citl.illinois.edu
Teaching Metacognition
Helping Students Self-Assess
Their Own Learning
Jim Wentworth & Ava Wolf
Center for Innovation in T...
Schedule:
10:30 – 11:00 Metacognition Presentation
11:00 – 11:40 Self-Assessment Hands-On Activity
11:40 – 11:50 Break
11:...
Outcomes:
Describe the concepts and value of developing
metacognitive skills
Identify methods for developing and supportin...
“Teaching is the Art of
Changing the Brain”
James Zull
During this talk we’ll be using
the Poll Everywhere
classroom response system.
In your browser go to:
pollev.com/metacogni...
When you think of the
term metacognition,
what comes to mind?
respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
Metacognition
involves an active
awareness of the
processes of thinking
and reasoning that
we engage in when
attempting to...
Why Teach Metacognition?
Not all students enter the
university with the
necessary skills to succeed
in their chosen discip...
There is almost no
relationship between how well
students think they know
material and how well they
perform on an exam.
P...
Over the past four decades there has been a dramatic
rise in the number of freshman students that rate
their abilities
abo...
“Ignorance more frequently
begets confidence than does
knowledge”
- Charles Darwin
Why Teach Metacognition?
By teaching metacognitive skills we
can help students to overcome any
bad study habits and gaps i...
Helping students to recognize and retain what
they’ve learned
Helping students compare their
understanding to that of thei...
Making Learning Transparent
Provide clearly stated learning outcomes or
assignment objectives
Use grading rubrics that ali...
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Show of hands, how many of you are
familiar with Bloom’s taxonomy?
Metacognitive Tools & Activities
Self-Assessment Quizzes
Grading Rubrics
Assignment Wrappers
Formative Feedback
Authentic ...
Metacognitive Activities Large
Lecture
Course
Small
Blended
Course
Online
Course
Self-Assessment Quiz X X X
Grading Rubric...
Key Ideas
 Building off of prior knowledge is
essential for all learning
 Formative feedback is necessary for
students t...
Think about your own thinking
What works for you? How do you gain
understanding of new concepts?
What tools or tricks work...
In your mind, follow your travels
from home to work and see what
associations are triggered.
What comes to mind as you
ima...
How do people learn?
Please write your first idea or thought on
a piece of paper
How do people learn?
Then add your response to the list at
pollev.com/metacognition
If learning involves attaching and
integrating new information and
ideas to existing knowledge
structures in the brain,
th...
Teaching is the
Art of Changing
the Brain
James Zull
Which letter below would be
most associated with motor function?
respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
Which letter below would be
most associated with motor function?
respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
The 4 letters
Represe...
Which letter would be
most associated with reflection?
respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
Which letter below would be
most associated with reflection?
respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
The 4 letters
Represent:
...
Important functions of the
cortex
Matching stages of the
experiential learning cycle
The sensory cortex receives
informati...
The Biology of Learning
Consider the word DUCK
What comes to mind when you
hear the word duck?
respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
Consider the word DUCK
What comes to mind when you
view the following image?
respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
Fish is Fish – Leo Lionni
Key Ideas
 Building off of prior knowledge is
essential for all learning
 Formative feedback is necessary for
students t...
Key Ideas
 Building off of prior knowledge is
essential for all learning
 Formative feedback is necessary for
students t...
Next we’ll focus on the use of
online self-assessment quizzes
for providing formative feedback
Shifting Gears
Formative Feedback
 Helps students identify their
strengths and weaknesses and
target areas that need work
 Helps facult...
Show of hands
How many of you currently
use online assessments in
some form?
Online Self-Assessment
 Use LMS to deliver online quizzes
 Computer scoring provides
immediate results for students,
and...
Question types in Blackboard that allow
for immediate scoring and feedback?
 Multiple Choice
 Fill in the Blank
 True /...
Formative Feedback
Revealing Unknown Unknowns
McGraw Hill’s LearnSmart system attempts to reveal to students
their lack of awareness of unkno...
“Ignorance more frequently begets
confidence than does knowledge”
- Charles Darwin
c
The system tracks the responses along...
Aware and Unaware
Now it’s your turn
Go to http://compass2g.illinois.edu
Login with the guest account provided
Take the short self-assessmen...
Compass Features
Formative Feedback Tips
 Questions align with objectives
 Provide good distractors – key into
common misconceptions
 Us...
