Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Best Practices
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Best Practices

15,223

Published on

How To Ensure That All Students Are Learning …

How To Ensure That All Students Are Learning

Introduction to the problem – who’s to blame
Key education culture and teaching issues
Teachers Advancement Program (TAP) and other known key predictors of teaching success
No Child Left Behind Education Reform and growth in Charter Schools (where Arizona is #1)
Lessons Learned, Lean Techniques, Project and Experience-based Approaches, Baldridge Award
And, using Systems Theory for inspiration

Published in: Education, Technology
10 Comments
21 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
15,223
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
10
Likes
21
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Quality Goes to School: Best Practices HOW TO ENSURE THAT ALL STUDENTS ARE LEARNING By Jim Maginnis Organizational Kinetics Copyright 2006 - 2010Some slides are adapted from presentations done by Grand Blanc Community Schools, Michigan
  • 2. 2 Lecture Agenda• Introduction to the problem and Entity Theory• Getting together and Teacher Advancement Prg.• No Child Left Behind and the Baldrige Award• Centering around the Classroom Data Center• Learning Theory and the Learning Organization• Strategic Planning Tools: Affinity and Fishbone Diagrams, Pareto Analysis, Value Statement, Cheerleading, becoming a Change Agent, etc.• Multisystemic Therapy and Team Interventions• And, everywhere Systems Theory for direction
  • 3. 3 2 Million Minutes Pop Quiz (*)• What is the population of India, of China?• How many K-12 children are in India, in China?• What percentage of American engineering PhDs go to foreign nationals each year? (60%)• In last 5 years, what ethnic group started more Silicon Valley based venture-capital firms?• What foreign languages are most likely taught in U.S.? China? India? Which foreign languages have the CIA identified as most strategic to U.S.?• Largest English-speaking country in 2020? (China)
  • 4. 4 U.S. Schools At All Time Low• 1862 Reader considered too hard for today’s kids – 1920 Reader intro-ed 345 words while today’s only 53• SAT & literacy scores peaked for kids of the 50’s – American SAT scores unbroken decline 1963 to 1982 • While GPAs rise, Harvard 1890: 2.27, 1950: 2.55, 2004: 3.48(*)• Anti-intellectual post-modernism among educators lamented by John Dewey is worse problem today – HRs prefer social skills over reading, writing, and math• 44% of Singapore’s students reached the TIMSS advanced benchmark; only 7% of U.S. students – In no state do half of 8th graders read at grade <28%> • See Dumbest Generation and Dumbing Down Our Kids
  • 5. 5 With 82% Overall Failure Rate(with “AZ producing country’s lowest student testing levels” *)• Our children typically drop out or graduate without ever having learned much or grown intellectually – Illiteracy grown from 2.5% to 14% over past century and now 50-70% of adults are but “functional illiterates”• For every 100 American students in 9th grade, 67 graduate from high school, 38 enter college (20 for blacks, 16 for Latinos), and 18 graduate with an associate or baccalaureate degree in six years• That’s a H.S. to college failure rate of 82 percent! – US women graduate college 35% more often than men and are thus twice as likely to be able to afford a home – Teenage suicides increased three fold (boys 4X > girls)
  • 6. 6 Other Countries Not In Decline• When Japanese students finish High School (and 96% of them graduate), they leave with education American kids get only after two years of college – Japanese teachers at all levels are better prepared in math and so their instruction is far more sophisticated – America (was first) now ranks 12th for college degrees!• The exodus of jobs abroad is not to utilize cheap labor but a far more highly educated workforce – Foreign companies create more U.S. patents, China has passed U.S. in direct foreign investment, Japan has more engineers (with 4 other countries, S. Korea, Sweden, Finland, & Israel, spends more GDP on R&D)
  • 7. 7Education Forgotten in the West“It is possible to enter an urban school in China orIndia or Brazil and immediately recognize a way oforganizing education that has become completelytaken for granted in the West. Students sit passivelyin separate classrooms. Everything is coordinatedby a predetermined plan, with bells and whistlesand rules to keep things moving like one giantassembly line throughout each hour, day, and year.”p. 7 of Presence: Human Purpose, 2004 by Senge,Scharmer, Jaworski, and Flowers (Harvard Reviewsaid this was the most important text in 75 years).
  • 8. 8 Losing Our Competitiveness• Until American schools are redesigned, declared Microsoft’s Bill Gates at a summit of the nation’s governors, “We will keep limiting, even ruining, the lives of millions of Americans every year.” – The chief executives of Intel and Cisco Systems later also suggested that America’s lackluster schools will force American companies to look overseas for talent• Students from China, India, and South Korea seeking U.S. degrees declined by 16% in 2008 (*) – Services, now more than half our economy, usually do little process design, organization, management R&D
  • 9. Percentage of new entrants to the labor market that have completed higher education Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2007 60 50United States Canada 40 Sweden Denmark Finland 30 Norway Belgium Ireland 20 Quality is not any particular level of Spain performance but about constantly Korea measurable improvements – and 10 every country seems to be beating the U.S. in this all important regard 0 1975-79 1980-84 1985-89 1990-94 1995-99
  • 10. 80% of the World’s Middle ClassGrowth is in Asia (as ours decline) Percentage of Middle Class in the West and Asia When Indian Infosys hired 10,000 new consultants in 2003, they chose from 1.2 million qualified applicants! Source: United Nations, World Bank, Surjit S. Bhalla, Second Among Equals: The Middle Class Kingdoms of India and China, May 2007, www.oxusinvestments.com
  • 11. Born in the USA, but Now Global Percentage of Revenues Generated Overseas 56% 63% 63% 66% 76% 52% 95% 66% Sources: 3M Co., Apple Inc., Coca Cola Co., Google Inc., Hewlett-Packard Co., McDonalds Corp., Pfizer Inc., Qualcomm Inc. Most recent data available in each companies’ latest financial statements. December 31, 2010 (Apple Inc.), September 30, 2010 (McDonalds Corp., Coca Cola Co., Google Inc., Pfizer Inc., Qualcomm Inc. ), July 31, 2010 (Hewlett-Packard Co.), December 31, 2009 (3M Co.). Foreign Revenue is based on Total Revenue – Domestic Revenue. Logos are trademarks of their respective owners and are used for illustrative purposes and should not be construed as an endorsement or sponsorship of Franklin Templeton Investments.
  • 12. 12 As Low-skilled Jobs Disappear(worldwide as well as in our “fast food nation”) Tyler, Texas, 1964 (360 acres) run by but three operators, needing merely a high school © 2005 Accelerating.org educationBut, the 1972 upgrade eliminated all three operators
  • 13. 13Degrees & Certs Now Required• Fortune says just as America lost about 2 million industrial jobs mostly to China, China lost 15 million industrial jobs mostly to robots / machines• The greatest openings for U.S. jobs today are for cashier, retail sales, and fast food preparation• But, the fastest growing jobs are home health aid, network manager, software engineer, veterinary technicians, and personal financial advisors (*)• Many jobs didn’t exist 10 years ago (Sustainability Expert, App Developer, Chief Listening Officer )
  • 14. 14 Few Better Than A Ditch Digger“Many leave H.S. with 3rd grade vocabulary” - Dr. Beck, 2002• One hose will fill a ditch in 45 minutes and another hose will fill it in 30 minutes. How long will it take to fill the ditch if you were to use both hoses?• If you were a Japanese (or Chinese) 12-year old, you would have 1 minute to finish this problem• And, a middle aged blue-collar Japanese worker (say, a ditch digger) can likely answer correctly – Sadly, even more likely than the American student who has just completed a course in “college” Algebra
  • 15. 15 Most Money Gets Low ScoresAmerica’s test scores are unfortunately beaten by the children of most industrialized countries (another study puts us just above South Africa)
  • 16. 16From Seth Godin’s The Big Moo• Imagine a potbellied office worker annoyed to be outside his office as they won’t permit smoking inside. He’s puffing as hard as he can, anxious about getting back to work because he’s focused on solving the “urgent” problems of his life. He’s not focused one bit on losing weight, giving up cigarettes, or understanding how tense he is – he figures that there will be time for that later. The time to panic, however, is long before he’s in the hospital having bypass surgery (but, he’s likely to only then finally make the time to worry about it).
  • 17. 17 The Time To PANIC Is Past!• A 1990 National Center on Education & Economy study stated “We found little evidence of a far- reaching desire for a more educated workforce” Few people are panicking, but they should be! – 30% of college freshmen are put into remedial courses for material they should have learned in high school (Achieve, The Expectations Gap: A 50-State Review of High School Graduation Requirements, 2004). – Poor eating, smoking, & academic habits by 2nd grade• 50 million play in Internet-based games looking for a place where everyone starts off the same – Education was supposed to provide this opportunity
  • 18. 18 What Is Most Important?• The first promise we give our children is a free education (1/3 of public workers are in education) – “Some of the staunchest opponents of socialism have also been the most ardent supporters of free education for all – a transfer that exceeds the value of all privately held land and industrial capital.” Dr. Robert Fogel (*) – Universal education reflects agreement that it is key to highly performing adults capable of defeating barriers and higher graduation standards improve job finding (*) – Entails a learning environment for children and adults by certified teachers & curricula with standard testing – First to UNICEF’s mandate is quality education for all – Parents moving to Florida for Bright Future Grants (*)
  • 19. 19 Our Best Legacy Protection• Education is the “silver bullet” for all that ails us – Education means more money and self-determination• Student performance accountability has become the most prominent educational policy “issue” – (http://www.edweek.org/rc/issues/accountability/)• Sadly, American children can look to the two kids next to them in class and know one will likely not graduate from High School – key to a living wage – Only 4-5 in the class will likely graduate by 25 with a 2-4 year degree – key to being able to afford a home – 98% of livable jobs need a HS degree and average BS graduate earns almost $1 million more than HS grad.
  • 20. 20 Best Prosperity Predictor• Wilkinson and Pickett establish in The Spirit Level how one factor most determines society’s health – Not resources, diet, government style, national wealth• America, the richest country on earth, has shorter life spans, more mental illness, more obesity, and more of its citizens in prison than any rich country• As prosperity due to reduced income disparity – Currently greater than any other country (or other time); Greenspan: “Very disturbing trend” due to education – The average US CEO was paid 36x the average worker in 1976, 131x in 1993, and 369x today (Ariely, 2008) – Arizona has greatest income disparity in America
  • 21. 21 Education Disparity At Core• The decline in American test scores greatest for African-American and Hispanic students – TIMSS scores for Black children on par with Thailand – Black 12th Graders on par with White 8th Graders – So, most minorities are shut out of higher paying jobs• China’s top leaders are scientists and engineers – President Hu Jintao a hydroelectric engineer, Premier Wen Jiabao a geological engineer (and predecessors Jiang Zemin and Zhu Rongji both electrical engineers) • Recently funded large tech tax breaks and science education – With only 41% of US STEM (science, tech, eng, math) students graduating within 6 years*, jobs going to Asia
  • 22. 22 Relativism Threatens Change• “I said to myself” and “it works for me” elevated to “rational” (as subjective experiences define truth) – This is very different from Pluralism (being only about tolerance for different views) and the Scientific Method – In a pluralistic society everyone has the fundamental right to be wrong, while in a relativistic society we all have the completely goofy right to be right, all the time!• And so, “best practices” today only best hunches – Instead, we need to hire teachers with best credentials (and pay them accordingly), use only research-based programs, and stick but to experience-based practices – And, schools must be more inclusive (student / parent)
  • 23. 23 And Lack of Professionalism• Dr. Doug Lemov, (author of Teach Like a Champ) – Sign of competency: “Champion Teachers get 100% of their students to do what they want 100% of the time”• Change requires top-down ability to trust – Needed for any organization to engage in global trade • Only formally a part of society for a few hundred years – Formal structures: professional standards, rule of law, as well as liberal democracy with universal suffrage – Informal structures: Ellison’s Spiritual Well-being, Owen’s Openness, and Shaw’s Trust assessments – Genuine people, reliable, able to self-disclose, easily reciprocate, with a code of conduct (or, “professional”)
  • 24. 24 As Teachers Are Not Prepared• Critics of teaching “best practices” say schools fail to adequate impart public speaking skills, group leadership, proper use of student test data, or how to handle (and model dealing with) bullies – Alas, these recognized “best practices” are not taught• “It’s complicated in the U.S. because we don’t as a country agree teachers need much preparation,” Dr. Suzanne Wilson, Chair of Teacher Education at Michigan State University (API: May 26, 2010) – Education Secretary Arne Duncan, “Despite evidence teachers are not properly prepared, colleges resistant to change and states reluctant to use proven test data”
  • 25. 25 How To Pay The Nation’s DebtImagine if the salaries and retirement savings of allgovernment employers was cut by 20%, new laborlaws allowed the dismissal of any employee, andtaxes and fuel prices were both increased 30%... inbut just one day. At the same time, the pervasivecorruption of high-level politicians extending wellinto the private sector in order to bleed the countrydry became undeniable (where 0.3% of GNP wentto bribes). This is Greece in 2010; will it surpriseyou when it’s reported here? Illinois passed a 66%income tax increase in January 2011 to help paybut half of the expected $16 Billion budget shortfall.
  • 26. 26 Why I Built This Presentation?My education/life was in a world where egos andcodependent relationships often create personalgoals that undermine best practices. Alas, everyschool is perfectly designed to achieve exactlythe results it gets (with only their builders able tomake changes). Except, as schools struggle todefend (or cover up) their elaborate techniquesand try to explain why morale is low, they do littlemore than blame the victims of those systems. It’s time to stop blaming the children when there are “professional” adults in the room
  • 27. 27 First Step Always Vocabulary• When Confucius decided to work for the local reining prince, he considered the first task to be “defining the names of things” since when words do not correspond to facts, improvements and justice not possible and people only confused – Likewise, when God gave Adam the task of managing the world, the first task was also to name everything – Vision more key than ideas (30% are in creative class) – Disraeli, “Key to success is consistency of purpose.”• Such legitimacy starts with valid perspective – Do children have an educational “issue” or “injury?” Do teachers use an Entity or Systems Theory viewpoint?
  • 28. 28Who’s To Blame? The college professor said: “Such rawness in a student is a shame, lack of preparation in High School is to blame.”
  • 29. 29 Who’s To Blame?Said the HighSchool teacher:“Good heavens!That boy’s a fool.The fault ofcourse is with theMiddle School.”
  • 30. 30 Who’s To Blame?The MiddleSchool teachersaid:“From stupiditymay I be spared.They sent him inso unprepared.”
  • 31. 31Who’s To Blame? The primary teacher huffed: “Kindergarten blockheads all. They call that preparation – why, it’s worse than none at all.”
  • 32. 32Who’s To Blame? The Kindergarten teacher said: “Such lack of training never did I see. What kind of woman must that mother be.”
  • 33. 33 Who’s To Blame?The mother said:“Poor helplesschild. He’s not toblame. His father’speople were all thesame.”
  • 34. 34 Who’s To Blame? Said the father at the end of the line: Americans so love to blame, we “I doubt the rascal’s have 4% of world’s even mine.” population but 25% of prisoners. And sadly, about a fifth of the time, he’s right! (Phillipp, 1972; DNA Diagnostics Center, Texas, 1999; Popovich, 2000)http://www5.esc13.net/sirc/docs/conferences/05_2005/Motivation%20Speech%20handout.ppt
  • 35. 35 The “Fragile” Disadvantaged (core to America’s future, whatever that may be)• Alas, conventional pedagogical wisdom holds the poor, the disadvantaged, and “culturally different” are a fragile lot; that the academic rigor by and large found only in elite or private schools would crush the lower self-esteem of such children – For example, a past Odyssey of the Mind coordinator repeatedly told me it was commonly known that ALL of the city’s “gifted” children lived in the wealthier foothills• We must “deschool” such teacher-friendly outlook – Ivan Illich said (1970) student imagination is “schooled” to accept effort in place of value (as health treatment is mistaken for care – it’s not just the thought that counts)
  • 36. 36 The “Giving Enemy” Claim• The “poor” child supposedly carries a crushingly heavy bundle of cultural and intellectual baggage – “Disadvantaged,” “socially deprivation,” absent fathers, and illegitimacy is said to cause child’s failure to learn – Every major social problem (crime, unemployment, etc) has been framed within such a victim-blaming ideology• Which are the most run down federal buildings? Prisons? No, it’s our public Elementary Schools. – Moreover, what of frightened and insensitive teachers, incompetent principals, irrelevant curriculum, insulting history books, as well as the many other ways schools fail to teach? (see Blaming the Victim by William Ryan)
  • 37. 37 In 1969, William Ryan wrote, “Despite all their fancy words, it’s still bigotry”• They boldly shout, “The neglected are not BORN inferior, circumstances have MADE them inferior.” – But, just a new and greater stigma, “They can easily get out of the cycle of neglect if only they were motivated” – They condemn the vague social pressures of the past while ignoring the victimizing social forces right now!• The formula is so smooth, it seems totally rational – First, find a social problem and identify those affected – Second, measure how they’re different from rest of us, how they’re less competent, skilled or, less “human” – Third, characterize these differences as the root cause – Finally, build a bureaucracy to help “fix” the victim
  • 38. 38When “Helping” Makes It Worse• In 1951, Powers & Witmer studied 630 delinquent boys, half were counseled and sent to YMCA and half were sent home. After 5 years, the therapists felt most of the boys had “benefited substantially.” All the so "schooled" boys agreed saying therapy gave them insights and the YMCA kept them out of trouble. But, a 1981 study showed the “helped” boys committed twice the felonies and also doubly affected by alcoholism, depression, mental illness, and lower job satisfaction than those simply left alone (The Crying Game by Dr. Richard Bolstad).
  • 39. 39 “Help” Making It Worse (Cont)• Violence in American streets can similarly only be truly addressed when gangs are seen as an asymptotic key to the solution instead of only as a primary entity root cause (as gangs are but a natural result of the relational disorganization of disfranchised Irish, Italian, Black, Hispanic, etc).• While Chicago’s Vice Lords opened schools and businesses and the Black Panthers gave kids breakfast, the “War on Gangs” only caused an end to reforms with more ghettos and violence (it’s LA’s FACES that’s uniting the Red & Blue).
  • 40. 40 “Help” Making It Worse (Cont)• While it’s popular to think guns are responsible for violence in Africa, political scientists agree it’s instead the well-intentioned actions of American relief efforts that corrupt governments by “giving them fish instead of teaching them how to fish.” (State-Building: Governance Fukuyama 2004; Dead Aid, Mayo 2009) – Then, after failing, they cry, “I just need more money!”• William Ryan suggested school vouchers (AZ #1 in Charter School Law), tying teachers’ salaries to standardized test scores (AZ had country’s 1st TAP pilot program), shrinking bureaucracy (half the cost of education), and jobs (not job training)
  • 41. 41 Unfair Advantage Of Wealth• Marilyn Adams tells in “Beginning to Read” how Middle Class children get 3000 hours of reading books, rhymes, and other pre-literacy training while poor kids get only 200 hours of such stuff – Further, that middle class parents talk twice as often as well as four times more positively to their children• She suggests that what happens during the first five years is the best predictor of future reading – Yet, 80% of U.S. millionaires self-made, half with no inheritance, and sadly 4 out of 5 of their children fail (*)• What if we capture and deliver best teaching?
