Best Practices


Published on

How To Ensure That All Students Are Learning

Introduction to the problem – who’s to blame
Key education culture and teaching issues
Teachers Advancement Program (TAP) and other known key predictors of teaching success
No Child Left Behind Education Reform and growth in Charter Schools (where Arizona is #1)
Lessons Learned, Lean Techniques, Project and Experience-based Approaches, Baldridge Award
And, using Systems Theory for inspiration

Published in: Education, Technology
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Best Practices

  1. 1. Quality Goes to School: Best Practices HOW TO ENSURE THAT ALL STUDENTS ARE LEARNING By Jim Maginnis Organizational Kinetics Copyright 2006 - 2010Some slides are adapted from presentations done by Grand Blanc Community Schools, Michigan
  2. 2. 2 Lecture Agenda• Introduction to the problem and Entity Theory• Getting together and Teacher Advancement Prg.• No Child Left Behind and the Baldrige Award• Centering around the Classroom Data Center• Learning Theory and the Learning Organization• Strategic Planning Tools: Affinity and Fishbone Diagrams, Pareto Analysis, Value Statement, Cheerleading, becoming a Change Agent, etc.• Multisystemic Therapy and Team Interventions• And, everywhere Systems Theory for direction
  3. 3. 3 2 Million Minutes Pop Quiz (*)• What is the population of India, of China?• How many K-12 children are in India, in China?• What percentage of American engineering PhDs go to foreign nationals each year? (60%)• In last 5 years, what ethnic group started more Silicon Valley based venture-capital firms?• What foreign languages are most likely taught in U.S.? China? India? Which foreign languages have the CIA identified as most strategic to U.S.?• Largest English-speaking country in 2020? (China)
  4. 4. 4 U.S. Schools At All Time Low• 1862 Reader considered too hard for today’s kids – 1920 Reader intro-ed 345 words while today’s only 53• SAT & literacy scores peaked for kids of the 50’s – American SAT scores unbroken decline 1963 to 1982 • While GPAs rise, Harvard 1890: 2.27, 1950: 2.55, 2004: 3.48(*)• Anti-intellectual post-modernism among educators lamented by John Dewey is worse problem today – HRs prefer social skills over reading, writing, and math• 44% of Singapore’s students reached the TIMSS advanced benchmark; only 7% of U.S. students – In no state do half of 8th graders read at grade <28%> • See Dumbest Generation and Dumbing Down Our Kids
  5. 5. 5 With 82% Overall Failure Rate(with “AZ producing country’s lowest student testing levels” *)• Our children typically drop out or graduate without ever having learned much or grown intellectually – Illiteracy grown from 2.5% to 14% over past century and now 50-70% of adults are but “functional illiterates”• For every 100 American students in 9th grade, 67 graduate from high school, 38 enter college (20 for blacks, 16 for Latinos), and 18 graduate with an associate or baccalaureate degree in six years• That’s a H.S. to college failure rate of 82 percent! – US women graduate college 35% more often than men and are thus twice as likely to be able to afford a home – Teenage suicides increased three fold (boys 4X > girls)
  6. 6. 6 Other Countries Not In Decline• When Japanese students finish High School (and 96% of them graduate), they leave with education American kids get only after two years of college – Japanese teachers at all levels are better prepared in math and so their instruction is far more sophisticated – America (was first) now ranks 12th for college degrees!• The exodus of jobs abroad is not to utilize cheap labor but a far more highly educated workforce – Foreign companies create more U.S. patents, China has passed U.S. in direct foreign investment, Japan has more engineers (with 4 other countries, S. Korea, Sweden, Finland, & Israel, spends more GDP on R&D)
  7. 7. 7Education Forgotten in the West“It is possible to enter an urban school in China orIndia or Brazil and immediately recognize a way oforganizing education that has become completelytaken for granted in the West. Students sit passivelyin separate classrooms. Everything is coordinatedby a predetermined plan, with bells and whistlesand rules to keep things moving like one giantassembly line throughout each hour, day, and year.”p. 7 of Presence: Human Purpose, 2004 by Senge,Scharmer, Jaworski, and Flowers (Harvard Reviewsaid this was the most important text in 75 years).
  8. 8. 8 Losing Our Competitiveness• Until American schools are redesigned, declared Microsoft’s Bill Gates at a summit of the nation’s governors, “We will keep limiting, even ruining, the lives of millions of Americans every year.” – The chief executives of Intel and Cisco Systems later also suggested that America’s lackluster schools will force American companies to look overseas for talent• Students from China, India, and South Korea seeking U.S. degrees declined by 16% in 2008 (*) – Services, now more than half our economy, usually do little process design, organization, management R&D