Pair and Share Worksheet Activity:
-- identify one learning outcome, and
-- create one multiple choice, self-
assessment q...
Formative Assessment Rubric
Key Ideas
 Building off of prior knowledge is
essential for all learning
 Formative feedback is necessary for
students t...
Key Ideas
 Building off of prior knowledge is
essential for all learning
 Formative feedback is necessary for
students t...
Break
Please return in 10 minutes
Expert knowledge can get in
the way of teaching
Which one does not belong?
Knowledge structures of experts
and novices
Novice
Expert
Principles of Expertise
 Experts notice meaningful patterns of
information
 Experts organize content knowledge in
ways t...
Show of hands
How many viewed at least some of
Confessions of a Converted Lecturer?
Confessions of a Converted
Lecture
Switch to media file to watch eight
minute excerpt
Mazur’s Key Points
 The better you know something the
more difficult it is to teach the beginner
 Much of our learning t...
Poll Everywhere question
What are some of the building block
concepts in your discipline?
respond at PollEv.com/metacognit...
What makes a good polling question?
Return to poll everywhere results – What
are some of the building block concepts in
your discipline?
Form into groups and ...
Add your polling question to Poll
Everywhere for display and archiving
respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
Classroom Response Systems
Discuss the basics of these systems
Demonstrate Poll Everywhere reporting
options
Expert Knowledge
Expert Knowledge
Key Ideas
 Building off of prior knowledge is
essential for all learning
 Formative feedback is necessary for
students t...
Key Ideas
 Building off of prior knowledge is
essential for all learning
 Formative feedback is necessary for
students t...
Questions?
Feel free to e-mail us:
arwolf@illinois.edu
jwentwor@illinois.edu
Online course materials and resources availab...
citl.illinois.edu
College of Nursing presentation August 20, 2013
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  • Individual introductions and background of speakers
  • schedule
  • Stated outcomes of today’s presentation
  • Additional ideas for this presentation are drawn from the book The Art of Changing the Brain: Exploring the Practice of Teaching by Exploring the Biology of Learning by James Zull
  • Switch display to pull up Poll Everywhere page with first poll instructions displayed. Give them time to connect with their preferred advice and hints about how to connect for additional polls.
  • Poll everwhere poll – respond at pollev.com/metacognition, limited to 40 responses, no repeats please, switch to browser view to see incoming poll results
  • Pull together key terms to arrive at a definition
  • Source = Does confidence really breeds success? William Kremer BBC News Magazine – analysis by Twenge, campbell and gentile.http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-20756247The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which unskilled individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly rating their ability much higher than average. This bias is attributed to a metacognitive inability of the unskilled to recognize their mistakes.Actual competence may weaken self-confidence, as competent individuals may falsely assume that others have an equivalent understanding. David Dunning and Justin Kruger of Cornell University conclude, "the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others".
  • Discuss my use of Blooms in the classroom – benefits of introducing students to this taxonomy
  • Some examples of metacognitive activities. We’ll only go into detail on a couple of these, but there are additional examples available within the Blackboard course.Highlight Journals and blogs and being up the importance of having students document new material using their own language.
  • Not all activities are appropriate for all teaching environments. Blended course offer the best opportunity to explore most of these activities.
  • So we’ve introduced you the concept and basic practices of metacognition. As we progress through the rest of the talk we’ll be focusing on these three key ideas. If you remember nothing else from today, focus on these key ideas.
  • Explore the process your mind goes through as you consider these questions. Where did these skills come from, how were they developed? It can be difficult to watch this activity within yourself – let’s try a little more of a concrete example.
  • Personally I usual take my bike, so I immediately think of the feel of the wind across my face and the roughness of the brick road that I live on. If I picture myself driving, my first association or memory is to watch out for the neighbor boy as I back out of the driveway. Selecting a radio station is another association that comes up right away.
  • Start by having them put their thoughts on paper
  • Build up a list of responses as they are coming in from Poll Everywhere.Discuss the process of evaluating their written responses in comparison to the list of answers displayed. Does this new information trigger a different response, does it affirm their original thinking?At it’s core learning involves attaching and integrating new information and ideas to existing knowledge structures in the brain, memorizing a term or formula is not the same as learning. Later in the presentation we’ll hear Professor Mazur discuss knowledge transfer and knowledge assimilation. Without this assimilation piece, we can’t really say that learning has happened.