  • 42. 42We know our children are not the problem asIn Marva Collins South Chicago school’s first year,all 13 learning disabled, low IQ children (labeled as “unable to read”) tested as advancing five years Illiterate Fourth graders taught by Ron Clark in Harlem read at above grade in but three monthsBronx school children taught by David MacEnultywon the NYC Chess Tournament (as well as 200trophies in the top 5 in the nation) EVERY YEARHigh School students taught by Jaime Escalante in East LA were more likely to graduate from Ivy League colleges than kids from Hollywood High
  • 43. 43 “Teachers are not equipped with the skills and knowledge they need to excel.” - Louis V. Gerstner Jr. (was CEO of IBM until 2002 and is now Chairman of the Carlyle Group)“People still believe in the tradition of dedicated,self-sacrificing school teachers. They don’t know how the profession has changed What was once the poor man’s burden has become everyone’s.” - Marva Collins (Marva Collins Story) “With this new generation and these new teachers, I don’t think [schools] are going to change too much.” - Dr. Jaime Escalante (America’s Greatest Teacher, Stand and Deliver)
  • 44. 44 “Schools bring little influence to bear on a child’s achievement that is independent of his background and general social context; this very lack of an independent effect means that the inequalities imposed on children by their home,neighborhood, and peer environment are carried along to become the inequalities with which theyconfront adult life at the end of school. Equality ofeducational opportunity must imply a strong effect of schools independent of the child’s immediate environment, and that strong independent effect is not present in American schools.” - Dr. James Coleman
  • 45. 45“How many effective schools would you have to see to be persuaded of the educability of poorchildren? If your answer is more than one, then I submit that you have reasons of your own for preferring to believe that basic pupil performance derives from family background instead of school response to family background. Whether or not we will ever effectively teach the children of the poor isprobably far more a matter of politics than of social science and that is as it should be.” - Dr. Ron Edmonds
  • 46. 46 “An effective school is defined in the research as one in which equal proportions of low and middle income level children evidence high levels of mastery of the essential curriculum. In an effectiveschool, there are no differences in the proportion of students mastering the basic skills as a function of the group to which they belong.” - Dr. Larry Lezotte and Dr. Ron Edmonds “We can produce many examples of howeducational practice could look different, but we can produce few, if any, examples of teachers engaging in these practices.” - Dr. Richard F. Elmore (father of school reform)
  • 47. 47 “There are schools that have done this – but it all depends on the leader. Even a popular principal can be responsible for a failing culturewith, ‘let’s all be happy and take care of these kid’s social and emotional needs that’s the best wecan do.’ In that case, I tell them that’s hogwash and that they’re only being content to sentence these children to a life of poverty (very respectfully, of course). Alas, some are just doing whatever theycan merely to be compliant and stay out of trouble. And, we have eight schools this year that went toperforming and now are back at underperforming.” - Brian Putnam, Director AZ School Improvement
  • 48. 48 What’s The Problem?“To many neuroscientists, todays mainstreameducation system is mired firmly where medicinewas during the Middle Ages. Practices continuebased on tradition, not science, just as medievaldoctors used leeches to bleed patients withoutknowing whether it worked. Today, we know thatbloodletting actually prevented healing [just asmost modern] political philosophies and fads like‘child-based’ and ‘back-to-basics’ [foil learning].”/www.thestar.com/mobile/NEWS/article/719091 - Alanna Mitchell
  • 49. 49And, You’re A Crazy, Mean Liar!Malcolm Gladwell writes how no more than fivepercent of your choices are rational. Dr. StanleyMilgram showed two thirds of you would torture astranger to death if told to and the rest would goat least half way. Dr. Paul Ekman showed you liethree times every ten minutes. Plus, the MMPI(the grandfather of all personality tests) uses asevidence of a lying personality the failure to admitthe fear of getting caught is the only thing keepingyou from sneaking into a movie theater withoutpaying as science has long documented you allknow deep down (if honest) what thieves you are.
  • 50. 50 Do I Just Not Like People?• The only way I can like people is to assume the problem is with me – leaving me a codependent, overworked, depressed neurotic toiling to help; and two thirds of us are exactly such dissociated neurotics (half clinically) with doctor visits more often the result of neurotic stress than even colds• But, not liking people would create a persecuted personality disorder at high risk for addictions and reckless behavior as an emotional vampire; and a third of us prefer jobs but to only control others in counseling, teaching, law enforcement, religion, & management (with half clinically so disordered)
  • 51. 51Why Only Two Insane Choices?• Being raised solely on Entity Theory beliefs left us with only the options of seeing the problem in ourselves (to still “love” them) or to blame others• Failing to separate the problems from individuals, we end up only seeing children as disobedient, lazy, embarrassing, or just looking for attention• We should see “failing” kids but in environmental terms of whether the work is too hard, if they are stressed, or just in need of tutoring and support – Never praise the child, only the deed (or value choice) – Requires a more complex Systems Theory perspective
  • 52. 52 Entity Theory (or Nativism)• It is typically believed biology decides our destiny – Overall intelligence or skills seen as a fixed entity with kids always told success is due to ingrained abilities – Such teachers often say, “I could never be good at ” – Such raised children see themselves as just plain smart, dumb, good, or bad (i.e.: “I am smart at this”) – Instruction based generally on “whole” memorization• But, kids so educated lose the ability to handle simple problems after failing at any difficult ones – This is because difficult problems reinforce the belief that they’re not smart (or pretty) enough to be “good”
  • 53. 53 The Truth About Entity Theory• Neuroscientists have shown skills and personality have empirically little to do with the neurons we were born with. Teachers’ influences on growing synaptic networks are more likely to determine if a child will grow up to be a surgeon or a slacker. – With quality relationships at “windows of opportunity”• Promoting opposing belief in incremental mastery – In Hindu and Buddhist cultures, parents worry that too much praise will make kids “too big for their britches” (see http://www.parentingscience.com/effects-of-praise.html) – Chinese & Japanese mothers place stronger emphasis on hard work & cooperation than do American mothers
  • 54. Deming’s theory of management is based on a humanistic philosophy that believes allpeople are educable, that they want to do a good job, and that they deserve respect. McGregor’s Theories of Motivation X-theory Which do you use? Y-theory • People dislike work • Work is good for growth and will try to avoid it and people want to be • People prefer to be interested by their work directed and must be • Self-discipline is more forced to put out effort effective; people seek & • People are motivated desire responsibility by fear over “security” • People driven by hope with little creativity – to realise potential with except, of course, for creativity common but getting around rules! sadly much underused 54
  • 55. 55 “The Rule Of Small Numbers” (slow down for more reflective thinking)• Dr. Kahneman and Dr. Tversky showed people usually make decisions based on the smallest number of possible factors (Nobel Prize in 2002) – Are those in California or Ohio happier? Most believe (incorrectly) Californians are happier based on just the weather or the available beach because they fail to also consider crime, cost of living, and regular earth quakes.• Bigotry & relativism the result of “small numbers” – 95% decisions made in 20th of a second on single factor• Football players vary greatly in size and skills as compared with rugby or soccer players as pausing play encourages greater strategy & specialization
  • 56. 56Investors Also Often Fail – Why?(good investing doesn’t follow common sense)• OShaughnessy (“What Works on Wall Street”) says there are two basic ways to make decisions – The Clinical or Intuitive Method is based more on one’s knowledge, experiences, and common sense – The Quantitative or Actuarial Method instead based on relationships proven by large samples of data – OShaughnessy found most experienced investors (like teachers) prefer the Intuitive Method, which is usually wrong or beaten by the Actuarial Method – David Faust from The Limits of Scientific Reasoning, “Human judgment is far more limited than we think.” • Or, “gut decisions are nothing but using excrement for brains”
  • 57. 57 The Value Of Grades• In studies in the 60’s, teachers of “high-IQ AP, gifted” classes were told previously graded C and D students were A and B kids and teachers of “remedial” classes were told students that had been getting A’s and B’s were C and D students (named “Pygmalion Effect” by Harvard profs who found most teachers are but discouragers, not encouragers)• What do you think happened to the kids’ grades? A. Grades were consistent with previous year B. Grades were somewhat inverted C. Grades were completely reversed
  • 58. It Seems Just Common Sense 58 (that learning is based more on teacher’s ability to teach than student’s ability to learn called “Sweeney’s Miracle”)• I’ve mentioned this study to hundreds of people and most everyone has correctly predicted how the study found the grades were fully reversed – It seems but common sense grades do not in any way reflect the student’s motivation and intelligence, but only the teacher’s favoritism and bias (teacher’s pets) – Any child enrolled in lower-level courses are more likely to earn a “D” or “F” (Cooney, 2002) and “slower” kids’ grades improve when moved to tougher classes (Dept of Ed, 2000: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/2000029.pdf) – But, you can’t manage what you don’t measure and, grades, in fact, profitably assess teacher achievements
  • 59. 59 Intelligence Lost• Harvard’s Dr. Howard Garner (author of Multiple Intelligences) showed that almost all children scored genius level IQ’s up to the age of four, down to 10% as teenagers and 2% when >20.• Where did their intelligence go? Discouragement.• Stanford’s Business School Dr. Michael Ray calls it the “Voice of Judgment” in his creativity courses• Harvard’s Dr. Livingston and Dr. Rosenthal have shown there are far more Negative Pygmalions than positive ones (only creating “Groupthink”)
  • 60. 60Nurture Advantage Over Nature• Elephants, Dolphins, and even Neanderthal man with larger brains exhibit greater innate thinking – Neanderthals failed to advance their technologies for over a hundred thousand years (just like any animal) (See Dr. Hauser’s Wild Minds: What Animals Really Think)• Extended childhood (as human brains continue maturing until age 25) fosters reflective thinking – We are so environmentally affected that I’ve worked with a dozen blind programmers but not one deaf one (verbal language is so key to cognitive development)• Antecedent to one’s normative moral/emotional identity & artistic expression of resulting values
  • 61. 61 What It Means To Be Human (to exceed both nature and nurture)• It’s not about having opposable thumbs, making tools, raw intelligence, language, or being able to recognize one is physically different from others• It’s about seeing differences in moral choices – recognizing who we are (different from others) based solely on our personal values; knowing what we stand for, what the Greeks called “ethos”• Which would you rather be a bear or a wolf? The bear is an introvert; the wolf an extrovert. It’s not a personality for us (the bear cannot be a wolf; the wolf cannot be a bear), but a value difference.
  • 62. 62 Values & Beliefs Can Change(see 50 ways to untwist thinking by Dr. Burns)• It may be hard to change one’s emotional make- up (how quickly & strongly one gets emotional) – Can be made worse, as in a post-traumatic disorder• But, Myers-Briggs results will change in 6 months• It’s not that hard to change one’s values, attitudes, beliefs, or thinking patterns (called “growing up”) – It is possible to change addictive behavior, if not the temptations (changes can be coerced by drug courts) – Feelings of triumph (fiero), from beating an opponent or from just stretching oneself to known limits and beyond (such as an “epiphany”), core to changing values/beliefs
  • 63. 63 Teaching Is Not Informing! (goal should never be changing opinions but behaviors)• Galileo proved to his students at the University of Pisa that Aristotle was wrong to say heavier items of similar size would fall faster; unfortunately, the University continued teaching Aristotle’s reality >> He had “informed” but not “taught” <<• Teaching (or sales, or evangelism) isn’t based on superior speaking, debating, or presenting skills• It’s about skills for encouraging an ethical identity – Thus, Socrates (and Christ) used questions to so lead – Marva Collins starts with Shakespeare on conscience, Aristotle on virtues, and Emerson on self-reliance (*)
  • 64. 64 Entity Theory in Government• Communism is firmly based on Entity Theory with the idea that if the “evil” systems (of capitalism and religion) are removed, a “Socialist Man” will emerge of perfect character; but, hasn’t happened – Steven Levitt and others have well shown lone people are very poor at assessing risk and avoiding temptation – And, as in communist countries, American teachers rarely get paid for performance (only years in service)• Democracy is instead based on the idea integrity is simply about building quality relationships with accountability using good checks and balances
  • 65. 65 Simplified Systems Theory (enthusiasm and apathy are both infectious)• Aristotle summed up in his Metaphysics lectures, “The whole can be more that the sum of it parts”• But, how can 1+2+3 possibly be different than 6? – Entity theory suggests it would be by a special 1 being equal to more than 1 (where other 1’s don’t count)• Systems Theory focuses on the “mortar” impact – Bricks are part of system (a house) just as the building is part of system (the neighborhood, weather, etc) and the lifespan of the bricks will depend on how used (or, parts act differently when used than when isolated) – All sciences now based on systems thinking (history, programming, accounting, architecture, social work )
  • 66. 66 Process improvements generating exponentialparadigm shifts cause informational singularities Such as the Agricultural Revolution for theHunter-Gatherer, then the Industrial Revolution,and finally last century’s Information Revolution. But, what might come next?Many believe it will be a fifth wave revolution ofrelational sciences as a development basis for a “new” economy based on social capital
  • 67. 67“Might Is Right” Not Human Creed• Science Age: free and compulsory education – Rising above technology created class distinction• Industrial Age: welfare (at least for our citizens) – Conquering imperialism and U.S. worker exploitation• Information Age: now universal health care – Alcoholism, child abuse, new occupational ailments• Next Symbiotic Age: with coming financial care – Overcoming collapsing social norms and hierarchies, greater displaced workers with 20% without education necessary to find any place in the modern workforce, viral stuff, and ever increasing wealth mal-distribution
  • 68. 68 Top Performers Can Be Made• Whether athletic or academic, from ballet to surgery, top performers nearly always end up to be made, not born; “it turns out talent has been greatly overrated” (see the Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance, 2006)• We know motivation and encouragement as well as deep practice with great feedback and master coaching can overcome anything (and yet seven of ten employees are still sadly neither motivated nor competent to perform the basics of their job) – “Bad Apples” are likewise systemically made, not born
  • 69. 69 Yet, We Use Lucky Breaks• Malcolm Gladwell details in “Outliers: the Story of Success” how only lucky breaks and arbitrary advantages are the source of most successes – Dr. Barnsley showed in the 80’s how the best hockey players are five times more likely born in January than November, baseball players are almost twice as likely born in August than July, and soccer players are most likely born in September (now January) – due to the arbitrary age cut offs done in respective kid’s leagues• Any child can excel with the encouragement and education sadly now reserved for a precious few – "There is a brilliant child locked inside every student"
  • 70. 70 Many Ways To Aid Learning• Develop good time management skills with to-do checklists, prioritizing assignments, quiet study space, designated study time, summarizing class notes, weekly cleanup, and household schedule• A 1980 study found artificial lighting increases agitated behavior, fatigue, and reduced rationality; another that natural lighting increases scores 20% – Do outside field trips and install skylights in classrooms• Dr. Guy Berard in “Hearing Equals Behavior” details how just ten days of auditory integration training increased child maturity and IQs by 15%
  • 71. Schools Typically Invalidate Kids 71 (any teacher who believes in “unteachable” students shouldmorally be forced to leave the classroom, but this is not done)• An abusively invalidating environment is defined as one where a person’s feelings are discounted as either inaccurate or inappropriate with regular comments like “life would be easier if you were more motivated,” “worked harder,” and “had more character,” plus “oh, you should never get angry”• Organizational behavior and culture are based on the same factors that set the stage for individual personalities; thus, schools exhibit “human-like” deviant and irrational behaviors that can benefit from psychotherapy – help no school ever gets
  • 72. 72 So, Problem Is Self-Sustaining• Adults with more experience and knowledge will always have a more “structured” worldview than children; this disparity naturally produces chronic misunderstandings where children are then seen as “difficult” and adults are seen as “out of touch”• The resulting school (not individual) Borderline pathology (due to Entity Theory internal conflicts and primitive defenses) becomes a key hindrance• But, Self-Psychology integrates Systems Theory with Freudian psychoanalysis to make available an empathetic unifying framework of subjectivity See “Thinking and Working Contextually” by Stolorow, Orange, and Atwood
  • 73. 73Need Empathetic Extrospection (kids need it to be safe to discuss and resolve problems)• “One size fits all” psychology urging introspection has only cultivated a narcissistic me-generation – Since Lacsh’s book, “Culture of Narcissism,” there are more self-help books for the lonely self-absorbed than even diet books, it’s such a part of our national identity• Kohut’s real empathy provides for more cohesion – Empathy is a slow investigative attempt to objectively “taste” anothers experience; shouldn’t be confused with being kind, just a “near-experience” observation• “Self” Psychology works to get kids more involved in their own growth and feeling less manipulated – All kids have had bad experiences with authorities/rules
  • 74. 74 Fighting Bounded Rationality• Herbert Simon showed we are, at best, but partly rational and so rely on rules of thumb and favor ease of effort and simpler (satisfactory) solutions rather than optimal ones (fighting best practices)• Moreover, schools are pools of loosely coupled strategies/structures naturally resistant to change• Instead of “rationalist” management focus on centrally determined standards for conformance (or, benevolent dictatorship), we must emphasize relationships, professional education with market incentives, and a consensus on goals and values
  • 75. 75 Who is to blame? We all are! Principals, teachers, & parents must eachpromise students, “I will never let you fail.”
  • 76. 76Sign a Student Learning Contract• Principal, teachers, parents, students should sign a Student Learning Contract agreeing academic success comes from a cooperative environment• Students agree to the responsibilities of – Being respectful to other classmates – participating in discussions while giving everyone a chance to speak – Putting forth their best effort into all schoolwork without being defensive if their work (or any idea) is criticized – Obeying all of all the rules, both at home and at school – Studying at least 15 minutes a day for every subject – Always showing up to school on time and being well prepared with all homework and needed material
  • 77. 77Sign a Student Learning Contract• Teachers agree to the responsibilities of – Providing a safe and comfortable environment • Communicating and consistently enforcing rules for conduct – Providing students with clear and concise expectations (e.g.: providing a syllabus written at the child’s level) – Providing ample time for their students to receive any necessary extra help, say, after or before school – Identifying essential versus nonessential learning goals, “mass customizing” accordingly their instructional units – Coordinating homework with other school faculty – Always showing up on time and being prepared – Working to make learning an enjoyable experience
  • 78. 78Sign a Student Learning Contract• Principals agree to the responsibilities of – Knowing the most current theories and practices while only employing research-based instructional strategies – Involving all participants (i.e.: counselors) in the design and implementation of important decisions and policies – Being situationally aware (able to predict what can go wrong day to day with sensitivity to operational details) – Being an effective change agent comfortable with actively challenging the status quo and systematically considering new and better ways of doing things – Never focusing on the wrong school and classroom practices or miscalculate the order of changes required
  • 79. 79Sign a Student Learning Contract• Parents agree to the responsibilities of – Spending 15 minutes per day reading to their children • Or, 15 minutes per day listening to their children read aloud – Monitoring their children’s schoolwork and activities – Maintaining a clear discipline policy with their child – Ensuring a good night’s sleep (wake up without alarm) – Attending all parent-teacher conferences – Volunteering time for at least two school activities every year (PTA, field trip, science fair, club, etc.) – Supporting (as well as questioning) their child’s school – Always showing up on time and being ready to work (and steadfastly ensuring their children do the same)
  • 80. 80 Engaging Families Is Critical• Not something staff work at when they have time – Reply to “Who runs the school?” must be “We all do.”• Should include academically oriented activities – Such as workshops for improving parenting skills and training to understanding standards and assessments• Start with school-family relational assessment – Parents (like kids) want to feel respected by the staff – Principal Dr. Steve Constantino would regularly meet with all parents every Thursday night at local Dennys• Let students lead open houses and conferences – And, re-title “Curriculum Night” to “Family Fun Night”
  • 81. 81 Top Parental Responsibilities• Daily Attendance, especially in Elementary School• Ensuring a good night’s sleep (10 hours for a child and 8 hours for a teenager) increases I.Q. by 20% – Missing but four hours of sleep twice a week (say, on weekends) leaves any person always as if legally drunk• A 1985 National Commission on Reading report declared reading aloud is the greatest contribution a parent can make (shown true even for teenager) – Stories from Pied Piper to David and Goliath spurs the imagination, familiarizes a code of conduct, & develops a sense of meaning with both cultural and moral literacy • Milton’s Paradise Lost, Marshall’s Miss Nelson, Eph 4:25
  • 82. 82Today, Gender and Race Matter (Schools in Tucson Unified School District)• Erickson Boys 28% less likely to pass AIMS• Their African Americans, 31% less likely to pass• Gale Boys 8% less likely to pass AIMS• Their African Americans, 13% less likely to pass• Bloom Boys 12% less likely to pass AIMS• Their African Americans, 25% less likely to pass• ‘02 AZ graduation rates: 60% for minorities and 80% for whites; 67% for boys and 75% for girls• In 2000, only six Arizona Latinos/as took the Advanced Placement Computer Science Exam
  • 83. 83As Boys Are Less Likely to Pass
  • 84. 84And, Economics and Race Rule
  • 85. 85Teacher Gender/Ethnicity Matters• Dee, Schoenwald, Letourneau, & Halliday-Boykins showed ethnicity and gender dissimilarity between teacher and child far increased chances for failure – Poor blacks more likely to be found “mentally retarded” – Boys w/good skills 4X than girls found to have problems – Teachers have far higher expectations of students that look like them, or even those just with similar last names• Ewing and Taylor (2006) found that teacher-child conflicts more likely for boys and good predictor of violent aggression as well as academic problems• Sciutto, Nolfi, Bluhm (2006) also showed teachers are far more likely to refer boys for ADHD testing
  • 86. NEA President, “A boy might 86 never have a ‘teacher like me’”• Alas, few minorities or men are teaching in K-12 – USAToday says 17% of America’s schools have not a single minority or male teacher, 38% with no minorities – Teachers: 75%-90% white women; Students: 30% – Teacher-child ethnicity explain 27% of grade disparity *• Dr. Thomas Dee, “Girls have better educational outcomes when taught by women and boys are better off when taught by men.” (12+% gap, 2006) – “Boys are 2-3 times more likely than girls to be seen as disruptive, inattentive, and unlikely to do homework.” – Hilary Clinton has been a long time supporter of single- sex education (like her alma mator, Wellesley College)
  • 87. 87 Plus, Lack of Cultural Literacy• New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy says, “No one in the English-speaking world can be considered literate without a basic knowledge of the Bible.” – To understand a “David and Goliath” battle, Solomon- like wisdom, Ronald Reagan’s “Shining City on a Hill” reference, Martin Luther King’s “Mountain top” speech• 81 percent of English teachers in Oregon agreed that the Bible ought to be taught in their schools * – Milton’s Paradise Lost, Camus’ The Fall, Leon Uris’ Exodus, Hemingway’s Old Man And The Sea confusing without a Biblical background to Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, the Last Supper, and crucifixion references
  • 88. 88 Where Should We Start?• We are LAST for 3 R’s but FIRST in self-esteem• The greatest correlation is with poor teaching – Student scores vary more than 20% by changing teachers –> 2-6 times as by grade, school, or district – Teachers are academic underachievers, yet paid more than accountants/engineers (CNN: “Best paying job”) – Children don’t fail due to home conditions or aptitude, but primarily being discouraged by their teachers to the point of giving up (teachers matter most is NEA policy)• It stems from denying quality is measurable, failing to see the problem lies inside the room, and dividing the world into “us” and “them”
  • 89. 89 “Cookie Cutter” Doesn’t Work• Education must be tuned: mass-customization – Dr. Carl Jung observed we are all kinesthetic auditory, visual, etc – but, that we tend to use one sense more • “I can’t put my finger on it; so, let’s explore it deeper!” • “I hear you loud and clear; that sounds like a great idea!” • “I can’t see what your saying, show me how you did it!” (me) • “This plan smells” or “This leaves me with an awful taste” – Dr. Gardner detailed 8 intelligences (and others 1,400) • Every person is both somehow above and below average • All programs developed 1st for slow learners as we are all LD• And, children learn faster when NOT sitting quietly – But, few teachers even use music in curriculum
  • 90. 90So, Teachers Must Be Scientists• Just using straight “Best Practices” isn’t enough; there has to be a way to understand and track effective techniques with each individual/class – Thus, good teachers are good at math / statistics as a basis for successfully employing a scientific approach• It can’t just be a lesson plan; rather a dynamic, nonlinear, and creative teaching process with a committed emphasis to testing and confirmation – Optimizing students’ chances of learning rather than forcing students to learn in a way that optimizes the teachers’ chances of completing their lesson plans – Such outcome-based discovery starts by asking “Why”
  • 91. 91 Why Can’t Johnny Read?(taken from http://www.marvacollins.com/comments.html)The teacher of a failing boy was asked (true story), 1. How many ways are there to spell the sound “a” [the long vowel sound]? “Four,” responded the teacher. there are 11 ways to spell the “long-a” sound 2. What are the classifications of the different “ch” sounds? “I have no idea,” answered the teacher. “ch” is the French (as in champagne), the English (as in church), and the Italian (as in ache) 3. What is the significance of the letters “e,” “i,” and “y?” The teacher had no knowledge of the answer. the letters “e”, “i” and “y” are vowel signalsHow can kids learn what teachers don’t know?
