demand oflocal residents. Dawn/ Evening market will open at the riverfront,local farmers and other hawkers will have a fix area for business,and residents can visit the market at a fix time when they are doingmorning exercise or taking children to school/home. Together withthe market, some local service can also take place, like the existinghairdresser. The main purpose of the riverfront is for leisure activ-ity, new public space combined with market will be designed forsocial communication. When there is no market, they will be usedas public space for other social activities with nice landscape. 83
  • 87. Mai Po nature reserve Nam Sang Wai Lau Fau Hill P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P MTR Station Tin Shui Wai 0 200 500m Fig. 117: Street line condition analysis84
  • 88. 10. Vision Lau Fau Hill is famous for seafood market and catering Nam Sang Wai used to be a fishing pond, now it is a famous sight seeing. The rest of the street is empty. Housing estates fence themselves for safety, leaving residents sitting in the empty leftover space. This is unsafe space because there are no eyes watching from the street or windows.Near the crossing point, hawkers sometimes will make the street lively, but still it’s illegal 85
  • 89. Street line New street special market connection from housing estate shopping mall P 0 200 500m Fig. 119: Street line Vision on TSW scale86
  • 90. 10. VisionVision on TSW Scale - Street lineThe Street line is from Lau Fau Hill to Nam Sang Wai, and the exist-ing condition is shown in fig.117. Inside TSW, it is mainly a street.Right now, it is only a road for automobile. Besides the crossingpoint where some shopping malls gathered, the two sides of theroad are all enclosed by fence. There is only a few shops at theground level near this street. It is a very well-connected road basedon space syntax analysis (fig.118) and it has the potential to de-velop into a lively street.So, the vision for the Street line (fig.119) is to develop into a livelystreet to meet the demand of local residents and potential tourists.On the ground level beside the street, more small shops for retail,catering or other services can be built. The street profile should befriendly to pedestrian and bicycle with some public space along thestreet. All these will attract more residents to the street. Housingestate should get rid of the fence, and make good route connectionto the street. So, residents can easily reach the street and enjoythe lively street life. Moreover, some special market like mutual aidmarket and second hand market can open at some places along thestreet on weekend. Residents can exchange their useless stuff with 100mother people or sell at a cheap price. This type of market is quitecommon in European cities, and it will do some help to the low- Fig. 118: Space syntax analysis of integration R 300mincome groups as well as other residents. 87
  • 91. Mai Po nature reserve Wetland park P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P MTR Station Tin Shui Wai TSW Ping Shan YL sH 0 200 500m Fig. 120: View line condition analysis88
  • 92. 10. Vision Wetland park of HK is the popular tourism sightseeing in recent years TSW park is a well-designed public park in the south of TSW MTR station of TSW, a stop on the west rail line connecting to the city center of HK YL town centre is the centre of WNT area with lively street life. TSW residents always do shopping here because it is more diverse and cheaper.Ping Shan, a well preserved heritage village with a heritage trail (left) connecting different 89 monuments and graded buildings
  • 93. River line new street service area special market shopping mall park P n i Fig. 121: View line Vision on TSW scale90 0 200 500m
  • 94. 10. VisionVision on TSW Scale - View line ConclusionThe View line is from wetland park to YL town center. It connects Vision on Regional scale, WNT scale and TSW scale have thewetland park, TSW park, TSW MTR station, Ping Shan and YL town strong purpose to include the low-income groups into the fu-center as shown in fig.120. This line connects sightseeings near ture development strategy. Strategies and detail design willTSW together, so it is mainly for the tourists, and partly for local come up in the following Phases.residents. To be continued...So, the vision for the View line (fig.121) is to offering some tourismservice along the line. The whole line would have a well-designedbicycle and pedestrian path on the ground level. Two streets, onenear wetland park and the other near MTR station, have potentialto developed into new service areas, like catering, shopping, bicyclerental & repair. This new service area should have a unique quality.For example, catering can be a good chance for some unemployedhousewives, mainly migrants from all parts of China, to show theirhome-made specials. Some HK citizens already proposed the ideato build a large scale Da Pai Dang (food stalls in Chinese), but thegovernment pay little attention. Since this line goes through TSWpark, there can be some special market along the line in TSW parkon weekend. The market can offer some special or local producedproduct for tourists, like organic food. This line also passes someshopping malls, tourists are also free to do some shopping in TSW. 91
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