  • One model of learning – we take in concrete experience and reflect on the experience to create meaning, we then use that meaning to develop abstract hypotheses and then we act upon our hypothesis which creates new output in the form of more experience for us to absorb.
  • Lack of biology disclaimer – no science backgroundNeuroscience has helped us determine some of the brain functions that occur during learning.
  • First let’s review what you already know about the brainDisplay and discuss results – if everyone agrees A is the correct answer, then we can move on.
  • But if there is disagreement in the polling responses, then display this next slide and use this as an example of scaffolding intended to help elicit prior knowledge
  • Add list from page 21 here
  • The learning cycle arises naturally from the structure of the brain.
  • Start with a brief story about using the idea of a duck to help students mentally consider what happens in their heads as they build a mental picture of a duck.
  • Hopefully the use of multiple duck images will trigger most associations and a longer list of terms / connections. This is an example that demonstrates how powerful images are in accessing prior knowledge. It also reveals that it’s important to consider what associations you are thinking you are bringing forward, and how much that relates to personal experience and background. This is the idea behind reflection. You are essentially asking the students to consider what they already know and then gauging whether new information fits within their existing frameworks. The more hints we can use to help them build and recognize associations, the better.
  • So naturally things that we see in the world, we can hold as images in our head and recall those images which trigger associations of all kinds. What about concepts. Consider a word like velocity – and I think you’ll see that your mind also holds this information is a visual form, some image is triggered in your head that represents the idea of velocity for you. This may be very different that the image representing the same idea held by others.
  • Fish is Fish story
  • Use LMS to deliver online quizzesSelective response and short answer questions can be computer graded to provide immediate scoring for studentsComprehensive feedback can be included to redirect student’s thinkingItem analysis in Blackboard can provide data on commonly missed questions revealing content that may require further clarification
  • provide input on questions / maybe put them in blackboard
  • We’ve been using a version of a classroom response system throughout this presentation. Next, we’re going to watch a short video excerpt that demonstrates how such a system can be used in combination with peer instruction to improve learning.Set up video with background story of Mazur’s experienceMention newton’s third law – the rest of the course build on this idea we he teaches in the second week
  • Mention newton’s third law – the rest of the course builds on this idea which he teaches in the second week
  • most learning takes place outside of the classroomexperts are not in the best position to understand the hurdles experienced by novicesshift focus from teaching to helping students learning - his key pointeducation is not just the transfer of informationstudent needs to build mental models they can use in other context, assimilating informationwhere did that happen for us - in retrospect a lot of learning happened out side of the classroomhow we traditionally test out students is misleadingteach semi-socrativly - teach by asking not tellinggive student more responsibility for gathering the information - instructor should help with assimilationthe better you know something the more difficult it is to teach to the beginnerwe teach recipes for students to follow instead of concepts for them to applyapplying recipes that you don't really understand what happens when you don't really understand the recipe - what is baking powder for?recipe only works 75% of the time - 
  • Scaffolding – how to be sure they understand foundational concepts
  • College of Nursing presentation August 20, 2013

    1. 1. citl.illinois.edu
    2. 2. Teaching Metacognition Helping Students Self-Assess Their Own Learning Jim Wentworth & Ava Wolf Center for Innovation in Teaching and Learning http://citl.illinois.edu University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    3. 3. Schedule: 10:30 – 11:00 Metacognition Presentation 11:00 – 11:40 Self-Assessment Hands-On Activity 11:40 – 11:50 Break 11:50 – 12:30 Student Response and Peer Instruction 12:30 – 1:00 Question and Answer Period
    4. 4. Outcomes: Describe the concepts and value of developing metacognitive skills Identify methods for developing and supporting self- learners Demonstrate learning assessment techniques through hands on activities Describe and demonstrate an approach to classroom response systems and peer instruction
    5. 5. “Teaching is the Art of Changing the Brain” James Zull
    6. 6. During this talk we’ll be using the Poll Everywhere classroom response system. In your browser go to: pollev.com/metacognition
    7. 7. When you think of the term metacognition, what comes to mind? respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
    8. 8. Metacognition involves an active awareness of the processes of thinking and reasoning that we engage in when attempting to learn
    9. 9. Why Teach Metacognition? Not all students enter the university with the necessary skills to succeed in their chosen discipline.