  • 92. Few Teachers Are Terminated 92 For Poor Performance• When teachers are fired, it is usually for gross misconduct and not for inadequate instruction• Besides, the process can take years, it is costly, as well as personally devastating for all involved – In 1994, NY “Blueprint for the Professionalization of Teaching” showed it takes an average of 455 days and $177,000 to fire a teacher ($317,000 with appeal)• Nothing angers parents and taxpayers more than unfit teachers remaining in the classroom – How much do we need to pay before it is fair to expect competent teachers in every classroom?
  • 93. 93Who’s Responsible For Change?• Quality theory is based on the simple, self-evident premise that every system is perfectly designed to deliver exactly the results it currently produces – Deming insisted the system (districts, principals, and teachers) is to blame for 94% of all scholastic problems• “Excelling” principals make a 20% improvement – Teachers are discouraged into giving up by principals who often use inane review systems to promote friends• The principal is the pivotal leader working to guide and support dedicated teachers to “informed professional judgment” (Barber)
  • 94. 94 How To Get Better Teachers(Performance accountability and merit pay)• Today, ability is not tracked and has no bearing on assignments, curriculum influence, paycheck – Why should anyone want to join a school that does not base responsibilities and rewards on the value added (like teacher efforts and long-term student progress)?• Milken Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) – Professional growth based on evaluated teaching – Multiple career paths (Associate, Mentor, and Master) – Market-driven compensation (e.g.: more for math, etc.) – Nine states (over 30% of students) had TAP initiatives: Arizona (forgotten), South Carolina, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia
  • 95. 95 TAP Pay And Quality Focus• Iowa was 1st state to adopt TAP-like pay initiatives – Ironically, Iowa was also first to adopt teacher salary schedules based solely on district longevity (in 1930’s). – Today, leaving a school district means pay gets halved• Education Week’s Quality Counts rates Arizona a grade of D and Fordham Foundation grades AZ a C-minus for our efforts to improve teacher quality – Carpenter surveyed 361 U.S. school reform proposals from 1987 to 1997 and only 3 were on teacher quality – “Arizona still has no cohesive policy or requirements for professional development at the state level.” – page 5 AZ Governor’s Committee for Teacher Quality, 2007
  • 96. 96 “Teaching At Risk” (by The Teaching Commission)• “Little advancement potential, minimal possibilities for promotion, and few financial rewards for individual contributions to organizational success” – For “almost nothing to attract America’s best and brightest into the classroom and keep them there”• The report calls state leaders to (sadly ignored) – Give more hiring and firing responsibility to schools – Encourage local innovation in teacher compensation – Resist pressures for across the board pay increases• Honor Roll mark of distinction to the Teacher Advancement Program for best track record – 2nd place for Minnesota’s TAP-like pay system
  • 97. 97 1999 National Education Summit Called For Pay-For-Performance• The Colonial School District in PA began paying individual bonuses based on test scores in 2000• Florida started program in 2001 that included – Market-driven compensation, performance-based accountability, multiple career paths with multiple entry paths and support and mentoring for new teachers, as well as targeted ongoing professional development• In 2005, AZ SB 1074 required evaluations of 25% of districts for performance-based compensation systems with the final report being due June 2010 – But alas, I can’t find this report anywhere in the media• 10 yrs after summit, Pres. Obama calls for TAP
  • 98. 98 “Good Teacher” Predictors• Advanced knowledge of the subject matter, especially for math, computers, and science• Coursework and certification in subject area• Prestige of degree institution and advanced degrees, especially for secondary schools• High literacy and verbal test scores as well as previous history of academic excellence• Pedagogical coursework, but ONLY when coupled with advanced content knowledge• High scores on licensure and aptitude exams• NOT National Teachers Exam or experience!
  • 99. 99Why Doesn’t Experience Help?• Research shows few teachers improve after but a few years of teaching – unlike teachers in other countries where they get targeted professional training based on relevant classroom experiences• In the same way we teach doctors and nurses to do the same things in the same way (deliver a baby, suture a wound, and give a shot, say), we need to teach teachers educational best practices• The problem is U.S. teachers aren’t taught basic educational theories or classroom management – For some example videos, look <here> and <here>
  • 100. 100 How to Evaluate A Teacher• Increases in student standardized test scores – Including decreases in gender and ethnic variances – With some value also placed on following two years• Annual knowledge exams with more $ for math, computer, & special ed (skills – not coursework)• Classroom observation by independent experts• 360 degree performance evaluations by other teachers, students, parents, and principal• With bonuses for mentoring and special projects• Rewards should not be restricted to pay alone – Also include increased professional responsibility, tuition assistance, and recognition by state government
  • 101. 101Effective School Characteristics• Strong instructional leadership from the principal• Teachers that can well convey high expectations• Pervasive and well understood instructional focus• A safe climate conducive to teaching and learning• Use of measures of pupil achievement as the core basis for evaluation of educational programs• Well versed and practiced in quality theory / tools• Uses most appropriate quality tools and models for teaching and management – using only a few• Practice only makes permanent – change slowly
  • 102. 102The Successful Professional is• Motivated, strong work ethic, feels accountable• Creative, open minded, with “street smarts”• Able to shift ecology and policies by being flexible• Open to peer supervision: feedback and forward• Likely to volunteer to be trained, esp. “advanced”• Apt to have a background in child development• Able to take the quick “lead” in decision making• Apt to keep score and prefer pleasing results (like standardized test scores) instead of simply vague promises from but pleasing (undemanding) efforts
  • 103. The role of leadership is to optimize the system . . 103 . Aim of the Organization Goals & Measures Failing State Passing State Desired State
  • 104. 104 Leadership Evaluation (Baldrige Award)In the leadership category, staff members areasked to rate a series of statements to examinehow the principal and staff leaders set directionfor the school, identify and sustain a set of values,convey performance expectations, and maintain afocus on student learning, such as “To whatdegree does the principal and staff leadershiprespond to the needs of all stakeholders of theschool, maintain a safe and orderly climateconducive to learning, and use data to assessboth group and individual performance of staff?”
  • 105. BQSA Action Plan Indicators Best 105 3 Goal 2.5 2 s co r e 1.5 1 2001 0.5 0 2002 Cat 1 Cat 2 Cat 3 Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 6 #3 #19 #24 #28 #37 #42 statement #3. During the past two years, I have accepted a formal leadership role to help establish short and long range targets for our school.19. I use strategic student performance data to identify areas such as staff, curriculum materials and staff training to which resources should be reallocated.24. I collect data to determine satisfaction of other staff to whom we send our students.28. I Look for sources of appropriate comparative information and data from outside of schools as well as from within the academic community.37. I track the degree to which our safe and healthful work environment goals are achieved.42. I formally monitor the degree to which new curriculum is implemented in our school.
  • 106. 106Alas, Most Efforts Are Thwarted• Winning AZ TAP program shelved and forgotten – A $1,000, in fact, is paid to teachers whose school fails• Prop 301 monies for TAP-like performance based compensation used for only flat salary increases – Superintendent Keegan said pay only on group (rather than individual) performance was “inconsistent with the intent of this provision,” but legislators couldn’t agree on any formal oversight procedures, so they set none. – Arizona ignored Governor Hull’s Education Task Force advice on moving away from a uniform salary schedule with pay bonuses based on professional development, student progress, parent satisfaction, and achievement
  • 107. 107 Arizona Prop 301 Flattened• Voters understood it would mean more money for classrooms, better pay for teachers, more control at the local level, as well as more info for parents• Centerpiece is the Classroom Site Fund, or CSF ($33.8 million in 2004-05), as the money was to go directly to the classroom (none was authorized for admin expenses or to supplant existing funds) – 20% (or about $1250) for flat teacher pay increases – 40% (or about $2500) for performance-based pay increases for teachers, but used only for flat team pay – 40% (or about $2500) for site-chosen classroom efforts, but most all schools use just for more flat pay increases
  • 108. 108 AZ AIMS Is 46th Easiest Exam• 77% of Arizona 4th graders achieved proficiency on the state reading test but only 23% passed the national NAEP reading exam• This 54-percentage-point disparity means Arizona ranks 46th among the 50 states on this measure• The AIMS test has been greatly simplified since 90% of students failed the original exam – In 2003, it took a score of 73 percent or greater on the AIMS Reading test to pass, but only 59 percent in 2005
  • 109. 109 Escaping Public Education• CBS 60 Minutes covered a girl (Erica) in 1980 that was labeled by Chicago public school “experts” as “borderline retarded, learning disabled, and unable to ever learn to read or write.”• They followed up in 1996 after she had left public education for a charter school and found she had just graduated from U of Virginia, Cum Laude• Chubb & Moe argue government financed schools are by their nature bureaucratic and ineffective – For example, I was told I’d be lucky to end up a ditch digger but graduated from a top engineering school
  • 110. Chicago Mayor Calls Charter 110 Schools “Only Solution Left”• Chicago closes 60 low-performing schools and opens 100 new ones: a third will be charters and a third will be operated by independent agencies• New York City opens 200 new charter schools• Philadelphia has authorized 52 charter schools and has contracted with six for-profit as well as nonprofit organizations to run 45 other schools• 27 Milwaukee charters, 15 with district employees• Alas, the only place where Arizona gets an A for education is for it’s excellent Charter School Law – NCLB funds semi-virtual charters in public schools
  • 111. 111 Charters Do More• Only 3 of 78 ‘06 TUSD Elem Schools are Excelling• There are more excelling Charters (w/ less money) – Academy of Tucson, AmeriSchools, BASIS K-12 School, Daisy Education Sonoran Science K-12 Academy, Hermosa Montessori Elementary, Khalsa Elementary Family, and Lifelong Learning Academy – No alternative schools (Old Pueblo Childrens Acad.) serving “at-risk” students are excelling in Tucson• 5,200 TUSD students leaving over a two year period for charters have cost TUSD $27 million – As little can be done to improve poor schools (report)
  • 112. 112 With Less• In 2008, Chicago said $11,300 was insufficient to educate a child while Collins spent $5,500 & Basis (Newsweek’s #1 H.S.) spends just a little bit more• Public schools under report spending (leaving out new building costs, health and retirement benefits, debt interest payments) by 23% in Chicago, 44% in D.C., and 90% in LA – resulting in, on average, public schools outspending privates by 93% (*)• Basis claims the difference is not hiring teachers (and 4 out of 5 of their instructors are not certified) – Others: ability to fire bad teachers or federal regulations
  • 113. 113 As Accountability Is Better• Parents like smaller schools with better attitudes (wanting to be there), discipline, and test scores – Leaving poorly communicating public school teachers who provide no or little vocational or “life” lessons – Running away from unsafe and bulling cultures, and teachers not consistent, challenging, or inclusive• 2005 report says TUSD needs better customer problem resolution, marketing, curriculum, and classroom flexibility (with, that is, specializations) – Legislators recognize schools must be autonomous to be effective; so, charter schools can request waivers from govt. regulations that interfere with their vision
  • 114. 114 Reading First Scandal Scandal(Example of our U.S. Ed Leadership Failure)• Direct Instruction (DI), Success for All, Reading Mastery, & Open Court have the most supporting data but received only 3% of Reading First funding (mostly going to unproven whole-word programs) – Sadly, most state use simple “one size fits all” programs• OiG audit used only to attack Bush Admin (w/ little concern for American’s children) when it was the states doing the excluding and focused on DI’s connection to Bush Admin when DI was blocked• Is there any hope for a real public education when politics comes before our children?!?
  • 115. 115 What Really Works?• What Works Clearinghouse recently concluded few comprehensive or supplemental programs have any proof (i.e.: using randomized trials or a comparison group) that they work, except for• Reading Recovery is a short-term intervention (3 to 5 months) one-to-one tutoring, best if available to all students as a supplement to best practices – Fast Forward, Instructional Conversations & Literature Logs, Reading Mastery, Early Intervention in Reading, SpellRead, Ladders to Literacy, Reading Recovery, Stepping Stones to Literacy, PALS, Earobics, Voyager Literacy System, The Expert Mathematician, etc.
  • 116. 116 Top Intervention Programs• The What Works Clearinghouse recommends: – Accelerated Middle Schools had positive effects on progressing in school & potentially on staying in school – Check & Connect had positive effects on staying in school and potentially on progressing in school – ALAS (Achievement for Latinos through Academic Success) had potentially positive effects on staying in school and on progressing in school – Career Academies had potentially positive effects on staying in school and on progressing in school – Real Math Building Blocks and Mathematics Pre-K – DaisyQuest and Phonological Awareness Training
  • 117. 117 Other Successful Programs• What Works Clearinghouse also recommends: – Positive Action had very positive effects on behavior and on academic achievement – Too Good for Drugs and Violence had positive effects on knowledge, attitudes, and values – Too Good for Violence had potentially positive effects on behavior and on knowledge, attitudes, and values• But, no comments for Arizona’s NREL Six-Traits! – First, Six-Traits is NOT a writing program and so it is not designed to help build student writing strategies – Plus, Kozlow and Bellamy (2004) found no evidence Six-Traits teacher training positively impacted students
  • 118. 118 TUSD Hot For “21st Century”• Program offers homework sessions, academic activities, as well as enrichment programs such as art, drama, music, and recreational activities• But, 10 years of research on these after school programs have shown performance not impacted• And, a recent IES study using an additional year of follow-up data still showed no improvement in reading test scores or grades in math, science, social studies, or English but sadly higher levels of negative behavior (suspensions, punishments, and teachers complaining about student behavior)
  • 119. 119 More Rationality Is Needed• Wilderness camps provide the worst results, but are our most well funded programs – WHY? – 7,500 wilderness camps in U.S., 4,500 freelance instructors; and, primary approach used in Tucson• Sadly, DARE (like adventure programs), while very emotionally attractive, provides little return – Perhaps, because it tried to give good choices instead of teaching children how to make good decisions (only providing fish instead of teaching how to fish corrupts)• Such failing programs focus on improving student instead of relationships (studying & social skills)
  • 120. 120 NOT Every Opinion Is Valid! Hypotheses or Check with Valid OpinionIntelligent hunch IPO Analysis and Action (Input) (Processing) (Quality Output) Textbook All questions Theory and Controlled Critical Thinking means are “valid” Experiences identifying assumptions, “Wishful Thinking” or issues, and criteria for judgment for making “Blowing Smoke” by sound conclusions “Peacock” or “Weasel” from the evidence.
  • 121. 121 Quality Tools and ThinkingKISS should mean “Keep It Simple, but Smarter”• Time Management • No excuses attitude• Brainstorming • Common Agenda• Affinity Diagramming • Systems & Systemic• Tree Diagramming • Recognize & Reward• Prioritization Matrix • Think “outside the box”• Pareto Analysis • Sharing / Commitment• Force Field Analysis • Primarily data driven• PDSA Cycle usage • Continually improving• Teams/Quality Circles • J-curve grading• Malcolm Baldrige • Keep it simple, not easy
  • 122. 122 “SMART” Goals Not Enough• Specific goals (What, When, Where, How, Why)• Measurable goals (in order to track & improve)• Action-oriented goals (defined achievable steps)• Realistic goals (in values, perceptions, finances)• Time sensitive goals (deadlines for each step) – BUT, just getting up in the morning at 7 am is “SMART”• “SMARTER” goals are much better with• Extensible goals (hard-to-do objectives)• Rewarding goals (financial, health, reputation)
  • 123. 123 The Maturity Gap• Experts and students admit the primary problem is a lack of maturity & procedures and routines – “My social life was the most important thing,” “I didn’t want to miss out on a good time,” “I procrastinated”• Students need to be able to rely on themselves and learn time-management in order to support the natural desire for learning and development• The aim of education is to mould the character of students and thus draw out the best in them• Are our children growing up or only older? But – Can we expect of students what schools can’t do?
  • 124. 124 Self-Reliance Must Come First• Marva Collins starts 2nd to 4th grade classes with – Shakespeare’s Richard the 3rd on conscience, Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Essay on “Self-Reliance,” Aristotle’s essay views on ethics and virtues, & Plato’s “Republic” – Children young as 3½ and 4 are admitted to Marva’s school (often sadly labeled “un-educatable” by public schools) and guaranteed to be reading by Christmas• Development of personality / social relationships key: Service-learning, First Step, and Praleska – Schools that use punishment as primary tool against antisocial behavior have greater rates of aggression, vandalism, truancy, and dropouts (Mayer, 1991)
  • 125. 125More Civics And Ethics Education• Fosters voter participation & free speech support*• Tucson’s “Jobs for Life” focuses on honesty and reliability as top skills required for employment – http://www.characterdevelopmentsystems.com/ – http://www.ethics.org/character/ – Also see: http://phoenix.gov/FIRE/urbansurvival.html• Alas, few teachers want to teach such life lessons considering them far too practical and unromantic – Michigan went from least to most civics classes (2005) – Current Arizona state curriculum only a smoke screen (http://www.ade.state.az.us/charactered/alignment.asp)
  • 126. 126Classroom Size NOT A Problem• Overall, the teacher to student ratio has doubled as students increased 50% while teachers tripled – U.S. has an average class size of 26, as compared to 41 in Japan, but Japan produces far higher test scores• The exception is for grades before third grade – 1999 DOE report showed reducing K-2 class size leads to higher achievement (only when teachers modify their teaching methods for smaller classes), especially for poor and minority students; so much so, the total costs are reduced – because a good education costs LESS BUT, the study also showed good teachers matter more – New studies show similar results for Pre-Kindergarten
  • 127. 127 2nd Grade Testing Crucial (and helping parents with reading issues)• 75% of poor readers in 3rd grade will continue to be poor readers in High School (Shaywitz, 1997) – Research has also shown that parents with reading difficulties predict a higher-than-normal rate of reading disabilities in their children (31-62% versus 5-10%) – The cost is much higher for helping these students later rather than earlier (thusly, testing should be done in 2nd Grade to identify students for early intervention) – Two-thirds of reading disabled children can become average or above average readers if identified early (the other one-third lost only due to failing curricula) • For example, 32 Head Start programs had the lowest scores on the Early Childhood Environmental Rating (Bryant, 1993)
  • 128. 128Better Pay Scale, Not Better Pay• A K-12 teacher can easily make $75,000 a year (and $100,000 is quite possible) in South Carolina even though it is twenty-sixth for teacher salaries because they don’t pay everyone the same – So move there if you’re a good teacher; stay home if not – Any teacher still here, no more salary complaints please• The effects of a poor K-2 education were turned around for me by my 3rd grade teacher, who was somehow sadly the school’s lowest paid teacher because she was a new, uncertified instructor – Other professions have over a 100% pay differential
  • 129. 129 Adam Smith’s “Marginal Utility”• “America believes in education: the average professor earns more money in a year than a professional athlete earns in a whole week.” – In “The Wealth of Nations,” Adam Smith asked why a diamond (athletes) could fetch so much more money in the marketplace than could water (teachers and Phds). • >40,000 new Phds each year; only a few hundred athletes – Most states devote more than half of their funding to education (66% in Arizona). Americans spent 10.7% of 1995 income on education (plus 15% to 42% on college tuition) – the only higher bills are for food, housing, and medical care. Yet, Napolitano has proposed legislation costing another $325 billion. How much is enough?