  9. 9. Percentage of new entrants to the labor market that have completed higher education Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2007 60 50United States Canada 40 Sweden Denmark Finland 30 Norway Belgium Ireland 20 Quality is not any particular level of Spain performance but about constantly Korea measurable improvements – and 10 every country seems to be beating the U.S. in this all important regard 0 1975-79 1980-84 1985-89 1990-94 1995-99
  10. 10. 80% of the World’s Middle ClassGrowth is in Asia (as ours decline) Percentage of Middle Class in the West and Asia When Indian Infosys hired 10,000 new consultants in 2003, they chose from 1.2 million qualified applicants! Source: United Nations, World Bank, Surjit S. Bhalla, Second Among Equals: The Middle Class Kingdoms of India and China, May 2007,
  11. 11. Born in the USA, but Now Global Percentage of Revenues Generated Overseas 56% 63% 63% 66% 76% 52% 95% 66% Sources: 3M Co., Apple Inc., Coca Cola Co., Google Inc., Hewlett-Packard Co., McDonalds Corp., Pfizer Inc., Qualcomm Inc. Most recent data available in each companies’ latest financial statements. December 31, 2010 (Apple Inc.), September 30, 2010 (McDonalds Corp., Coca Cola Co., Google Inc., Pfizer Inc., Qualcomm Inc. ), July 31, 2010 (Hewlett-Packard Co.), December 31, 2009 (3M Co.). Foreign Revenue is based on Total Revenue – Domestic Revenue. Logos are trademarks of their respective owners and are used for illustrative purposes and should not be construed as an endorsement or sponsorship of Franklin Templeton Investments.
  12. 12. 12 As Low-skilled Jobs Disappear(worldwide as well as in our “fast food nation”) Tyler, Texas, 1964 (360 acres) run by but three operators, needing merely a high school © 2005 educationBut, the 1972 upgrade eliminated all three operators
  13. 13. 13Degrees & Certs Now Required• Fortune says just as America lost about 2 million industrial jobs mostly to China, China lost 15 million industrial jobs mostly to robots / machines• The greatest openings for U.S. jobs today are for cashier, retail sales, and fast food preparation• But, the fastest growing jobs are home health aid, network manager, software engineer, veterinary technicians, and personal financial advisors (*)• Many jobs didn’t exist 10 years ago (Sustainability Expert, App Developer, Chief Listening Officer )
  14. 14. 14 Few Better Than A Ditch Digger“Many leave H.S. with 3rd grade vocabulary” - Dr. Beck, 2002• One hose will fill a ditch in 45 minutes and another hose will fill it in 30 minutes. How long will it take to fill the ditch if you were to use both hoses?• If you were a Japanese (or Chinese) 12-year old, you would have 1 minute to finish this problem• And, a middle aged blue-collar Japanese worker (say, a ditch digger) can likely answer correctly – Sadly, even more likely than the American student who has just completed a course in “college” Algebra
  15. 15. 15 Most Money Gets Low ScoresAmerica’s test scores are unfortunately beaten by the children of most industrialized countries (another study puts us just above South Africa)
  16. 16. 16From Seth Godin’s The Big Moo• Imagine a potbellied office worker annoyed to be outside his office as they won’t permit smoking inside. He’s puffing as hard as he can, anxious about getting back to work because he’s focused on solving the “urgent” problems of his life. He’s not focused one bit on losing weight, giving up cigarettes, or understanding how tense he is – he figures that there will be time for that later. The time to panic, however, is long before he’s in the hospital having bypass surgery (but, he’s likely to only then finally make the time to worry about it).
  17. 17. 17 The Time To PANIC Is Past!• A 1990 National Center on Education & Economy study stated “We found little evidence of a far- reaching desire for a more educated workforce” Few people are panicking, but they should be! – 30% of college freshmen are put into remedial courses for material they should have learned in high school (Achieve, The Expectations Gap: A 50-State Review of High School Graduation Requirements, 2004). – Poor eating, smoking, & academic habits by 2nd grade• 50 million play in Internet-based games looking for a place where everyone starts off the same – Education was supposed to provide this opportunity