    10. 10. There is almost no relationship between how well students think they know material and how well they perform on an exam. Plotnik & Kouyoumdijan, 2011
    11. 11. Over the past four decades there has been a dramatic rise in the number of freshman students that rate their abilities above average.
    12. 12. “Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge” - Charles Darwin
    13. 13. Why Teach Metacognition? By teaching metacognitive skills we can help students to overcome any bad study habits and gaps in their understanding and we can encourage them to assume responsibility for their own learning.
    14. 14. Helping students to recognize and retain what they’ve learned Helping students compare their understanding to that of their classmates Helping students review and assess their work against a set of stated expectations Student Benefits
    15. 15. Making Learning Transparent Provide clearly stated learning outcomes or assignment objectives Use grading rubrics that align with objectives Have students help create self-assessment quiz questions Discuss Bloom’s taxonomy with students
    16. 16. Bloom’s Taxonomy Show of hands, how many of you are familiar with Bloom’s taxonomy?
    17. 17. Metacognitive Tools & Activities Self-Assessment Quizzes Grading Rubrics Assignment Wrappers Formative Feedback Authentic Assessment Classroom Critique Peer Review / Assessment Small Group Discussion Student Response Systems One-Minute Paper Muddiest Point Reiterative Projects Portfolios Weekly Reports Process Analysis Student-Generated Quiz Questions Background Knowledge Probe Categorizing Grid One Sentence Summary Project Prospectus Analytic Memo Chain Notes Reflective Journal Concept Maps
    18. 18. Metacognitive Activities Large Lecture Course Small Blended Course Online Course Self-Assessment Quiz X X X Grading Rubrics X X X Assignment Wrapper X X Reflective Journal X X One Minute Paper X X Muddiest Point X X Classroom Critique X Peer Evaluation / Assessment X X X Small Group Discussion X X X Student Response Systems X X Authentic Assessment X X Reiterative Projects X X
    19. 19. Key Ideas  Building off of prior knowledge is essential for all learning  Formative feedback is necessary for students to address their own weaknesses  Expert knowledge can get in the way of teaching
    20. 20. Think about your own thinking What works for you? How do you gain understanding of new concepts? What tools or tricks work for you to remember and recall information when needed?
    21. 21. In your mind, follow your travels from home to work and see what associations are triggered. What comes to mind as you imagine yourself traveling this route?
    22. 22. How do people learn? Please write your first idea or thought on a piece of paper
    23. 23. How do people learn? Then add your response to the list at pollev.com/metacognition
    24. 24. If learning involves attaching and integrating new information and ideas to existing knowledge structures in the brain, then . . .
    25. 25. Teaching is the Art of Changing the Brain James Zull
    26. 26. Which letter below would be most associated with motor function? respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
    27. 27. Which letter below would be most associated with motor function? respond at PollEv.com/metacognition The 4 letters Represent: Frontal Integrative cortex Premotor and Motor Sensory and Postsensory Temporal Integrative Cortex
    28. 28. Which letter would be most associated with reflection? respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
    29. 29. Which letter below would be most associated with reflection? respond at PollEv.com/metacognition The 4 letters Represent: D = Frontal Integrative cortex A = Premotor and Motor B = Sensory and Postsensory C = Temporal Integrative Cortex
    30. 30. Important functions of the cortex Matching stages of the experiential learning cycle The sensory cortex receives information from the outside world Matches with the common definition of concrete experience The temporal integrative cortex integrates sensory information to create images and meaning Matches what happens during reflection, for example remembering relevant information, free association & mentally reviewing experiences The frontal integrative cortex is responsible for short term memory, problem solving, making decisions and directing action. Matches well with the generation of abstractions, which requires manipulation of images and language to create new arrangements The motor cortex directly triggers all coordinated and voluntary muscle contractions by the body This matches with the necessity for action in the completion of the learning cycle. Active testing of abstractions requires conversion of ideas into physical action.
    31. 31. The Biology of Learning
    32. 32. Consider the word DUCK What comes to mind when you hear the word duck? respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
    33. 33. Consider the word DUCK What comes to mind when you view the following image?