  • 130. 130 Overcome Just Getting Along• A 2006 Partnership for 21st Century Skills survey of HR said the five skills most crucial to success in the workplace are: professionalism/work ethic, teamwork, oral communications, ethics/social responsibility/honesty, reading comprehension.• Alas, far down on the list were mathematics and science while survey respondents even issued a plea for K-12 educators and colleges to get away from developing basic knowledge sets or skills• How did we build a economy with little value for English, Math, and Science in workers?
  • 131. 131 A “Real” Teacher Is• Adults often wrongly laugh at kids who complain about school not being fun as if they should face some dark reality that life is but pain until you die• A “real” teacher is a salesperson (or persuader)• A “real” teacher is an entertainer (or cheerleader)• A “real” teacher is a motivational speaker• A “real” teacher is an evangelist (of virtues)• A “real” teacher is an instigator of discontent (as real learning requires self-evaluation and conflict)• Here’s a couple of examples of “real” teachers
  • 132. 132 Dr. Jaime Escalante• East Los Angeles Garfield High School – Overcoming strong racist attitudes and math books used by Bolivian 5th graders – Built a math program that beat Hollywood High with 25% of America’s Mexican math students – For over 450 AP students a year (by 1987)• Reform required a new principal, Henry Gradillas (previous one threatened to fire Jaime for coming in early) and overcoming “supportive” counselors• Escalante’s students went on to graduate from MIT, Harvard, Yale, Berkeley, USC, and UCLA
  • 133. 133 Toughened Math Standards (using a “team” approach with students “against” tests)• First, 7-week summer sessions (every grade) to make up for poor Junior High math programs – Braving the ensuing wrath of the community/parents• Gave tutoring sessions before and after school• Coordinated efforts with counselor and principal• Increased hiring standards for new teachers• Open admission: anyone could join his classes!• This all meant some classes had 50 students – Alas, used by teachers union to get him dismissed – Then, teachers and aids that Escalante hired forced out, taking large pay cuts to go to other districts / jobs
  • 134. 134 Alas, No Room For The Best (sadly, crucial supportive principal is typically missing)• New principal that reassigned Jaime to asbestos removal said, “They’re just disgruntled former employees, such backbiting only hurts the kids.” – Other teachers routinely sent him hate mail and threats• John Perex, VP of Teachers Union, said, “Jaime didn’t get along with some of the teachers at his school. He pretty much was a loner.” (1990)• 2 years later, only 4 students passed BC Calculus – Sports fans would be outraged, for comparison, if a team showed such a change after replacing a coach• What’s up with a system that values working with others more highly than effectiveness?
  • 135. 135 When “Groupthink” Rules (or, how great teachers are routinely destroyed)• Psychologists use this 1984 movie term to depict a group incapable of critically assessing the pros and cons due to being so tightly connected they can only be in support of one side of an issue – Such groups become an overprotective clique, putting the political goal of squashing dissent above all other matters, and so the likelihood of them taking the humane, but more difficult, action greatly decreases• Reformers should take a close look at what Jaime Escalante did and at what was done to him before passing another law or new policy – LA kids today exhibit PTSD more than Baghdad kids
  • 136. 136 Then, Mobbing Follows (*)• Dr. Heinz Leymann identified main stress process – His first language was Swedish, his second German, but he labeled the menace with English word, mobbing • Dr. Selye won 1964 Nobel Prize for main workplace ill: stress – Term 1st used in Sweden, Germany, Italy, France, etc • In 1999, hotel employee awarded 100,000 francs for being humiliated in front of others; In 2000, a woman’s suicide attempt classified as work accident due to constant abuse from manager; In 2002, year in prison and 15,000 Euros fine – By 1999, “mobbing” found relevant to cases of mass shooting sprees in Canada and US; alas, Columbine found to have worst culture of abuse ever recorded as worst mobbing sadly found in universities and schools
  • 137. 137How & Why Best Teachers Lost• Instigated by one or two ringleaders who lead a ceremonial harassment (Rosen, Katz, & Morahan, 2007) using covert rumor and public discrediting hoping to cause target to doubt his or her sanity – Emotional bullies are immature and feel inadequate, and are angry, unpredictable, jealous, and amazingly manipulative people (Namie, 2000), most attracted to loosely coupled places (Davenport, 1999, like schools), who revel in the collective attack (Westhues, 2002) – Goal is to discredit, isolate, and eliminate people who are competent, loyal, and creative, who put the bully to shame; as one is vanquished another must be found
  • 138. 138Also Called “Moral Harassment”• Dr. Leymann identified five categories of mobbing – Constant criticisms and limiting communications – Isolating or ignoring and limiting social relationships – Belittling target with repeated status hurting gossip – Giving difficult assignments designed to cause failure – Giving dangerous assignments or physical threats• Affects one in three (Ipsos), often results in post traumatic stress syndrome, 15% of suicides, and can only be overcome by interventions by internal consultant making a daily affect (Hirigoyen, 2003) – “Managerial Abuse,” in contrast, hurts everyone equally
  • 139. 139 Requires Inaction Of Others• 95% of people have been involved as observers or perpetrators by denying mobbing cases (most people can recall joining in humiliating but a few) – Adults use polite cruelty, but contagious bloodlust for relentless undermining target’s self-confidence still the same; always focusing on anyone in any way different• It is in workplaces where worker’s rights are most formally protected that the complex and devious incursions on human dignity most normally occur – See At the mercy of the mob by Dr. Kenneth Westhues – Thusly, the greatest threat to the quality of education is the Teacher’s Unions very efforts to protect teachers
  • 140. 140 “Greatest Threat To Health”• Dr. Leymann opened a clinic for mobbing victims (typically misdiagnosed with paranoid delusions) – Unfortunately, Leymann is dead and his clinic gone; but, another clinic has recently started up in Germany – From Volkswagen to the State of Oregon, many have recently instituted strong anti-mobbing policies, but it’s not easy to outlaw what’s such a deeply human nature • As sexual harassment laws have made things worse – Even after regaining sanity, victims often succumb to chronic hypersensitivity to injustice unable to enjoy life as well as hypertension, stroke, and loss of income and reputation (sadly often isolated from friends and family)
  • 141. 141Collins “Mobbed” Like Escalante• Resented, criticized, and ostracized by teachers who sent her hate mail and began rumors that – She beat her students to force better work from them – She did the papers herself; “Everyone knows second graders simply can’t produce that level of writing!” – Then, principal belittled, lied, and took her class away• So, in ‘75, she started a school refusing “mobbed” federal money in order to avoid counterproductive interference, but closed in ‘08 for poor attendance• Problems occur when needs of children placed below the self-absorbed needs of any authority
  • 142. 142 Improving Classroom Learning Lower• The classic “Bell-curve” Average Higher represents the distribution and Wider Average of grades that occurs Variation and Less when a small proportion Variation of students get very low and very high marks and most students get average marks. E D C B A• The ”J-Curve” represents the theoretical distribution of grades in an education system that believes most every student is capable of doing well in school. J-Curve advocates work on changing the system (Deming’s 85/15 Rule) until all (or most) students learn at a high level. This learning theory is the essence of No Child Left Behind.
  • 143. 143 No Child Left Behind Of 1600’s• General School Law of 1642 moved responsibility of teaching every child from clergy first to parents and second to the executive arm of government• General School Law of 1647 required every town of >50 families to hire a School Master, who in >100 family towns was to prepare EVERY child for Harvard College, or face a fine of 5 pounds• Law of 1648 required every child get vocational education as well as standardized exams to find neglected children, who would be quickly moved• Law of 1668 increased enforcement past £5 fine
  • 144. 144 No Child Left Behind Of 2001(all are required to hit 100% NCLB by 2013-14)• In order to make “Adequate Yearly (AY) Progress” – Schools must meet minimum attendance rates – Test at least 95% of enrolled students (most difficult) – Meet AIMS goals for all ethnic, special education, low- income, and limited English proficient subgroups – 24% (404) of Arizona schools and 37% (190) of school districts (such as TUSD) did not make AYP in 2003• In 2003, AZ added appeals & reduced LEARNS – Half of “failing” schools have raised their ratings on the accurate complaint that the AZ Ed board can’t add right – The number of excelling AZ schools went from 3 to 132 and the # of underperforming schools dropped from 275 to 136 in 2003 with NO real improvements!
  • 145. From http://edworkforce.house.gov/issues/108th/education/nclb/educationreform101.ppt 145 Money Better Spent Privately Effect of public funding on reading score 20 17.4 Source: 15 “Demand, Autonomy and Accountability in Schooling” Department of Education Flemish Community of Belgium 15-16 May, 2006 10 www.oecd.org/dataoecd/50/24/36713138.ppt 5 0 1.5 Private operation Public operation
  • 146. 146 Money Is NOT The Problem• Public school spending per pupil has more than doubled when adjusted for inflation from $3,331 per student in 1965 (when scores were higher) to $8,194 per student in 2000 – Jencks and Phillips (1998) showed that family income and school spending make little difference• A large “achievement gap” yet exists between disadvantaged and more affluent students – Two-thirds of African-American children in the fourth grade still cannot read at a basic level – 30% of Blacks take AP exams but 90% of Whites
  • 147. 147We Want More Accountability Americans no longer accept that the problems in our schools are the result of a lack of spending Which will do the most to improve schools – increasingspending,spending, or high standards and accountability for results? 70% Source: 60% Americans for 50% Better Education 40% (ABE), national 66% survey of 1,190 30% 20% voters by The 26% Winston Group, 10% December 2002; 0% with a margin of ds i ng error of +/- 3 +/- Standar Fund gher s ed percentage points. Hi In crea
  • 148. 148Americans OverwhelminglySupport Ted Kennedy’s NoChild Left Behind Reforms
  • 149. 149 Annual Testing In Reading & Math Do you support or oppose requiring public schools to test annually to show that children are making progress?100% Source:80% Americans for Better Education60% (ABE), national survey of 1,19040% 82% voters by The Winston Group,20% December 2002; 16% with a margin of 0% error of +/- 3 +/- percentage points. Support Oppose
  • 150. 150 A Quality Teacher In Every ClassroomDo you support or oppose requiring states tohave a qualified teacher in every classroom, even if it means some teachers may need additional training?100% Source: Americans for80% Better Education (ABE), national60% survey of 1,190 91%40% voters by The Winston Group,20% December 2002; 8% with a margin of 0% error of +/- 3 +/- percentage points. Support Oppose
  • 151. 151 School Report Cards For ParentsDo you support or oppose providing annual report cards to parents on school achievement?100% Source:80% Americans for Better Education60% (ABE), national 91% survey of 1,19040% voters by The Winston Group,20% December 2002; 7% with a margin of 0% error of +/- 3 +/- percentage points. Support Oppose
  • 152. 152Safety Valve For Students InSchools That Don’t Change Do you support or oppose allowing parents to move children in underachieving schools to a better public school or charter school?80% Source: Americans for60% Better Education (ABE), national40% 76% survey of 1,190 voters by The Winston Group,20% December 2002; 22% with a margin of0% error of +/- 3 +/- percentage points. Support Oppose
  • 153. NCLB Supports 153 America’s Teachers• NCLB provides a historic increase in Federal teacher quality aid to states and schools with an increase of more than 39%• Shields teachers against frivolous lawsuits• “Crayola Credit” - President Bush and Republicans pushed through legislation in 2002 that allowed teachers to deduct up to $250 (later $400) from their taxes each year for out-of-pocket classroom expenses – Gone when Democrats were back in charge
  • 154. 154 Historic Funding Level For Teacher Quality Annual Federal funding for teacher quality was increased by more than 35 percent in President Bush’s first three years $3,000 $2,500Millions $2,000 $2,950 $1,500 $2,850 $1,000 $2,108 $500 $0 FY01 FY02 FY03
  • 155. 155 Historic Funding Level For Special Education And, Federal spending for Special Education has abruptly skyrocketed under Bush Admin$10.0 $9.0 $8.0 $7.0 $6.0 $5.0 $4.0 $3.0 $2.0 $1.0 $0.0 7 0 3 6 9 2 5 8 1 4 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 0 0Democrat Majority Republican Majority Bush FY04 Budget Request
  • 156. 156 President Bush’s Teacher Incentive Fund• For states and school districts that choose to formally identify & reward effective teachers• $94 million for 2006-07 to reward teachers and schools making great progress in closing the gap that exists between students of different socio-economic backgrounds• Grants (of $5,000) reward teachers who are successful at raising student achievement and producing real results for all children – First $5.5 million grant awarded to Ohio, 10/23/06
  • 157. 157 NCLB Making A Difference In Arizona (from ’02 to ‘05)• Third-grade mathematics proficiency increased by 14 percentage points• The Hispanic-white achievement gap in third- grade reading narrowed by 7 percentage points and by 11 points in mathematics• The American Indian-white achievement gap in third-grade reading narrowed by 3 percentage points and by 12 points in math• Diamondback Elementary School exceeded all NCLB expectations (Principal Joe Buzzelli)
  • 158. 158 Alas, States Rejected NCLB• All 50 states have rejected all or part of NCLB – States have been allowed to manipulate thresholds for “proficiency” and vary the number of students required – Harvard Civil Rights Project shows such changes allow more white and wealthy districts to get around penalties• Sec. of Education, “The NEA is a terrorist group!”• >25% (44% in CA) of public schools fail AYP 2006 – Yet, few parents see being in a “failing” school in a below average district (TUSD) in the lowest rated state (Arizona) in one of the worst educational systems in the world (United States) enough of a problem to take advantage of moving their children to a better school
  • 159. 159 But, Rejection Has History• More than half of U.S. states were also unwilling to comply with the requirements of 1994 Title I performance-based school accountability Act – State officials sadly always left with little authority – Primitive statistics “too advanced” for “professionals” – Highly politicized testing watered down until arbitrary• Perhaps, internal accountability should come first that is, school staff must share an explicit, coherent set of expectations and consequences – Such as is the intention of a Six-Sigma Team Charter• But, academic standards must be better defined
  • 160. 160 Any School Can Improve• Any school can improve by changing their school structure to be compatible with best practices – “But, that’s not what schools do” says Dr. Elmore; alas, “people [only] change what they’re comfortable with.”• “School improvement must be primarily seen as a matter of refining teachers’ knowledge and skills” – Compare to nursing, where improvements are more easily replicated and expert variability has narrowed• Principals, teachers, counselors, parents, and technology specialists rarely integrate instruction – Using medical rounds model, groups of 4-8 could build a shared instructional review (from students’ viewpoint)
  • 161. 161 Tinkertoy® Experience• Volunteers: 5 “workers”, 1 “boss”, 1 “quality inspector”, 1 “recorder” (audience as observers)• No talking as workers are specialists for a simple repetitive task, assemble barbells and pass right• Boss is given 2 pink slips to increase output and yells, “Work faster; work smarter, not harder!”• Boss also selects and rewards best employee• Quality Inspector yells and passes right failures• Production counted after 5 minutesSee http://www.grand-blanc.k12.mi.us/qip/tinkertoy.htm
  • 162. 162 Tinkertoy® Experience (Cont)• Rules are suspended and the group is given five minutes to plan changes in the work process• Changes might include a more clear expectation, better communications, moving from individual to team-based efforts, reducing number of workers, and sorting materials for those needed• After another 5 minutes of review, a third production is run “Participation has caused us to re-examine some of our most cherished beliefs about how to organize and motivate people”
  • 163. 163 Lessons Learned• Sincere efforts do not help, threats do not help, firing does not help, “employee of the month” and “empowering” workers does not help• Alignment between boss, trainer, and workers helps and doing (not talking) quality does help• Eliminate mistakes by improving the systems by which work is done, not in blaming individuals• People usually want to be successful, but are prevented by the very system in which they work• #1: Only those in charge can fix the system!
  • 164. 164 “Lean” Production Techniques• Kaizen keeps tuning by continually systematically removing 10% of resources for the same results – Kai = change; and, Zen = good: “change for the better” – Solve problems by communal ideas for reducing waste• Usually an event consisting of 3-5 days of intense improvement activities directed at a specific area – Abandon fixed idea, think of ways to make it possible – Go for the simple solution, quickly consider mistakes – Use wits (with ideas from many people), not money – Problems are opportunities, repeat “why?” five times – There is never an end to possible improvements!
  • 165. 165 Example of “Five Why’s” Use• A simple process for solving any problem that starts with an effective problem statement• Marble is deteriorating – Why?• Frequent detergent cleanings – Why?• Significant bird droppings – Why?• Birds are attracted to lots of spiders – Why?• Spiders are attracted to lots of midges – Why?• Midges are attracted to bright lights – So?• Delay turning on the lights until later at dusk or turn on fewer of the lights (or use dimmer bulbs)
  • 166. 166 “European” Education• Europeans started with a classic Greek education of grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, as well as art and music• William James, Charles Saunders Peirce, John Dewey, other Americans then added pragmatism – Applying ideas and science to solving real world problems is the goal of education – the application of information and not just acquiring knowledge. – Educational leaders advocated work-based and experiential education, problem based learning, problem centered learning, and contextual leaning
  • 167. 167 Is Our Project-based Education• Student dev: ownership, management, record keeping, responsibility, risk taking, profit or loss – 1862 - Land Grant Colleges (like Univ. of Arizona) – 1908 - Home-School Cooperation Plan – 1917 - Smith-Hughes Act: “directed or supervised practice in agriculture, on a farm provided for by the school or other farm, for at least six months per year.” – 1919 - Farming Project – 1926 - Productive Farm Enterprises – 1938 - Supervised Farm Practice Program – 1943 - Supervised Farming
  • 168. 168Vocational Education Act Of 1963• Amended the Smith-Hughes Act: “any amounts allotted for agriculture may be used for vocational education and such education may be provided without directed or supervised practice on a farm.”• Every state interpreted the law to mean students no longer had to have a project. I believe the real intent of Congress, however, was simply to allow for types of projects other than farming projects.• Alas, “European Education” now basically refers to the contextual education we invented but forgot (now used everywhere except U.S.A. and Britain)
  • 169. 169 First Priority Now “Sad Sack”• Less rewards for merit or ability, more for “need” – Since WWII, most merit scholarships are awarded at least partly awarded on need, $1 billion for athletic scholarships, and most federal aid programs now dont even consider grades* ($160B or over $11k / student *) – States and corporations now provide scholarships by lotteries (there are hundreds of thousands of them) – Test scores of incoming freshman have steadily declined while at the same time average IQs have gone up 84% in 50 years (* *); we should build systems that reward success (of students as well as of teachers)
  • 170. 170 1960’s Considered Utopian• Corcoran, Evans, and Schwab found that half of new teachers graduating in 1962-1966 scored on exams above the 80th percentile• While only 10% of those that graduated in 1984-1985 scored above the 80th percentile• Today, two-thirds of new teachers come from the bottom third and cannot pass ETS Math test or Mass. Educator Certification exams – SAT re-centered in 1995 due to lowering scores • 116,000 students scored over 600 on the verbal SAT in 1972, but only 71,000 scored that high ten years later – Sadly, students no longer feel they are participants
  • 171. 171 Can We Regain Our Past?• Dewey thought it fundamental to interweave new technologies with face-to-face experiences – And, both the Universities of Wisconsin and Chicago developed extension schools in the 1890’s specifically to deepen just such ties based on just such science• Alas, Drexel’s 100% co-op program is rare today• Dennis Littky and Elliot Washor’s famed success in Providence, Rhode Island with the Met High School use of community internships for students – Should be used, IMHO, as a role model for all schools, based on industrial worker-based education programs
  • 172. 172 Project Approach Comeback• A project is defined as an in-depth investigation of a real world topic worthy of attention and effort – The study may be carried out by a class, by a small group of children of any age, or an individual student – Projects enrich young children’s dramatic play, construction, painting and drawing by relating these activities to life outside school (such as science fairs) – Project work offers older children opportunities to do first hand research in science and social studies and to represent their findings in a variety of creative ways – The description of a project has a beginning, a middle, and an end and a good story teller, like any good story
  • 173. 173 Project Approach (Continued)• Good in the basics of situation, actions, & results – UNICEF life-skill programs effective for health-related issues, improving the chances for later employment, as well as preventing school dropout and violence• Lillian G. Katz and Sylvia Chard’s 1989 Engaging Childrens Minds: The Project Approach explains benefits of project work starting in Kindergarten• TUSD Drachman Primary School was one of the first pilot schools (then called Ochoa Elementary) – Drachman School Mural Project was filmed in 1993 – See http://www.project-approach.com/ and http://bestpracticesinc.net/TheProjectApproach.html
  • 174. 174 It’s About Science, Right?• Roberts Elementary is the first TUSD school to use SuccessMaker and Waterford software – Installed on six computers in each K-5 classrooms – Used in 13,000 U.S. sites with 350,000 students• Aim is to promote critical thinking skills through research based strategies and high expectations• What Works found little evidence for correlation with progress in alphabetics or comprehension – Reviewed 36 studies, only one used scientific method• How can the scientific method be properly taught by people with such low expectations for its use?
  • 175. 175A Better Example Mostly Unused• To solve problems• Improve test scores• Maximize learning time• Become fully involved in school quality efforts• Continuously improve using a PDSA Cycle• “Koalaty Kids” learn how to reach President’s Malcolm Baldrige goals
  • 176. 176 Malcolm Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence Categories Core Values3 Leadership 3 Visionary Leadership3 Strategic Planning 3 Learning-Centered Education3 Student, Stakeholder and 3 Organizational & Personal Learning Market Focus 3 Valuing Faculty, Staff & Partners3 Measurement, Analysis, and 3 Agility Knowledge Management 3 Focus on the Future3 Faculty and Staff Focus 3 Managing for Innovation3 Process Management 3 Management by Fact3 Organizational Performance 3 Social Responsibility Results 3 Focus on Results & Creating Value 3 Systems Perspective MB is best model for helping schools improve and aligned with the Framework for Improving Teaching and Learning
  • 177. 177 The Value Of Applying Business Quality Ideals To Education• The Malcolm Baldrige National Award is given to organizations outstanding in 7 areas: leadership, strategic planning, customer and market focus, information and analysis, human resource focus, process management, and business results – Awards for Business, Health, as well as Education• From 1995 to 1999, business winners of the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award outperformed the Standard and Poor’s 500 index by 650% – Research shows any company using the Baldrige framework grows on average more than twice as fast as their peers and are more than twice as profitable
  • 178. 178The value of research-based change96% of the students from what used to be one ofthe worst schools in Harlem now get into collegeafter acquiring Dr. Lorraine Monroe as principalAlaska’s Chugach Schools went up from the 28thpercentile in 1995 to 71st percentile in 1999 inorder to win 2005 Baldrige Award in Education37% of the seniors from Jenks Public Schools(another 2005 Presidential Baldrige Awardrecipient) passed an Advanced Placement exam(compared to the national average of only 13%)
  • 179. The Grand Blanc Community Schools: 179A Tradition of Excellence, A Plan for the Future Dropout Rate Compared With Revenue Generated By Lowing Dropout Rate Dropout Rate Compared With Revenue Generated By Lowering Dropout Rate 500000 16 14 400000 savings in current u.s. 12 300000 dropout rate 10 dollars cost savings 200000 8 dropout rate 6 100000 4 0 2 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 -100000 0 year • Figures in current U.S. dollars. • Assumes a senior class of 500 students in the high school. • Assumes $7080 per pupil reimbursement Baldrige Education • $4,401,282 Total Savings, 1992-2004 Award Winner (From http://www.asq.org/edu/sections_edu/basic_system_model.pdf)
  • 180. Baldrige Basics 180Alignment Improvement Plan Adapted from GOALS The Management Compass 1st grade team PTA by Michelle BechtellWhat are the 2nd grade barriers to 5th grade team team What is youralignment in Administration personalyour school? responsibility ESOL for such team 4th grade team rd alignment? 3 grade team Pre-K/K Staff Development Head Start Random Acts of Improvement
  • 181. Baldrige Basics 181Alignment Improvement Plan Adapted from GOALS The Management Compass by Michelle Bechtell How does alignment Dr. Ishikawa contribute to believed that 95% of quality achieving problems can “Performance be solved with Excellence?” simple tools Aligned Acts of Improvement
  • 182. Baldrige Basics 182Alignment Classroom Goals and Individual students’ Learning Goals School – School An Aligned Improvement Plan State System of Education District – Our Call to Action: Pursuit of What are the Excellence barriers to aligning all of the separate State – Bridge to systems? Excellence and No Child Left Behind
  • 183. 183“BEST” IS BEST IMPROVEMENT(Quality Is Not About Static Performance, ButContinuously Measurable Improvements: CMI)1996 Base Year Scattergram and Scattergrams for 2000 and 2002100 90 80 70PERCENT 60 50 BEST 40 30 20 MEAP READING 10 0 TEACHERS(see http://www.grandblancschools.org/qip/2003%20Best%20Practices%20Presentation.ppt)
  • 184. 184 Quality Improvement Story Board 1. Describe the OFI identified in 2.a. Identify the team members who will 3. Collect data regarding the the Baldrige Assessment.* address the issue. Define the Team current situation. Use any or all of Name Team Members Role the following: unstructured. John Team Leader STRATEGIC PLAN Mary Bob Coach Teacher Susan Custodian Bill Secretary Jane Driver construct and use. Wayne Student RUN CHART BAR CHART Measurement b. Establish operational definitions to be used. Category Average Brainstormingthe customer, or to test a group for Problem Survey Results In Percent Time SURVEY Statement Total A 1 3 1 1 6 1. xxxxxxxxxx 2. xxxxxxxxxx B 3 4 4 2 13 CHECKLIST 3. xxxxxxxxxx C 2 1 3 3 9 Date Total D 4 2 2 4 12 Operational Category 1 Data Data Definitions NGT Category 2 Data Data Category 3 Data Data *Use BOTH the Building Bullet Book and the Baldrige Category 4 Data Data Feedback Report along with the annual Baldrige Survey Results to identify OFIs. 6. Report results. 4. Identify causes for the current 5. Develop a plan for improvement and situation. how success will be measured. a visual listing of possible FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS Driving Restraining Forces Forces improvement team wants Cause Cause Affinity Diagram EFFECT and/or Pilot Project Action plan development represents the critical stage Cause Cause Cause construct and use. ACTION PLAN Imagineering RUN CHART BAR CHART and/or Measurem ent Category Average Survey Results In Percent Time
  • 185. 185 Baldrige Self-Analysis Worksheet Use this worksheet to list your key Strengths as well as key Opportunities For Improvements (OFIs). Start by identifyingone or two strengths and OFIs for each Criteria category. Forthose of high importance, establish a goal and plan of action. Criteria Importance For High Importance AreasCategory High, Medium, Improvement By When? Who is Low Goal? Responsible?Category 1 - LeadershipStrength12OFI12
  • 186. Criteria Importance For High Importance Areas 186Category High, Medium, Improvement By When? Who is Low Goal? Responsible?Category 2 – Strategic PlanningStrength12OFI12Category 3 – Student, Stakeholder, and Market FocusStrength12OFI12
  • 187. Criteria Importance For High Importance Areas 187Category High, Medium, Improvement By When? Who is Low Goal? Responsible?Category 4 – Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge ManagementStrength12OFI12Category 5 – Faculty and Staff FocusStrength12OFI12
  • 188. Criteria Importance For High Importance Areas 188Category High, Medium, Improvement By When? Who is Low Goal? Responsible?Category 6 – Process ManagementStrength12OFI12Category 7 – Organizational Performance ResultsStrength12OFI12
  • 189. The Baldrige in the Classroom Self-QuickCheck . . . 189 2 Strategic Planning 5 Faculty and Staff Focus I have classroom goals that are I have created a classroom work system measurable, publicly displayed, support based on professional development school goals, and document that the training where learning is challenging classroom mission is accomplished. yet joyful and all students meet their 1 Leadership I involve students in developing and needs and experience success. 7 Organizational reviewing action plans to accomplish I use satisfaction surveys and plus/deltas Performance ResultsI involve students in developing and classroom goals. to make improvements in the classroomreviewing the classroom mission work environment so that sharing, Classroom performance results arestatement and classroom goals that YES ____ IN PROCESS ____ NOT YET____ collaboration, and innovation will take improving compared to pastsupport state, district, and school place. performance.expectations. The mission identifieswho we are and includes broad notions YES ____ IN PROCESS ____ NOT YET____ My students do well compared toof future direction and the students in similar classrooms.fundamental accomplishments we PROCESS MANAGEMENT My students and I publish a periodicwant to achieve and why we want to 3 Student & Stakeholder data summary that reports theachieve them. progress on the key measures of Focus 6 Process Management mission fulfillment.I inspire and assist students to becomeinvolved in improving the school and I build positive relationships with YES ___ IN PROCESS ____NOT YET___the community outside the classroom. students and other stakeholders. My students and I use the Plan-Do-Study- Act [PDSA] Cycle as a model to design andYES ____ IN PROCESS ____ NOT YET___ I survey students and other stakeholders improve teaching, learning and to determine customer expectations and assessment. the degree of customer satisfaction. I employ an ISSUE BIN as a vehicle to open We use plus/deltas, cause-and-effect and channel communication in a diagrams, flowcharts and/or other quality constructive way. tools to analyze and improve all classroom processes. YES ____ IN PROCESS ____ NOT YET____ YES ____ IN PROCESS ____ NOT YET____ 4 Information and Analysis My students and I use a classroom data center as the basis for fact-based decision-making. My students track their progress using personal data folders. Data are used to monitor progress and support classroom improvement. We use data to compare our class performance to other classes in my school and other schools. My students and I continuously analyze gains in student performance to measure improvement. Regular classroom time is used for this purpose. YES ____ IN PROCESS ____ NOT YET____
  • 190. 190 12 KEY INDICATORS School Self-Assessment• Network of Coaches • Extended Learning and Facilitators Opportunities• Continuous Measurable • Advanced Improvement (CMI) Coursework• Performance Mgt. Sys. • Family Involvement• Curriculum Alignment • Student Attendance• Teacher Quality and and Dropout Rate Professional Develop. • Learning Labs and• Arts Education and Histories Humanities for all • School Facilities
  • 191. The Dashboard Concept 191 It is a fundamental principle of the quality philosophy that youcannot improve quality unless you can measure it. Just as youuse the speedometer, oil pressure gauge, battery indicator, fuel gauge, and other instruments to monitor the status of your vehicle as you drive, so you want to keep track of key indicators of the performance of your classroom as you teach. Like the dashboard gauges, your classroom data center allows you to continuously assess your progress and make midcourse corrections.
  • 192. 192Grand Blanc Schools Classroom Data Center Checklist • Identification Data • Short and Long Term • List/Picture of Team Members Performance Projection • Mission Statement [signed or initialed] • Charted Results • Measures of Mission Fulfillment • Classroom Action Plans
  • 193. 193
  • 194. 194Classroom Action Plansare created whendocumented performancedoes NOT meet performanceprojections.
  • 195. CORRECTIVE ACTION LOG 195Record Corrective Generated Audit Date Assigned Date CAR Review Approved CARNO Action Title By To Returned Date (If not Complete with a approved, Solution start with new CAR)
  • 196. 196Best PracticesShare-A-WorkdayStrategic PlanningQuality FacilitatorsVisual ControlsValue-Added PayProfessional DevelopmentWin-Win Relationship Between Management and Workers3 (See http://www.grand-blanc.k12.mi.us/qip/sevenhelpfulcharts.htm)
  • 197. 197 ELEMENTARY CAREER AND EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS Benchmark CES.3.E.1 Interpret simple data contained in symbols, pictures, charts, and graphs. Benchmark CES.3.E.4 Evaluate ideas for general relevance. Benchmark CES.3.E.5 Problems are solved by specifying Communicate ideas in varied goals, identifying resources and constraints, generating alternatives, formats [e.g., pictures, charts, considering impacts, choosing graphs, oral reports, andappropriate alternatives, implementing three-dimensional objects].plans of action, and evaluating results.
  • 198. 198 ELEMENTARY CAREER AND EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS Benchmark CES.4.E.1 Identify a problem and explain it [i.e., why it is a problem, how it affects the situation, etc.]. Benchmark CES.4.E.2 Identify ways to solve a problem. Then decide and All students will work cooperatively with people of diverse backgrounds explain which solution to use.and abilities, identify with the group’s goals and values, learn to exercise Benchmark CES.4.E.3 leadership, teach others new skills, Identify ways to measure the serve clients or customers, and will impact of a solution to contribute to a group process with ideas, suggestions, and efforts. determine its effectiveness.
  • 199. Quality Facilitators promote 199 Continuous Improvement . . . PDSA Cycle Fishbone Diagram Classroom Data CentersStandardize ContinuousChange ImprovementTinkertoy® Experience Grand Blanc Quality Council
  • 200. 200 10-Minute BreakQuestion:What do youget whatyou crossaninstructorwith aspud? Answer: A Facili-Tator
  • 201. 201 How Can We Motivate People? Learner“Carrots” for being good &“sticks” for disappointing(Scientific Management – ProcessesTaylor, 1911)now merged in with Learning“Treat People Fairly”Systems Thinking
  • 202. 202 Investment Theory of Learning Interactive Teaching &Diverse & Invested Learning (strategy)Participants (envir.) Integrative CriticalFaculty Learning Leaders Dialogue High- Mentoring Peer Out-of-class quality Students Learning Activities teachingShared Risk- Stud- Faculty Tangible Planned learningDirection Taking ents Product Breadth & Depth Comm.of Infrastructure Professional Learners ResidencyProgram Adequate Connected ProgramCulture Resources Requirements (program) (structure) Copyright: J.G. Haworth & C.F. Conrad 1993
  • 203. 203Continuous Improvement In Education A holistic approach to management requires concern with seven elements. The omission of any one link in the chain renders the theory inoperable. Vision Strategy Skills Resources Rewards Organization No FollowersPhilosophy Strategy Skills Resources Rewards Organization ConfusionPhilosophy Vision Skills Resources Rewards Organization False StartsPhilosophy Vision Strategy Resources Rewards Organization AnxietyPhilosophy Vision Strategy Skills Rewards Organization FrustrationPhilosophy Vision Strategy Skills Resources Organization Bitterness NoPhilosophy Vision Strategy Skills Resources Rewards CoordinationPhilosophy Vision Strategy Skills Resources Rewards Organization = Success! Myron Tribus (1994). Total Quality Management in Education: G. Doherty (Ed.) Developing Quality Systems in Education.
  • 204. Old Indicators Of Institutional Quality & Access Facilities Faculty Student-teacher ratio Degrees, Certifications Admission Standards; Salaries Enrollment & E. Comp.; % going on to college or Equipment graduate school
  • 205. New Indicators Of Institutional Quality & Access Educational Process Mgt. Leadership Strategic & Operational Planning Value Added and Stakeholder Human Resource SatisfactionInformation Institutional Development and Performanceand Analysis Management Results
  • 206. 206 Standardization• Kane headed an IBM process research group that found processes tend toward comfort rather than competitiveness and that management controls are usually applied with great inequality• Symptoms of poor process health include high customer complaints, worsening moral and staff turnover, problems that never get resolved, exceeded budgets and declining productivity, systems that can’t handle the current workload, and the unwavering hope that adding manpower or resources is the fix-all solution to all problems
  • 207. 207 Standardization (Continued)• The goal of standards (a.k.a. Best Practices) are for exceptional outputs with maximum efficiency – When effectively managed, standards provide base for improvements demanded in today’s public marketplace• A leverage point is where a little change has a great impact, that must be standardized if we want to achieve consistently high performance – Try starting the day with an assignment, not roll call, or change seating to maximize communication, not quiet• An important role for leadership is to help develop ability to identify information that is not important
  • 208. 208 Standardization (Continued)• Without an active standard operating procedure (SOP), every employee involved in a process will have a different way of doing his or her charge• Someone must be accountable for every process• There are only three basic reasons why a student (or teacher) fails in performing an academic task: 1) The student (teacher) does not know what the task is 2) The student (teacher) does not know how to do task 3) Something is interfering with ability to perform the task• Good Task Analysis identifies learning needs, expected outcomes, hurdles, and strategies
  • 209. 209 Instructional Task Analysis (*)• Establish focus (job or performance, learning, cognitive, content, activity) and then flowchart• Determine instructional goals and objectives – Define and describe in detail student tasks/subtasks• Specify knowledge type (declarative, structural, procedural) & select suitable learning outcomes• Identify outcomes, Prioritize and sequence tasks• Establish activities & strategies to foster learning• Select best media and learning environments• Create performance assessments & evaluation
  • 210. 210Creating a Learning Organization Einstein was once asked, “What is the most powerful force in the Universe?” He said, “Compound Interest.” Outdated – R & D as disengaged “Think Tank” department – DoD Research (with an extra 7-15 years before utilizing research results) – Incubators (since they’re not about new ideas)
  • 211. Individual vs. Organizational 211 Learning / Memory When Individuals learn in an Next = Past + Now; Organizational organization only by themselves memory allows people to start where in a box, then the organization their predecessor left off, adding to develops a stagnant eyelash the organization’s knowledge and learning curve. continuing the learning process after a short startup period. EYELASH LEARNING CURVE RAPID LEARNING CURVE Old employee leaves with knowledgeAbility to Ability to Do Job Do Job New employee comes on; picks up almost where previous employee left off. Time New employee Time begins Joiner, Brian l. (1994). Fourth Generation Management: The New Business Consciousness. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc..
  • 212. 212 Personal Eyelash Learning• “Experience alone teaches nothing. If you do not have a theory as a framework to understand your experience, you do not accumulate thirty years of experience; you merely repeat one year thirty times.” W Edwards Deming (father of Quality Mgt) – A teacher for 20 years who was upset about another teaching for 4 years getting hired as her principal was told, “But, you don’t have 20 years of experience, only 1 year 20 times; we choose the stronger background.” (see Developing Quality Systems in Education by Dr. GD Doherty)• “Learning that Lasts” education model highlights collaborative inquiry as well as moral application
  • 213. 213 Organizational Learning• Organizational learning is about a school being adaptive using self-adjusting feedback loops – With instructional strategy being driven by questioning the “authority” of existing values, assumptions, and policies instead of just “pain” avoidance (happiness)• Personal to systemic to personal growth cycle – Focusing on political obstacles as well as individual (internalization) to group (externalization) bonding• Beyond having a strong pedagogical vocabulary – Emergent creation of teachers; rather than just single- loop answers, double-loop creation of better questions – A rebel’s empathetic group “narrative” knowledge
  • 214. 214 “Narrative” Knowledge• Not artifact of a “maintainer” but of change agent – Chinese proverb “A wise man learns from experience; a wiser man learns from the experience of others.”• Organizational stories that, with technical skills, help make sense of the challenges people face – An endless living reservoir of ideas with the power to influence people’s situational awareness and actions• Such storyboards based on actual or fantastic characters and incidents, charged with emotion – Allegories and metaphors instigating change, causing services to be rendered, products and structures built
  • 215. 215 The Sources Of Great StoriesAncient Dr. Satir M. Gladwell DISC“Earth” Computer Maven/Teacher Conscientious“Water” Placater [Technical] Steadiness “Fire” Blamer Salesperson Dominance“Wind” Distracter Social Connector Influence• Not the placating steadiness of the “Technician”• Could be the conscience of information mavens, the dominance of the persuaders, or the social distraction of the extraordinary “friend makers” – Whose “truth” is not measured by its accuracy but by its capacity to express a compelling set of meanings
  • 216. 216 Learning Organizations• Are schools examples of learning organizations? Dr. Peter Senge says, “Definitely not. The idea that teachers and administrators ought to learn together really hasn’t gone too far.” (O’Neil, 1995) – A journey, never “We’re now a learning organization”• Places of learning focus on making great people – What is a “great” person? No consultant can tell you. – Typically, three quarters of employees are, at any time, in some sort of professional education experience – Sullivan Elementary in Tallahassee claim core values of “individuals are valued, teachers are professionals, parents are partners, and decision making is shared.”