    34. 34. respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
    35. 35. Fish is Fish – Leo Lionni
    36. 36. Key Ideas  Building off of prior knowledge is essential for all learning  Formative feedback is necessary for students to address their own weaknesses  Expert knowledge can get in the way of teaching
    37. 37. Key Ideas  Building off of prior knowledge is essential for all learning  Formative feedback is necessary for students to address their own weaknesses  Expert knowledge can get in the way of teaching
    38. 38. Next we’ll focus on the use of online self-assessment quizzes for providing formative feedback Shifting Gears
    39. 39. Formative Feedback  Helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses and target areas that need work  Helps faculty recognize where students are struggling to address problems immediately
    40. 40. Show of hands How many of you currently use online assessments in some form?
    41. 41. Online Self-Assessment  Use LMS to deliver online quizzes  Computer scoring provides immediate results for students, and comprehensive feedback  Question Pools to store and reuse questions  Item analysis in Blackboard
    42. 42. Question types in Blackboard that allow for immediate scoring and feedback?  Multiple Choice  Fill in the Blank  True / False & Either / Or  Calculated Numeric  Jumbled Sentence  Matching  Multiple Answers  Opinion Scale / Likert
    43. 43. Formative Feedback
    44. 44. Revealing Unknown Unknowns McGraw Hill’s LearnSmart system attempts to reveal to students their lack of awareness of unknown content by asking them to evaluate their confidence before responding to each question
    45. 45. “Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge” - Charles Darwin c The system tracks the responses along with the level of confidence to reveal those questions that students don’t realize they do not know. Revealing Unknown Unknowns
    46. 46. Aware and Unaware
    47. 47. Now it’s your turn Go to http://compass2g.illinois.edu Login with the guest account provided Take the short self-assessment quiz
    48. 48. Compass Features
    49. 49. Formative Feedback Tips  Questions align with objectives  Provide good distractors – key into common misconceptions  Use images to help support recall  Specific mention of related readings  Links to additional information online  Capitalize on “emotion” of moment
    50. 50. Pair and Share Worksheet Activity: -- identify one learning outcome, and -- create one multiple choice, self- assessment question with distractors and substantive feedback . When completed share your question with another group – pass to the right.
    51. 51. Formative Assessment Rubric
    52. 52. Key Ideas  Building off of prior knowledge is essential for all learning  Formative feedback is necessary for students to address their own weaknesses  Expert knowledge can get in the way of teaching
    53. 53. Key Ideas  Building off of prior knowledge is essential for all learning  Formative feedback is necessary for students to address their own weaknesses  Expert knowledge can get in the way of teaching
    54. 54. Break Please return in 10 minutes
    55. 55. Expert knowledge can get in the way of teaching
    56. 56. Which one does not belong?
    57. 57. Knowledge structures of experts and novices Novice Expert
    58. 58. Principles of Expertise  Experts notice meaningful patterns of information  Experts organize content knowledge in ways that reflect a deep understanding  Experts are able to flexibly retrieve rules, principles and applications  Experts can transfer knowledge beyond the original context
    59. 59. Show of hands How many viewed at least some of Confessions of a Converted Lecturer?
    60. 60. Confessions of a Converted Lecture Switch to media file to watch eight minute excerpt
    61. 61. Mazur’s Key Points  The better you know something the more difficult it is to teach the beginner  Much of our learning takes place outside of the classroom  Education is not just the transfer of information, it also requires assimilation  Teach by asking, not by telling
    62. 62. Poll Everywhere question What are some of the building block concepts in your discipline? respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
    63. 63. What makes a good polling question?
    64. 64. Return to poll everywhere results – What are some of the building block concepts in your discipline? Form into groups and write at least one good polling question that would help students in the classroom to gauge their understanding of one of these difficult ideas.
    65. 65. Add your polling question to Poll Everywhere for display and archiving respond at PollEv.com/metacognition
    66. 66. Classroom Response Systems Discuss the basics of these systems Demonstrate Poll Everywhere reporting options
    67. 67. Expert Knowledge
    68. 68. Expert Knowledge
    69. 69. Key Ideas  Building off of prior knowledge is essential for all learning  Formative feedback is necessary for students to address their own weaknesses  Expert knowledge can get in the way of teaching
    70. 70. Key Ideas  Building off of prior knowledge is essential for all learning  Formative feedback is necessary for students to address their own weaknesses  Expert knowledge can get in the way of teaching
    71. 71. Questions? Feel free to e-mail us: arwolf@illinois.edu jwentwor@illinois.edu Online course materials and resources available at: compass2g.illinois.edu The mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be kindled - Plutarch
    72. 72. citl.illinois.edu

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