  • 217. 217 Systems Thinking• One of the greatest advancements in how we comprehend and direct change in our schools is Systems Theory and related Systems Thinking – Not just methodological or systemic thinking as it also includes understanding interrelations of subsystems (used for ecological, mechanical, and social systems) – Sand pile not a system as unaltered by removing some• Historians agree the assassination of Archduke Frances may have sparked the launch of World War I, but that the real causes of the conflict were deeply embedded issues in the social, political, and economic structures of Europe at that time
  • 218. 218 Systems Thinking (Continued)• GM must employ more employees to make a similar number of cars (but sadly, less reliable) as Toyota from focusing on part reliability rather than the whole car and using but strict controls instead of human trust from treating people fairly• The goal of Systems Thinking is to look beyond seemingly “obvious” answers and understand the complex relationships among events• System Dynamics tools help students and teachers understand the interdependencies among parts of man-made and natural systems
  • 219. 219 Systems Thinking (Continued)• Tools include computer simulations, systems games, diagramming tools, & physical activities – Students might experiment, say, with the impact of various amounts of rain on the life of an ecosystem – Or, a Social Studies class might analyze how social systems contributed to a particular event in history• The “Systems Thinking / Dynamics” approach to teaching and learning began at the AZ Catalina Foothills Orange Grove Middle School in 1994 – Now used in Massachusetts, Michigan, Iowa, Oregon, Maryland, and Georgia (www.watersfoundation.org)
  • 220. EDUCATION VIEWED AS A SYSTEM MISSION or AIM [Why the system exists]Example: The staff, parents, and students accept and share responsibility for thedevelopment of all children who, as diverse individuals, will strive for excellence, become life-long learners and make positive contributions to our community. CONTINUOUS DESIGN AND REDESIGN CUSTOMER of PRODUCT and SERVICE RESEARCH Affects Affects AffectsSUPPLIERS INSTRUCTION QUALITY CUSTOMERSAND SYSTEM • Ed Design/Delivery EDUCATION • StudentsINPUTS • Significant • Strategic Planning Goals • Parents Experiences • MICH Curriculum • Next Year’s Framework Teacher • Exit Outcomes • Higher Ed • Character Education • Employers • Taxpayers Adapted from: W. Edwards • Media Deming, Out of the Crisis, p. 4. • Government
  • 221. 221 Writing System A Topic They Will Understand Paper Written Pencils Communication Prompts Skills To Help Ability ToStudents Create ADevelop Writing Chalkboard Students Writing Assignment Computer Teachers Skills Desk Parents
  • 222. 222 Students work IN a system.The job of a Teacher is to work ON the system, to improve it, continuously with their help. Teachers work IN a system.The job of a Principal is to work ON the system, to improve it, continuously with their help.
  • 223. 223 How Do Systems Improve?Without a well-designed system, what happens willlargely be determined by abnormal special cases...1. Step back to see the whole picture2. Note reciprocal influences (Influence Diagram)3. Identify what really makes the system tick4. Estimate the strength Structural Systems and direction of Diagram Perspective relationships5. Incorporate into a testable system and Equations / Influence Simulation Diagram operate from theory
  • 224. 224How Do We Know Our Process? Process MapsWe work to eliminatethe trivial many andidentify the vital few Fishbone Diagrams Also Root-cause Analysis Historical Data Affinity Diagrams Stratified Lists Pareto Analysis
  • 225. 225 Root-cause Failure Analysis (To determine the Why for an event or events)• Starts by formally defining the problem – Who (teacher, student, parent, or bystander) – What (conflict, teaching materials, or failure) – Where (which module, classroom, or environment type) – When (noting any time pattern and cycle time) – How (classification: duplication, delay, role ambiguity) – How much (complete failure vs. frequency of failures)• A clear problem definition and brainstorming possible causes forms the basis for creating a variety of lists for possible problem frequencies
  • 226. 226 Long-term, Update, & Prioritize• First, two long-term tools (more details later) – Fishbone of possible activities or failed controls – Orthogonal Checklist: each cause is flushed out in general terms to help brainstorm finding new issues• Then, histograms are created of new problems – Stratified Lists will matrix a problem list by various attributes; Location Lists will likewise do so by the “where” for which subsystem the problem occurred• Process Decision Program Chart for work efforts – Using Pareto Analysis for sorting by greatest impact – Bar chart of defect frequencies/most likely to occur – Together determine most effective corrective path
  • 227. 227 Personal Pareto Analysis(80% of results come from 20% of our work)• Know what’s vital to principal and teacher/student• Prioritized Hi/Med/Low to-do list that all agree on• Keep uninterrupted time for correspondence• Plan personal brainstorming when most alert• Agreed performance goals with boss (or teacher)• Organized desk and calendar to be ready for fires• Do AND, CPM, or PERT charts for all projects• Delegate, Listen, and Network more effectively• Then, build tools while working on a few changes• “Lose no time; be always employed in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions” B. Franklin
  • 228. 228 Feed-Forward Exercise• Pick one behavior you would like to change• Describe the behavior to one other person• Ask for feed-forward info. (NO feedback) – Two suggestions for the future that might help achieve a positive change in selected behavior• Take notes without assessments or opinions• Reverse roles• Switch partners
  • 229. 229 Rules for BrainstormingRecord everythingEveryone’s participation is criticalNo criticism or judgment of ideasFree-wheel ideas with many group stylesLecture Discussion Role Playing Facilitator Control Group Control
  • 230. 230 “The Starting Block”• List as many questions as possible about this topic• What might be the most interesting thing to learn about this topic? What might be the most boring?• What interesting steps could you take to learn about this topic? List at least three ideas.• Invent two difficult questions about this topic• List one thing you already know about this topic – How did you learn (and confirm) this information?• Give a few useful personal or external motivations for why it is important to learn about this topicFrom http://learnweb.harvard.edu/ALPS/thinking/startingblock_play.cfm?mode=begin&block_id=2
  • 231. 231Example Student Thoughtline Provides assessments for interests, questions, level of understanding, and any misconception on a topic.
  • 232. 232 “A disciplined effort to produce fundamental + + decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization will be, why, and how that requires broad- scale information gathering, with an + “ing” exploration of alternatives, as well as an emphasis on the future implications of present decisions.”Teachers in Arkansas spend two weeksevery year building their strategic plan
  • 233. 233 Ackoff’s Interactive Planning• A detailed operational description, details of all obstructions, projections if no change, and then narrative of worst case scenario for the “mess”• A participative concept based on the activity of planning being more important than the plan – Ensuring everyone is involved guarantees they all know the school both broadly and deeply as well as understand their roles in achieving stated goals• Establish unique and ambitious ideals for school “friendly” to teachers, students, and all resources – To fight Murphy’s Corollary: Any system that depends on human reliability is, of course, inherently unreliable
  • 234. 234SCRUM Meetings to Get Started Skills for Community-based Resource Utilization and Management Strong indicator theA “lightweight” team is functionalMurphy-fueledprocess ideal forself-organized,equal participant,temporary teams For emergency interventions, Scrums may occur every few hours to refocus efforts.
  • 235. 235 Planning the Big Picture Mission & Vision Phase I: Strategic Planning (What Shall We Do?) Affinity Exercise Interrelations Tree Priority Matrix Diagraph Diagram Question Rank H1 H2 H1H1 H2 H3 H4 H1 4 H2 H2 2 H3 H4 H3 1 H3 H4 3 Goals Action Measures: Beginning Theory Steps How will we Focuses on the means, means, know we are Strategic Theory to successful? resources, and inputs answer the question “what shall we do?”
  • 236. 236 Planning the Big Picture Phase 2: Operational Planning (How shall we do it?) Responsibility PDPC Diagram Activity Network Matrix (Contingency) (Flow Chart) J J B S o a i u e n l e H2 H3 e l H1    H2    H3   H4    Measures: Focuses on the outcomes and desired resultsHow will weknow we are For more information, check outsuccessful? http://www.soemadison.wisc.edu/elpa/academics/syllabi/2003/03summ er/875/files/Lect5-Planning%20for%20Quality%20in%20Education.ppt
  • 237. 237 Test Questions For Planning• How well are our students learning?• How well are admin services functioning?• Do graduates know what they think they know?• Are the facilities adequate for the delivery of academic programs (is it a great academically enriched environment that promotes learning)?• Are the buildings and grounds safe and secure?• How well are student activities fulfilling student educational needs and personal interests?• What resulting budget provisions are needed?
  • 238. 238 Why Start With Values? (Not beliefs, but underlying values)• Shared purposes give FOCUS by driving strategy• Shared values give CONTROL by guiding actions – Fairness, openness, honesty, and trust: respect for all – Freedom of enquiry and expression – Innovation and Continuous improvement – Equal opportunity, affirmative action and access Strategy Laws and Mission Regulations Statement Annual Action Goals Vision Ops Values Strategy Plans Plan & Budget Issues Strategy
  • 239. 239 Balance From Core Values• Substantive effort by members to identify values to define boundaries and guidelines for goals – What are the core values that inform members what is important in the organization? Provides improved customer focus and feedback on employee views.• Change Management about defining & instilling new values, attitudes, norms, and behaviors within an organization; 1st need starting point – More trust and openness, shared vision, and support – Helps set better and more meaningful goals• Organizational and Operational Feasibility – Is proposed change a good fit? Will it be accepted?
  • 240. 240 Audits and Reporting• Publish Annual Report and all Meeting Notes – PTA, school, and student body newsletters – Web pages for teachers and students – Notice Boards for all groups and activity clubs – Electronically archive all metrics and publications• How will you ensure that the plan for change will be implemented and regularly monitored? – Analysis of data, internal audits, management reviews – IS and formal control systems must be allowed to sacrifice effectiveness for real open accountability – ISO 9001:8.2.2 says auditors cannot audit own work – Strong & legitimate long-term vision; full involvement
  • 241. 241 Fishbone Diagram• An “Ishikawa” or “Cause and Effect” Diagram – Shows and clarifies the causes of a certain event – One of the seven basic tools of quality management besides the histogram, Pareto chart, check sheet, control chart, flowchart, and scatter diagram• Place the main problem in a box on the right• Generate core potential causes (not symptoms)• Use an Affinity Diagram to sort into related groups and use headers as names for the major bones• Place process variables on the appropriate bones• Explode process variables until all branch ends are specific, measurable, and controllable
  • 242. 242 Tips for Fishbone DiagramsDon’t go beyond thegroup’s area of control. Major Major Cause CauseUse the major causecategories as catalysts,e.g., “What in teaching Whymaterials is causing ?” students earnMake sure everyone poor Supportingagrees completely on grades?the problem statement. IdeasDon’t try to swallow thewhole “fish” and only Major Majorbite-off what is fleshed Cause Causeout on each bone.
  • 243. FISHBONE DIAGRAM (Cause & Effect) Work Attendance For everyCompletion identified effect Have to make Misinformation up work Lose participation Why do points students fail classes? Try filling in the rest of the bonesEngagement Preparedness working in a small group of peers
  • 244. 244 Orthogonal Checklists• We all have an understanding of a checklist as a reminder to verify things were done right• But, we then build processes to the checklist (very much like trying to “teach to the test”), and this tends to produce only a very simple view• So, how might a checklist be worded in order to always get you thinking of ways to improve? – Similar to how test builders might form questions that end up challenging to any level of test taker?• Brainstorming how to better brainstorm can’t be “taught,” only learned via probing self-discovery
  • 245. 245 Keep Inspections External• Most basic way to view ourselves externally (introspection never works) is to keep a log• Track several key facts when things go wrong: 1) What you were doing when first noting the problem 2) Detail feelings (negative and positive thoughts) and attempt to brainstorm possible issue distortions 3) Note condition(s) required for problem to surface 4) Consider the impact if nothing was done to correct• After resolving, the log should be amended with: – If problem has been reoccurring (and “fixed” before) – If problem was a new issue or just surfaced old one
  • 246. 246Brainstorming w/Affinity Diagrams• Method for analyzing large amounts of data• First, cluster things into meaningful categories – Write down each observation, root cause, outcomes – Coalesce items into groups that say similar things – Give names to different groups (perhaps, colors too) – Iterate until a hierarchy is well formed• Number and review each cluster• Create an outline for each cluster – Motivations, tools, and possible actions• Finally, prioritize by discussion generated
  • 247. 247 Affinity Diagramming items identified inthe items identified inthe brainstorm session brainstorm session items identified inthe brainstorm session Brainstorm the items identified inthe items identified inthe brainstorm session items identified inthe brainstorm session brainstorm session items identified intheissue, problem, items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the opportunity... brainstorm session brainstorm session items identified inthe items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session Silently sort the items identified in the items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm sessionitems raised into brainstorm session items identified in the items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session brainstorm sessiongroups or themes items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session header to name the theme header to name the theme header to name the theme header to name the themeWrite descriptive items identified in the items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session brainstorm sessionheaders for each items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session theme grouping items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session items identified in the brainstorm session Prioritize 2 1 4 3
  • 248. 248 Affinity Diagramming Living ThingsAnimals Plants Food Partspeople trees hair fat mice flowers scales protein bugs grass bonessnakes lettuce vitamins fur lice roots
  • 249. Affinity Diagram Example 249 Why visit a local business involved in quality processes? Prepare our Classroom Quality Tools Employee Qualities See How Other Students for the Applications & Data Businesses Run Future Learn abut Quality To learn what To learn about other To take the To understand the skills Tools – how to qualities or types of jobs so we information our students will need in implement in abilities are can better prepare learned and their future classroom – how it looked for in an our students for the apply it in my classroom relates to Baldrige employee working world To prepare future To get a better See how other workers (our To get ideas from understanding of establishments students) for jobs successful what our students conduct their day-to- companies to adopt Environment need to make it in day operations Understand and learn in my program the real world “Life about expectations of To learn To understand how Skills”employers to better prepare about efficient businesses may out students for work To learn about operate in order to employment & the environments become successful better evaluating changing work force my classroom’s progress, growth,. To see what other businesses feel is quality To learn how a business in our community uses data and quality tools to achieve quality To understand & learn more about how businesses are run as well as To meet our Baldrige how employees benefit from the Quality Standards companies beliefs Titled Categories with Header Cards
  • 250. Affinity Diagram Example (Cont) Why visit a local business involved in quality processes? Learn about Compare How Schools Mandatory Staff Learn new Skills Quality Workplaces Can Help Development Workplace Learn about It’s required Quality Tools To learn quality To compare a Better understand strategies business skills/knowledge District Understand new workplace to the my students will Requirement teaching tools Gain an education need understanding of workplace Hurley’s Quality See comparisons Find out work Process between areas expectations for employment Business See a quality Environment business in action Become aware of what businesses Experience Learn more about are looking for from corporateQuality processes in our graduates world outside other areas of school See what kind of skills students need to have Organization for the workplace perspectives See what other businesses Appreciate require of their employees others Exposure to job market See Quality Controls work opportunities in other environments
  • 251. 251 Affinity Diagramming Exam Example Resources Learn Attend class Watch video Literature Primers Group study Self study Internet Textbooks Mentor Tutor Preparation MotivationExperience Teach subject Bonus $ Motivate self Study Study intensively Listen to Develop pride subjects othersseparately Practice exams Improve work
  • 252. 252 Interrelationship Digraph • Write each issue on a card • Place cards with the factors related to each issue (from the affinity diagram) in a circle around the issue cards • Draw arrows from all “cause” cards to all “effect” cards• Cards that have most arrows going from them tend to be root causes. Cards that have most arrows going to them are root effects. These are thusly the needed key factors when there is not enough information for a data-driven decision.
  • 253. 253Interrelationship Digraph Example CSQECause Effect Work Tutor shop Get Prepare for Group College Primer study CSQE exam classes Bonus Attend Call-in Get class source BOK Study tests Peers Self Inten have Career motivate Job sive CSQE Takes needs study CSQE CSQE
  • 254. 254 Tree (or WBS) DiagramsLeads directly into a project’s Statement of Work (SOW)
  • 255. 255 Statement Of Work (SOW)• A written description of the agreed deliverables – Detailed needs assessment / impact analysis identifying resources, roles, and pre/post-tests – Feed into Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) of primary and subordinate strategies, activities, schedules, and reporting to validate student achievement – Scope of Work describes purpose in terms of • Goals: targeted needs as assessed to improve • Objectives: how performance / behavior will improve • Metrics: verifying student achievement of goals – Performance-based contracting structures all efforts around purpose of efforts, not the manner of execution
  • 256. 256 Prioritization Matrix Process The sorting and ranking of ideasWeighted Criteria Criteria/Factor Prioritize• List limited Ranking • Weight number of • List Factors Criteria by Criteria being weighed Factor Ranking• Each person • Consensus rank • Compute total assigns (order) Factors for each percentages for each Criteria Factor, to – By likelihood of• Sum to calculate success, ease of • Focus on a composite implementation, limited set of weighting fit to capabilities, high-impact urgency, impact opportunities
  • 257. 257 Weighting Matrix ExampleWeighted Criteria• List limited number of criteria• Each person assigns percentages• Sum to calculate Composite Weighting
  • 258. 258Factor Ranking Matrix
  • 259. 259Prioritization Matrix Example Multiply Factor Ranking by Composite Weighting
  • 260. Prioritization matrix Responsibility matrix Admini- Total Rank Teacher Taxpayer strator Program 2 Mgt Product 1 Metrics Verify & 3 Validation Primary responsibility (12) Secondary responsibility (3) Need-to-know (2) No responsibility
  • 261. 261 Brainstorming With Structure• An Affinity Diagram takes specific ideas and allows new themes to creatively emerge• An Interrelationship Digraph creates focus by identifying root causes and potential bottlenecks• A Tree Diagram takes a chosen objective and breaks it down into its component parts• Next we want to establish priorities that will enable us to choose the “best” actions or options Affinity Interrelationship Tree PriorityDiagram Digraph Diagram MatrixExpand Focus Expand FocusThinking Attention Thinking Attention
  • 262. 262Process Decision Program Chart• PDPC is useful for contingency planning when the teaching team has stalled or lost focus and needs a step-by-step stand-in planning process• Extends response diagram a couple of levels by further identifying non- obvious risks and countermeasures• Avoid firefighting time/money issues
  • 263. 263 Development Disruptions• Besides common time and money problems,• The teaching process will be disrupted by – Adding new curriculum or programs – Teaching faster or making learning easier – Devoting resources to special problems – Increasing, say, technical support budget• New curriculum or programs most disruptive – So, they should be the most controlled using detailed control plan with special attention for any new features – Use Activity Network Diagram or System Flowchart • Starting from the Tree Diagram
  • 264. 264Activity Network Diagram (AND)• Top-down most efficient ordering of tasks for: – The total amount of time needed for the project – The sequence of serial task dependencies as well as which tasks can be carried out at the same time – Which are the critical tasks to keep a special eye on• Simpler than Critical Pathway Method (CPM) or Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT) I love deadlines. I love the sound they make as they fly by. -- Douglas Adams
  • 265. 265 Or, Work Process Flowchart• A picture of how people do their work, with inputs, actions, and outputs recorded to improve process – Select and define the process – Map the primary and alternative paths – Map inspection points (use a D to indicate a delay)• This will help build a clear problem definition by documenting brainstorming for possible causes – Defect frequencies bar chart => Defect Check Sheet; Sorting by location => Stratified matrix; by categories => Cause and effect or fishbone diagrams; etc – Will getting a flat tire or running out of gas be more likely? Should we check the spare tire or get gas first?
  • 266. 266 Systems Flowchart Symbols Classroom• Ovals – start and end• Rectangles – process• Diamonds – decision• Describes deployment or processes for consensus• Identifies “value added” and “dead wood” School activities as well as documents changes
  • 267. 267 Yes No Start Task Make a DecisionConduct a Report End ofMeeting Out Process
  • 268. Parents Bed Time Kids 268Initiate Bed Time Begin Bed Procedures Time Routine Are Kids Ready Brush Teeth Meet Need So For Bed? Use Toilet Kids Are Ready NO For Bed Put On P.J.’s Read Story Get Into Bed Say Prayers Tuck In Kids
  • 269. 269Determining The Critical Tasks 2. Review feedbacks from similar courses1. Determine target T= 7 daysaudience for new topic Example 3. Assess competitor’s T= 14 days offerings T= 21 days © 2002 ATGCI
  • 270. 2. Review 270 feedbacks Earliest Earliest from similar Start Finish courses (ES) (EF)1. Determine T= 7 14 21 Latest Latest targetaudience for days 28 35 Start Finish new topic (LS) (LF) 3. AssessT= 14 0 14 competitor’sdays When ES = LS and 0 14 offerings EF = LF. That task is on the critical path, T= 21 14 35 and there is no schedule days 14 35 Flexibility in this task ES = The largest EF of any previous connected task EF = ES + the time to complete that task LS = LF – the time to complete that task LF = The smallest LS of any connected following task © 2002 ATGCI
  • 271. 271 2. Review 4. Develop 6. Develop feedbacks course course from similar objectives formal courses T= 7 14 21 T= 7 35 42 T= 14 42 561. Determine days days days target 28 35 35 42 42 56audience for new topic 1 T= 14 0 14 3. Assess 5. Choose days 0 14 competitor’s geographic offerings location for final course T= 21 14 35 T= 2 35 37 days days 14 35 54 56 © 2002 ATGCI
  • 272. 272 7. Write draft 9. Develop 11. Conduct 13. Modify content visual aids pilot draft offerings materials T= 30 56 86 T= 30 86 116 T= 21 116 137 T= 21 137 158 days days days days 15. Conduct 56 86 86 116 116 137 137 158 training1 8. Develop 10. Secure a 12. Develop 14. Distribute T= 3 158 161 marketing training site and print course days 158 161 strategy brochure brochure T= 7 56 63 T= 14 63 77 T= 21 77 98 T= 45 98 143 days days days days 71 78 78 92 92 113 113 158 © 2002 ATGCI
  • 273. 273 Identifying Opportunities• If a small number of opportunities emerge early, identify external drivers and ability to respond Resource Forces/Trends Competition Controllers – External dimensions • Political • Clients • Competitors of opportunities • Economic • Customers • Collaborators • Social • Stakeholders • Key forces • Technological • Regulators Resources Present Strategy Performance – Internal • People • Overall direction • Measures capabilities • Finance • Key units • Results relative to • Information • Business processes • Trends • Competencies • Functions opportunities • Culture
  • 274. 274 Finding Abnormalities• To find odd events (couldn’t happen by chance), they must be large as compared to sample size• Perceptions are also clouded by temporal delays, what else we’re measuring, and our expectations
  • 275. 275 Control Chart (*) UCL = Process Average + 3 Standard Deviationsy LCL = Process Average - 3 Standard Deviations Upper Control Limit UCL + 3 Central Line or Process Average CL - 3 Lower Control Limit LCL Unacceptable Deviation, beyond control limits We quickly notice whatever seemingly could not happen by chance x TIME
  • 276. 276Control charts translate measurablefuture needs of students into characteristics Control Chart or upper statistical control limit process average design target values lower statistical control limit Control Chart Over Time upper statistical control limit process average so that lower statistical control limit A Point In Timeproducts and services can be designed and built togive satisfaction at a price the community will pay.
  • 277. 277 Types of Findings• Can be both – Qualitative • Observe trends, habits, patterns, – Quantitative • How often was something done, what percent of the time did something occur, how many different Fewer tools produce greater improvements – Determine and use only about six metrics
  • 278. 278Consider Object Oriented Tools Employee P1 P4 Review Calculate timecards timecards Valid hourly timecards wages Payroll data D3 Payroll• Entity-Relationship Diagramming records Valid salary timecards Wage calculations Payroll history P3 P5 P6 Maintain Calculate Review Garnishment notices employee Employee info. deductions calculations records Draft calculations Tax and garnishes withholdings (ERD) brings together Network, Courts Employee information D1 Employee Final calculations records P7 P8 P9 Prepare Prepare Prepare checks government periodic Tax rates payments reports Relations, and Entity modeling IRS Tax bulletins P2 Update tax tables Tax changes D2 Tax tabels Checks Employee Checks and reports Periodic reports Government agencies• Unified Modeling Language (UML) focuses on systems and users working outside in towards objects that make things happen• Workflow Modeling describes Sub-Process Defined in Business Process Managed by tasks, procedures, and people Workflow Process Definition Management System Assigned as a Composed of needed for each process; and, Case (Process Instance) Passed Along by Manual Automated Consisting of Activities Activities Work Item Invoked diagrams can be done in Visio (Activity Instance) Application
  • 279. 279 What Can Benchmarking Do?• Develop internal capacitities to intellegently and honestly self-access school’s current practices• Generate a visual map of school and its activities• Provide data on effective programs and practices• Provide information to feed into strategic plans• Stimulate collective learning and transformation• Provide basis to dialoque with other schools• Promotes lifelong learning, identity, & democracy• UNESCO Four Pillars: Learning to live together, learning to know, learning to do, learning to be
  • 280. 280But, “True” Cheerleading Primary (Again, See Pygmalion Effect)• The greatest gift of Ron Clark, David MacEnulty, Marva Collins, and Jaime Escalante was energy• Good to use Read 180, Springboard, Supported Literacy, Strategic Instruction, Strategic Literacy Initiative, America’s Choice Ramp-Up to Literacy, Reading Mastery, Open Court, Success for All, but you must be more than a methodology giver• Key to success of these models is the ability to convince teachers of the program’s merits – Livingston, “Anyone who believes any child cannot be highly performing has moral duty to exit the classroom”
  • 281. 281 Building Energy For Teaching• Know your students: their problems, needs, and aspirations to improve ability to enthuse them – “It is up to the teacher to bring out the ‘ganas’ in each student;” Jaime would often lead chant “Best ETS”• Teach by example, demonstrate constant learning• Build an atmosphere where it is OK to fail – “Learn to fail or fail to learn,” Tal Ben-Shahar• Network with other successful colleagues• Keep a journal of what you do right each day• Give no ifs, ands, buts, excuses, or in-betweens; – Poor teachers are regularly in there just giving excuses
  • 282. 282 SWOT Analysis Internal What strategies• Strengths should be employed• Weaknesses to optimize your characteristics and External take advantage of the• Opportunities external opportunities• Threats and threats to successful learning?Identify strategic issues by assessing opportunities against capabilities
  • 283. SWOT / TOWS Matrix 283 INTERNAL FACTORS Strengths WeaknessesEXTERNAL (S) (W)FACTORS WO Strategies SO Strategies Generate Generate strategies here strategies here that takeOpportunities (O) that use strengths advantage of to take opportunities to advantages of overcome or use opportunities weaknesses WT Strategies ST Strategies Generate Generate strategies here Threats (T) strategies here that minimize that use strengths weaknesses and to avoid threats avoid threats
  • 284. 284Strategy: Balanced Scorecards Anorganizational tool that translates a mission strategy intoobjectives and measures organized by four different long termperspectives: Customer, Financial, Business Processes, Learning & Growth
  • 285. 285Rigor and Relevance FrameworkK Brainstorming All, butn T Evaluation Inquiry Instructional Guided Practiceo a Synthesis Technology Lecture Research Memorizationw x Analysis Socratic Teachingl o Application Guided Practice Cooperative Lecture Demonstratione n Memorization Problem-based Comprehensiond o Project Design Role-Playing Awarenessg m Work-basede y Knowledge Apply across Real In one Disciplines World Discipline Situations Application Model
  • 286. Elrod and Tippett’s Expansion 286 on Team Performance Curve High Performance Team (where members have equal access, authority, responsibility)Effectiveness Real TeamPerformance Work Group (with someone in charge) use Quality Circles Potential Team Pseudo Team (“committee”) Team Maturity Key for Escalante was to team with good principal and school counselor
  • 287. 287 Smaller Elementary Schools (having less than 320 students)• The Roman Army was built out of Maniples of 160 people and current brain research shows this is the largest number of relationships that people can sustain (companies like Gore-Tex often limit factory size to this number as well) – Roman Army also knew to use small teams of seven• K-2 having no more than 14 students and 3rd- 5th grades having about 28 students per class can produce two perfect “small teams” (under 12) of teachers and two maniples of students – After decades of closing small neighborhood schools to build larger “more efficient” schools, NY going back
  • 288. 288 Potential Team Description• Communication: There is open discussion, problem-solving and goal setting at meetings – How would you rate your communication skills?• Rewards and Recognition: Team members understand the benefits of a team approach and whole-heartedly support team building efforts – 84% of employees site non-monetary recognition as having a longer-lasting impact (1001 Ways to Reward and Recognize, Reward and Recognition website, and UI Learning & Development Resource Center)• Loyalty and Leadership: Team members are committed and prepared to do real work together – How might you decrease absenteeism and turnover?
  • 289. 289 What is a Team Charter?• A team charter is a critical defining method for spelling out and gaining consensus on the role and responsibilities of all team members – Problem Statement, Project Mission and Scope, Business Case, Values, Resources, Customers, Deliverables, Success Metrics, Key Milestones, Team Member Expertise and Commitments plus Expectations / Consequences, Communication Plan• Alas, the distribution of opportunities always tilts toward the self-absorbed needs of authority unless the group first identifies and wholly commits to strong controlling ethical guidelines
  • 290. 290Team Success Causal Predictors• Well Defined Structural Elements (Harry Wong) – Shared team vision and management – Clear and agreed agenda and roles – Conflict Management Strategy spelled out• Positive Interdependent Behaviors – Group encouragement of innovation and diversity • Prevent disruptions by “integrity” of pre-agreed Team Charter – Effective collaboration and decision making • No bosses (or bullies); equal participants who all lead and act • Information and help is freely shared (based on right, not need) • All team members are equally responsible (as well as checked) – Effective time management during all meetings
  • 291. 291 Dr. Ishikawa’s Quality Circles• Strongly led workgroup (not team) of employees who share responsibility or work on similar tasks• 5-10 people who attend regular short meetings to boost productivity, quality, employee morale• Effectiveness, costs, savings, consequences to other departments etc... are also considered• Final solution is put forward to manager and implemented by the Quality Circle group• Failures due to micro-management, risk-adverse culture, unshared benefits, insufficient training, no common set of values, and lack of vision
  • 292. 292 Process Improvement (Not a do it once and forget it undertaking)• Plan The – Problem Selection – Quality Indicator Goals Shewhart – Cause - Effect Analysis Cycle• Do: Most Elegant, Effective, & Safe Solutions• Check or Study Or, The – Quality Indicators Deming – Causes Reduced Wheel• Act: Standardize & CI (is a loop that never ends)
  • 293. 293 Deming Cycle (PDCA)PLAN 1 PROBLEM PERCEPTION 1) Process WHAT 2 EVALUATION OF CURRENT SITUATION Definition WHY 3 ANALYSIS OF CAUSES 2) Process WHO Simplification WHEN 3) Characterization PLANNING OF 4 COUNTER-MEASURES WHERE HOW and Idealization DO 5 IMPLEMENTATION OF 4) Control (SDCA) COUNTER-MEASURESCHECK 6 RESULTS EVALUATION 5) Fix Root Causes 7 STANDARDIZATION 6) Value EvolutionACTION 8 SUMMARY & NEW PLANS 7/8) Re-design? ©1987-2000 Arthur M. Schneiderman
  • 294. 294 Requirements for Quality (*)Top Management Systematic Sense of Urgency Commitment Method leadership profit opportunity proven results changed objectives competition kaizenhands-on management fuel for change data driven visibility cross-functional support Company Wide Organization/ Pilot Projects Involvement Systems overcome skepticism weakest link training build credibility internal customers guiding get ball rolling policy deployment : develop champions vendors/customers monitoring rewarding ©1987-2000 Arthur M. Schneiderman :
  • 295. 295 Change Agents• We can all be agents of change “The process of – Developing change-agent (and sales) unleashing skills are as important to our success expertise to as our professional discipline skills implement – The primary purpose of our jobs is to organizational change what needs changing by change adding value each and every day for the purpose of improving – Foresight, flexible, and responsive performance”• Competence maintains the system (Swanson &• Expertise changes the system Holton, p. 260) Development
  • 296. 296Preparing Others for Change• Change Readiness: It is the change agent’s duty to prepare the group for change by conveying credible positive expectations as well as providing empathy and involvement• Building A Shared Vision: The participants in a change process must see what the pain and work of the change process will bring them – the change agent must build a vision with them and continually communicate it• Develop Political Power: Assess support
  • 297. 297Elizabeth Kubler-Ross Model Deal to skip: Detail benefits Sabotage: Acknowledge anger Blame game: Focus on root Shoot messenger: ID poor behavior cause Withdrawal: Focus on problem Owns solutions: Use as Coach Focus on benefits: Provide recognition Forget it: Review business case Apathy: Emphasize inevitability No Control: Stepwise w/ follow-up follow- Rationalize: Allow to sink in Absenteeism: Reinforce positive (from http://www.army.mil/aeioo/tm/) http://www.army.mil/aeioo/tm/)
  • 298. 298Kurt Lewin’s Change Theory Unfreezing Changing Refreezing
  • 299. 299Lewin’s Force Field Analysis Driving Forces E Restraining Forces Q People pressing for U People variables change I resisting change L Structure pressing Structure variables I for change resisting change B Task variables R Task variables pressing for change I resisting changeTechnology variables U Technology variables pressing for change M resisting change
  • 300. 300 The Status Quo Learning Curve Unfreeze Phase Change Phase Refreeze Phase Either decrease restrainingProductivity forces And, then expect temporary decline in performance before formalizing Or, increase changes for driving improvement forces Time“Today’s illiterate are not those who cannot read or write, butthose who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.” -- Alvin Toffler
  • 301. 301 The “Performance Dip”• Change naturally produces a performance dip – Turns out that chaos and creation go hand in hand• Principals and Teachers must make it clear that mistakes are acceptable and avoid any kind of punishment for error in a learning environment• Impetus for change likely to come from outside change agents as internal agents are threatened by their loss of status in the organization and tend to implement only incremental changes
  • 302. Change Commitment Model change is implemented during this phase (from http://www.army.mil/aeioo/tm/)
  • 303. [whatever]. A motivating(From http://www.youroklahoma.com/coreoklahoma/change1.pdf)
  • 304. 304 Project Life Cycle• All ongoing operations and temporary projects (to create / support a unique product, service, or organizational change) are achieved by people, constrained by limited resources, and must be planned, executed, monitored, and controlled – The important framework includes the environment, integration, scope, schedule, cost, team development, communications, risk mitigation, quality, procurement – Life cycle of idea/feasibility/investigation, planning and design, development, turnover/startup, and support phases – each with milestones and deliverables“The ability to learn faster than your competitors may be the only sustainable competitive advantage” (Arie de Geus).
  • 305. 305 Action Research Process Steps:• A combination of research and 1. Diagnosis action involving data gathering, 2. Analysis feedback to the students & staff, 3. Feedback discussion, planning, and action 4. Action• Intentional and goal oriented 5. Evaluation• Linear and continuous Action research benefits:• Then, second-order, Problem-focused rather multidimensional, than solution-centered multilevel, radical, and Heavy employee discontinuous involvement reduces resistance to change
  • 306. 306 PIECES Analysis• School needs, existing processes and systems, and the project scope and boundaries can be identified using the following PIECES frameworkP The need to improve performanceI The need to improve information (and data)E The need to improve economics, control costs, profitsC The need to improve control or securityE The need to improve efficiency of people & processesS The need to improve service to customers, suppliers, partners, and employees
  • 307. 307 Feasibility Analysis• Functional: does it meet student requirements?• Technical: what part can technology assist?• Schedule: can it be completed before the problem goes away?• Organizational (or Operational): can it work?• Motivational: can it be sold to everyone?• Economic: is it affordable (the buck stops here)?• Ethical: is it really the “right” thing to do? [Is it consistent with school value statement?]
  • 308. 308 What Can Be Changed?• Culture – underlying values and goals• Structure – authority relations, coordination mechanisms, and job design• Technology – processes, methods, tools, etc• Physical Setting – workplace space, layout• People – skills, expectations, behaviorsThe target of education is “change and growth in the individual andhis behavior.” -- Bradford, Human Forces in Teaching and Learning Tech Physical Culture Structure People nology Setting
  • 309. 309Potential Sources of Resistance “Lack of effective• Years of practice as leadership,” 1993 autonomous professionals Murrell and Walsh• No past accountability – Conscripted to teaching, see accountability only as compliance• Wants only to work with children• Not open to peer supervision• Failure to focus on outcomes• Inadequate funding• Wedded to non-empirically based theories
  • 310. 310 Schools are Loosely Coupled• There are natural rationality limits: people prefer the simple and easy, but schools especially so – Relatively excessive resources for “slack time” – Lack of coordination and few teaching standards – So that influence is slow and weakens quickly• Making it very difficult to effect sweeping changes – Only few teacher/classrooms or principal/schools• Long recognized, only greatly increased federal accountability, market incentives, and focus on professional culture can possibly break through – But, need to focus on people, relationships, learning
  • 311. 311 Current Approach Flawed• Dr. Cibulka, “Public opinion in many cities favors a major overhaul if not outright dismantling of the present educational governance structure.”• Rationalist strategic planning tools must focus on soft issues instead of structures and standards• Schools are based on ambiguous goals, unclear technologies, and very uncoordinated activities – Teachers and administrators rarely fairly evaluated and there are clearly no real consequences for failure – Decision-making approximates “garbage can” model: little direct resolution, overwhelmed, over politicized
  • 312. 312And, Education is Big Business• At the Federal, state, and local level, America spends >$600 billion a year for K-12 education – Two thirds of Arizona budget, which breeds corruption• But, is state monopoly key problem of education? Or, that few parents would move a failing child?• Current reforms are effecting great improvements (National Governors Ass, 2002; others, 2000-01)• But, need to direct current reform efforts more to supporting teachers and less on pressuring them – Planning must both protect and guide the system – Cohen & March, “Leadership In An Organized Anarchy
  • 313. 313 Living In A “Garbage Can”• A “garbage can” is where decision-making is frequently accidental and solutions often built randomly (with answers out looking for question), where schools go through the “garbage” looking for a suitable pre-paired fix and call it a “solution” – Where schools/districts produce vastly different goals• Involve teachers more in decisions, educating the opposition through participation, trade substance for status, reduce number of projects (first item on any agenda being a “throw away”), but open discussions only after all parties seen privately
  • 314. 314“You Can’t Measure Teaching!”• What else are grades based on? What else is school accreditation all about? Why else should anyone spend more for a “better” education? Are you a good teacher – an opinion based on what? – Discover effective incentives to overcome barriers – Present outside success stories (education & business) – Impart TQI tools and improve staff’s teaming skills – Begin with non-academic tasks, educational subsets (GATE), & student teams to help develop TQI trainers – Capture teacher attention by gradually infusing TQI into a few classrooms and promoting techniques/successes
  • 315. 315 Available Student Metrics• Academic Performance Measurements – Standardized test scores (AYP), local assessments, Grade Point Average, and state effectiveness rubrics• Student Engagement Measurements – Attendance, behavior referrals, attitude, homework completion, drop out rates, graduation rates, course completion, and contributing to school and community• enGauge 21st Century Skills – Digital-Age library, effective communication, inventive thinking, high productivity, and constant adaptation• Longitudinal Databases to track and compare
  • 316. 316 Advantages of Resistance(clash of values, personalities, social norms)• Forces management to check and recheck each and every process improvement proposal – Can help identify specific problem areas where process changes are more likely to cause difficulty• And, gives management information about the intensity of employee emotions on the issues – And, such release of emotions cause employees to think and talk more about the value of changes• Sparing consists of a value statement (code of conduct), opening (bow), sparing (struggle), closing (bow), and conditioning (practice)
  • 317. 317 The Pugh OD Matrix Behavior Structure Context Org. Poor climate: Wrong structure: Wrong strategy: level Feedback survey Change structure Change strategy Lack of PoorInter- Distance: Brings cooperation: coordination:group groups closer Role negotiation Improve liaison Poor team spirit: Unclear tasks: Poor resources:Group Team building Redesign work Change Tech-level exercises system nology or Staffing Poorly defined Poor HRMIndivid Dissatisfaction: jobs: Job application: ual Counseling enrichment Improve HRM
  • 318. 318TheChangeWheelidentifiescriticalsuccessfactorsthat willfacilitateprogramsuccess (From http://www.army.mil/aeioo/docs/TM_Strategy.pdf)
  • 319. 319 Organizational Socialization• Formal – Orientation Programs – New Employee Training – Employee Handbook – Job Rotation• Informal – On-the-job Training – Supervisor/Coworkers • Mentoring – Experiences – Career Functions – Word-of-mouth – Psychosocial Functions
  • 320. 320Translating Organizational Culture Unwritten Expectations, Values, Norms• Core attitudes, values, Rules, Policies, Core Beliefs & Assumptions Core Beliefs & Assumptions Language and and Slogans Behaviors and behavioral norms Control collectively valued by Stories, Legends, and Heroes Systems organizational members Symbols and Artifacts – Rituals, rites, annual Rites, Rituals, and Ceremonies promotion ceremonies – Founder stories, legends, Language heroes, guiding principles – Rules, policies, slogans Rituals Customs – Language, behaviors, communication styles Organization – Control systems – Symbols and artifacts Legends Values
  • 321. 321 Organizational Psychology• All organizations exhibit some psycho-pathology – St. John’s Syndrome and Koinonitis (Much of this • Work is only a means and “groupthink” driven adapted from – Manic and Manic-Depression (Bi-polar) The Paranoid • Grandiose plans with a sense of invincibility Corporation by Cohen and • Respond with structure and performance plans Cohen) – Schizophrenia • Need to define mission and better time management – Common Paranoia and Panic Anxiety • Even successful intervention will make you unpopular – Narcissistic, megalomaniacal, and theomanic • Denial → meet with one-on-one mirroring • Compulsive → meet with best failure awards
  • 322. 322 Organizational “Shrink”• “Any organization that does not perceive its own pathology, its socio-pathology, will destroy itself.” – A lack of self-awareness endangers ones very existence – Such schools will refuse to see internal problems and then naturally project troubles on external sources• Organizational health begins with consciousness – Dr. Senge and others top management consultants refer to this as “presence” – Determine if the current solutions have been coerced
  • 323. 323Culture Effectiveness Continuum (Banner & Gagne)Ineffective • Reactive: Meet challenges with Where does action; always struggling to keep up your school • Responsive: Good in stable fall in the effectiveness environment, but not a dynamic one continuum? • Proactive: Analytical, anticipating What could be emerging trends, and always adapting done to improve the • Interactive: Vision based, functions organizational as an interactive whole, and focuses culture? on connectedness, trust, & teamwork Effective • Inspired: Goes beyond constraints (From http://www.neiu.edu/~aserafin/421/SchoolCulture/)
  • 324. 324OD as a 5-speed Transmission• 1st Gear – Strategy The five – The “it” Organizational Development• 2nd Gear – People “gears” – Who to do it• 3rd Gear – Processes – How to do it• 4th Gear – Technology – With what to do it• 5th Gear – Continuous Improvement – How to do it better
  • 325. 325How Do We Handle Delinquency?• Zero tolerance, scared straight, DARE, boot and wilderness camps, prison, residential treatment centers, group homes, sex offender treatment, and electronic monitoring receive most funding• BUT, none of these address any known risk factors and usually only make things worse!• Elliot (1998) reviewed 500 violence prevention & intervention programs and only 3 did any good – Every study for over three decades have found only Multisystemic Therapy (and two similar ones) effective – Why do we continue to use Entity Theory “cures?”
  • 326. Causal Condensed Longitudinal Model of Delinquency Prior Delinquent Behavior and low Family verbal & social skills Low Parental Monitoring Low Affection High Conflict Delinquent Delinquent Peers Behavior Elliott, Huizinga & Ageton (1985) School Change can occur quickly (even with bipolar disorder, etc) but only if the Low School Involvement treatment providers are held wholly Poor Academic Performance accountable for achieving outcomes and not ever the troubled children
  • 327. 327 Relational Skills Are Critical• Like value of object-oriented coding, or activity- based accounting over task-based balance sheets• Relational skills by parents are first, but then, especially for K-6 education, are the relationships between students, including for peer tutoring and peer collaborative problem solving methodologies – Thus, time and sales (small talk and neuroeconomic psychology) management skills are critical to learning (so, see my “The Holistic Handbook of Direct Sales”)• Working Alliance Inventory (for quality of client- therapist relationship) for teacher effectiveness
  • 328. 328 Working Alliance Inventory• Students scale affirmation to statements like – I believe my teacher likes and understands me – My teacher and I trust each other – My teacher is the best at helping me to learn faster – And, we agree on what is important for me to work on• Teachers scale affirmation to statements like – I believe my student likes and appreciates me – My student and I trust each other – What my student is doing in class provides him or her new ways to look at learning and he or she agrees with and understands what I am doing to aid learning
  • 329. 329 Nine Basic MST Principles• Focuses on building social capital with family, peer, work colleagues, & the community utilizing – Developed when all other programs had failed 1. Individualized design by identifying associated ecological factors – How did we get here? 2. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis) able to be harnessed 3. Increasing individual responsibility for prosocial accountability (compared to just compliance) 4. Action-oriented (for well-defined problems)
  • 330. 330Nine Basic MST Principles (Cont) 5. Systems-based efforts to improve interactions with altruistic, pro-social, support systems 6. Age appropriate assessments and safeguards 7. CMI – daily/weekly measurable improvements with intensive Quality Assurance protocols 8. 360 reviews with MST team taking primary responsibility for successes and failures 9. MST therapists facilitate change by focusing on developing support expertise in the client’s surrounding social systems to maintain growth
  • 331. Cultural “Context” Individual Sibling(s) CommunityParent(s) Family Intervention Points
  • 332. Conduct therapy so that it matches theindividual family by identifying outcomes Cultural “Context” consistent with their unique features, that are necessary to help, that are obtainable by this family in this situation Individual Sibling(s) Community Parent(s) Family Intervention Points
  • 333. Conduct therapy so that it matches the Respect for each family, itsindividual family by identifying outcomes Cultural individuality, culture, and its situation “Context” consistent with their unique features, from viewing our families as: comes that are necessary to help, that are 1) unique organization obtainable by this family in this situationdifferent and complicated 2) Individual social systems 3) each with strengths and resources Sibling(s) Community to be tapped Parent(s) Family Intervention Points
  • 334. 334 Community Based MST Efforts• To empower (with leadership and management training) and rally key decision makers so as to increase accessibility to key needed resources – Community support for any and all contributing issues – Big Brother Sister (or similar) neighborhood programs – Neighborhood Watch and security (locks, fencing, surveillance, and immediate cleansing of graffiti) – After-school community sport programs and Health centers (for drug screening with counseling for infectious diseases as well as behavior therapies) with long-term in-home or in-school follow-up services – Involvement forced by flexible local drug courts!
  • 335. 335 Multisystemic Therapy (MST)• Single therapist working with only 4 to 6 families• 4 months is the minimum treatment time• Structured training (orientation and booster)• On-job training (weekly expert case review)• Weekly supervision of a group of 3-8 therapists• Treatment fidelity and adherence is measured with relation to the nine principles listed next slide• Increased mainstream school attendance with organizational support for adherence to MST Valuable skills for all organizational coaches
  • 336. 336 No Hand-holding• Don Bacon is a “dropout specialist” at TUSD Saguaro High School and runs their ICE (Isolated Classroom Experience) program – Local schools found that kids who get in trouble and get sent home are likely to drop out altogether – So, they’re now kept on campus and sent to Bacon – Visiting homes to lure back students missing class• Since the program started, dropout rates at the school are now below 1% (had been 7-10%)• All but 2 TUSD high schools have like programs – Student time-out program (STOP), Saturday School and Student Court, Peer Mediation, and Anti-Bullying
  • 337. 337 We need the same no hand-holding for our schools Normal Exceeding School Slope Expectations B to 100% % A ProficiencyProficient C Not meeting AYP D Negative expectations always F Slope means intervention or team intersession Is Failing! should be executed! Current Time Target Performance Performance Level Level
  • 338. 338 What is an Intervention? (must not be part of any blame game)• Tiger Teams provide short-term intensive focus on a single, recurrent self-defeating problem – Holistic strategy for education, measurements, goal setting, problem definition, structure, challenging irrational beliefs, and unrealistic expectations – Reflective process to establish key goals, criteria for evaluation, model for change, break cycles, and provide peer pressure needed to accomplish tasks• Termination of effort upon meeting goals, progress not maintained, or participant refusal
  • 339. 339 Tiger Team Best Practices• Small focused team that works well together• Clear procedures for activating the team• Determine nature and scope of incident• Define and assign team roles, schedules, and metrics with dedicated tracking and reporting• Produce, approve, and implement plan – Identify Achilles heels and potential costs – Vulnerability Report with initial work-around• No more than days to weeks for results – Exit plan (even if plan not approved)
  • 340. 340What is an AZ ASSIST Coach?• ASSIST (Arizona School Site Improvement Support Team) Coaches support schools by: – Promoting effective planning that incorporates the Solutions Team Statement of Findings with the Arizona School Improvement Plan (ASIP) designed to address the specific developmental needs and priorities identified by the Solutions Team – Assisting coordination of internal & external resources including the school’s improvement / leadership team – Documenting the progress and implementation of the ASIP and Solutions Team Statement of Findings recommendations for improving student achievement (From http://www.ade.state.az.us/schooleffectiveness/schoolimprovement/ASSIST/default.asp)
  • 341. 341 A Few ASSIST Insights• Keep it simple => target 3-5 goals that will have the greatest impact on teaching – Focus on those things in your local control• Ensure the School Improvement Plan is a living document and not merely words – Set the bar beyond what seems possible – Develop multiple leadership sources• Create a teaming/trusting atmosphere (http://www.scho – Remember that change is always messy olsmovingup.net/ cs/az/print/htdoc (AZ School Improvement Director Brian s/az/home.htm) Putnam volunteered to assist any school)
  • 342. 342Integrity Means Walk the Talk• “Talk” = Average Yearly Progress Only Bloom is Currently rd and Improving!• In 05-06, 3 5th grade Writing Walk greatly declined (25% and 13%) Talk We’re doing the talk• NCLB requires that every Arizonian student pass state AIMS testing in Reading, Writing, and Math by 2013-14 through annual Acceptable Yearly Progress (But, NOT the walk!)
  • 343. 343 Some Relevant Information• Note that Erickson’s performance jumped one year why? Could it be due to an “experiment” of TWO school counselors – the results of which were very promptly wholly ignored and forgotten?• Also note, Erickson fell below NCLB minimums in 2004. Any school below such minimums should fire their principal instead, the district promoted Erickson’s principal to run two excelling schools! – He convinced parents of surrounding schools, mostly Bloom, to move their kids to one school, Wrightstown, which may have created a performance jump at Bloom
  • 344. 344“F” Trend Demands Intervention
  • 345. 345Alas, At Every TUSD School Not improving when looking at raw scores
  • 346. 346Even Old Excelling Schools
  • 347. 347And, Recent Excelling Schools
  • 348. 348 Required Ingredients• Just as bread requires flour and heat, education require classroom management skills and the unshakable conviction that every child can excel – “Teachers’ expectations have dramatic affects on children’s intellectual development” Livingston, 1988• Tailor using statistics/data center & systems view• Building confidence with experiences of triumph – And, teachers can be encouraged by variable pay for their management, encouragement, and math skills• Beginning every class with an ethics discussion – Social studies for building civic conscientiousness
  • 349. 349 In Conclusion There are three growth paths key to education:1) Building a “Hero” – Plato’s “ethical warrior” While math, science, and language skills should be the core purpose of education, the primary means should be by simply raising our children to become better people.2) Building a “Scientist” – Plato’s “rational leader” Isidore Rabi (Nobel Prize winner in physics) once said when others were asked “What did you learn today?” his mother asked “Izzy, did you ask a good question today?” And, asking good questions made him into a scientist.3) Building a “Change Agent” – Plato’s “producer”
  • 350. 350 What Is An Adult?• “Primitive” cultures identify passage to adulthood by the Vision Quest that defined one’s identity• “Modern” cultures measure adulthood by critical thinking and math proficiency, for example, Six Sigma determines an employee’s capacity to contribute by one finishing Freshman Statistics – If one is “not good at math,” it is only likely one was expected to advance without ever learning fractions• Regardless of chronological age, one without a vision or math competency can be considered rightfully emotionally and intellectually infantile
  • 351. 351 Adult Behavior Example• When one is presented with a bulb turning on while one of two switches is up, people typically start with positive possibilities (what would cause the bulb to light) and then modify the resulting conclusion with negative possibilities (when the bulb is off). Ultimately, we would consider any valuable purposes for such a circuit and seek out others with whom to share the experience.• An “infant” will just look at the light and say, “uh” – This is not a proper emotional “living in the moment” response but only the action of a parasitical entity
  • 352. 352 What’s A “Good” Culture• Typical measurements from a subjective social capital view: individual morale and satisfaction – Do you like what you do and are you good at it? Sadly, 7 out of 10 adults and 9 out of 10 children say, “No!” – Theoretical goal of education is to “fix” this (morale the result of legitimacy and satisfaction from competency)• Also, needs objective long-term public moral good – Just as govt. needed to force orphan drug development – It is said, the rich plan for 3 generations while the poor plan at most for the weekend (Japs plan up to 20 gens) – Spiritual Theory about quality of relationships and the success at stopping bullies (who now rule our schools)
  • 353. 353 Coming 4th “Great Awakening”• Argued by Economics Nobel Prize winner Fogel – The “Three Great Awakenings” was a religious / social revival (as notable as Luther’s Protestant Reformation) that drove scientific, industrial, and information ages – Poverty instead of being the wages of personal sin are now seen as the by-product of broader flaws in society• Passing through a “disruption” of old social norms failing to cross ethnic, class, & status boundaries – So, unable to trust family (divorce) or strangers (crime)• With a fresh spiritual base for new Symbiotic Age – Equality of purpose replacing opportunity and condition• Fogel says key is more education (esp. financial)
  • 354. 354 “Good” Culture Builds Trust• As institutions were formalized, personal social capital allowed to decline and we lost “village” ID – More likely to be proud of exercise class than school – So, need to build small teams of students and teachers (one of key design goals of extracurricular activities)• More responsibly breads greater trust / respect – Another reason students must drive own education (by leading Data Center, conferences, open house, etc)• Team charter / classroom business documents – Detailing expectations, responsibilities, consequences, and rewards for students, teachers, as well as parents
  • 355. 355 Not Filling Cups, Lighting Fires• The first step in becoming a “hero” is to find one’s “voice” (or source of power, or individual strength) – “First, you have to want to go somewhere,” M.J. Adams• This occurs from the value choices we make (and while people create ideas, we “plagiarize” values): – So, who are (or were) your childhood heroes? Mine were Mary Poppins (because she could turn any job into a game) and Frank Serpico (because he seemed capable of sacrificing everything for what he believed) – And, how do you want history to remember you? I’ve always wanted to be known for saying something original (I haven’t done it yet, but I’m still working at it)
  • 356. 356 Hero: More Than A Sandwich • The second step in becoming a “hero” is to be part of a team (“team spirit,” to do it for the team) – Great runners naturally perform below their individualMyNative levels, say, as members of a team. But, a good coachLand can flame the desire to learn and produce by strokingby W. team relational affection to where member’s personalScott times synergistically surpass any and all prior ceilings • Utilizing weaknesses to make all feel special – A good choir director, say, will mix “limited” singers into great performances (utilizing the whole team) – Marva Collins even had parents complain their kids didn’t want to watch TV anymore, only read and study
  • 357. 357 The Developing Scientist• First, is to question everything, always checking facts and understanding (regardless of source) – A teacher once told me she had a “problem” child who just that day had asked if rocks were alive (ha ha) and I suggested instead of ridiculing the kid perhaps she should have talked about how Native Indians believe rocks are spiritually alive but science minimally defines physically alive by being able to move, eat, reproduce; and she replied, “I see you were a problem child, too.”• The idea that any scientific premise is open to debate is one of the hallmarks of real science – Law of Gravity fails to explain planet Mercury or atoms
  • 358. 358 Science• Some good statistical practices – Blind population sampling to combat “fudging” (sadly done in only 1% of education dissertations), tests for reliability and internal consistency, good experimental quality controls, writing conclusions (Null Hypothesis) before taking data, probabilities of predicted events – “The main problem seems to be poor training and a general horror of anything to do with mathematics,” says Michael Festing in “The Design of Experiments”• Student must learn how to spot “urban legends” – To value degrees, peer-review, & valid textbook theory (by schools focus on science method during teaching)
  • 359. 359 The Budding Change Agent• Lastly, take our voice and logic to collaboratively resolve real world problems as a Salesperson• Do community or school improvement projects – When Alexandra Scott was four-years old, she started a lemonade stand to raise money to fight cancer, she raised $2,000 the first year – kids around the country followed suit and together they raised over $900,000• Do national or corporate science fair projects• Start a business (Junior Achievement, NFTE, etc) – Selling brownies, cleaning or yard work, baby sitting, car washing, tutoring, puppeteering, or Internet sales
  • 360. 360 And, That’s In The Real World• CEO’s of top German software development companies have all likely spent at least 6 months on a production line filing small metal parts since they believe even software is for a physical world – They also believe such efforts teach self-discipline• Both classic psychology & modern neuroscience show multitasking with technology often harmful (memory and thinking is measurably muddled) – Texting while driving more dangerous than a DUI – People are 55% more likely to lie online or in an email – Kids today more likely to write only paragraph snippets
  • 361. 361 Discussion Question What is the difference between goal-driven and purpose-driven quality programs? • Goal-Driven • Purpose-Driven – To-do list of short-term – To-be list of long-term sequential objectives core values/principles – Success defined by – Success defined by achieving goal(s) staying on the path – After needs are met, – Never ending effort for program is finished systemic improvementsIs one better? Or, are both equally important?
  • 362. 362 More Reflective Dialoque• How do you identify strategical and tactical goals?• How do you know that your strategic planning matches your vision as well as short-term goals?• How do you know that the decisions you made five months ago still matter and are valid today?• What information is important to pay attention to?• If there were no time or financial limitations, what would the ideal school environment look like?• Rich Dad Poor Dad’s Rob Kiyosaki made a million dollar career out of mocking his real “poor” Dad’s failed dreams for education reform. Is Rob right?
  • 363. 363 Flowers Are Red By Harry ChapinYour son marches to the beat of a different drummer, comer.But dont worry,Well have him joining the parade by the end of the termThe little boy went first day of schoolHe got some crayons and started to drawHe put colors all over the paperFor colors was what he sawAnd the teacher said What you doin young manIm paintin flowers he saidShe said... Its not the time for art young manAnd anyway flowers are green and redTheres a time for everything young manAnd a way it should be done
  • 364. 364 Flowers Are Red (Continued) By Harry ChapinYouve got to show concern for everyone elseFor youre not the only oneAnd she said...Flowers are red young manGreen leaves are greenTheres no need to see flowers any other wayThan they way they always have been seenBut the little boy said...There are so many colors in the rainbowSo many colors in the morning sunSo many colors in the flower and I see every oneWell the teacher said Youre sassyTheres ways that things should be
  • 365. 365 Flowers Are Red (Continued) By Harry ChapinAnd youll paint flowers the way they areSo repeat after me...And she said...Flowers are red young manGreen leaves are greenTheres no need to see flowers any other wayThan they way they always have been seenBut the little boy said...There are so many colors in the rainbowSo many colors in the morning sunSo many colors in the flower and I see every oneThe teacher put him in a cornerShe said... Its for your own good
  • 366. 366 Flowers Are Red (Continued) By Harry ChapinAnd you wont come out til you get it rightAnd are responding like you shouldWell finally he got lonelyFrightened thoughts filled his headAnd he went up to the teacherAnd this is what he said... and he saidFlowers are red and green leaves are greenTheres no need to see flowers any other wayThan the way they always have been seenBut, there still must be a way to have our children sayThere are so many colors in the rainbowSo many colors in the morning sunSo many colors in the flower and I see every one
  • 367. 367 “Too Much Education”• Einstein wrote to a student who wanted to see all the colors, “I suffered exactly the same treatment at the hands of my teachers who disliked me for my independence and passed over me when they wanted assistants ... There is too much education altogether, especially in American schools.” – (Albert Einstein, The World as I See It, 1949, p 21)• But, being wholly ignored by his educators may have permitted Einstein to have such a different scientific point of view, allowing his “deschooling”• What will you now do to help build better schools?
  • 368. 368 Four Reform“It takes a master Principlescarpenter to build a Accountability: Guaranteeing Results barn, but any Research-Based Reforms: Only jackass can kick Proven Methods with Proven Results one down.” Flexibility: Local Control for Local Lyndon Johnson Challenges (state, school, classroom) Parental Options: Choices for Parents Providing Real Hope for Kids
  • 369. 369FINAL MESSAGE If just one person was able to walk 32 kids through college ANDMichigan Education YES! teach them all how to do the same, in his or her lifetime all six billion people on the earth would wind up with a college degree.No Child Left Behind IS Possible!

×