  18. 18. 18 What Is Most Important?• The first promise we give our children is a free education (1/3 of public workers are in education) – “Some of the staunchest opponents of socialism have also been the most ardent supporters of free education for all – a transfer that exceeds the value of all privately held land and industrial capital.” Dr. Robert Fogel (*) – Universal education reflects agreement that it is key to highly performing adults capable of defeating barriers and higher graduation standards improve job finding (*) – Entails a learning environment for children and adults by certified teachers & curricula with standard testing – First to UNICEF’s mandate is quality education for all – Parents moving to Florida for Bright Future Grants (*)
  19. 19. 19 Our Best Legacy Protection• Education is the “silver bullet” for all that ails us – Education means more money and self-determination• Student performance accountability has become the most prominent educational policy “issue” – (• Sadly, American children can look to the two kids next to them in class and know one will likely not graduate from High School – key to a living wage – Only 4-5 in the class will likely graduate by 25 with a 2-4 year degree – key to being able to afford a home – 98% of livable jobs need a HS degree and average BS graduate earns almost $1 million more than HS grad.
  20. 20. 20 Best Prosperity Predictor• Wilkinson and Pickett establish in The Spirit Level how one factor most determines society’s health – Not resources, diet, government style, national wealth• America, the richest country on earth, has shorter life spans, more mental illness, more obesity, and more of its citizens in prison than any rich country• As prosperity due to reduced income disparity – Currently greater than any other country (or other time); Greenspan: “Very disturbing trend” due to education – The average US CEO was paid 36x the average worker in 1976, 131x in 1993, and 369x today (Ariely, 2008) – Arizona has greatest income disparity in America
  21. 21. 21 Education Disparity At Core• The decline in American test scores greatest for African-American and Hispanic students – TIMSS scores for Black children on par with Thailand – Black 12th Graders on par with White 8th Graders – So, most minorities are shut out of higher paying jobs• China’s top leaders are scientists and engineers – President Hu Jintao a hydroelectric engineer, Premier Wen Jiabao a geological engineer (and predecessors Jiang Zemin and Zhu Rongji both electrical engineers) • Recently funded large tech tax breaks and science education – With only 41% of US STEM (science, tech, eng, math) students graduating within 6 years*, jobs going to Asia
  22. 22. 22 Relativism Threatens Change• “I said to myself” and “it works for me” elevated to “rational” (as subjective experiences define truth) – This is very different from Pluralism (being only about tolerance for different views) and the Scientific Method – In a pluralistic society everyone has the fundamental right to be wrong, while in a relativistic society we all have the completely goofy right to be right, all the time!• And so, “best practices” today only best hunches – Instead, we need to hire teachers with best credentials (and pay them accordingly), use only research-based programs, and stick but to experience-based practices – And, schools must be more inclusive (student / parent)
  23. 23. 23 And Lack of Professionalism• Dr. Doug Lemov, (author of Teach Like a Champ) – Sign of competency: “Champion Teachers get 100% of their students to do what they want 100% of the time”• Change requires top-down ability to trust – Needed for any organization to engage in global trade • Only formally a part of society for a few hundred years – Formal structures: professional standards, rule of law, as well as liberal democracy with universal suffrage – Informal structures: Ellison’s Spiritual Well-being, Owen’s Openness, and Shaw’s Trust assessments – Genuine people, reliable, able to self-disclose, easily reciprocate, with a code of conduct (or, “professional”)
  24. 24. 24 As Teachers Are Not Prepared• Critics of teaching “best practices” say schools fail to adequate impart public speaking skills, group leadership, proper use of student test data, or how to handle (and model dealing with) bullies – Alas, these recognized “best practices” are not taught• “It’s complicated in the U.S. because we don’t as a country agree teachers need much preparation,” Dr. Suzanne Wilson, Chair of Teacher Education at Michigan State University (API: May 26, 2010) – Education Secretary Arne Duncan, “Despite evidence teachers are not properly prepared, colleges resistant to change and states reluctant to use proven test data”
  25. 25. 25 How To Pay The Nation’s DebtImagine if the salaries and retirement savings of allgovernment employers was cut by 20%, new laborlaws allowed the dismissal of any employee, andtaxes and fuel prices were both increased 30%... inbut just one day. At the same time, the pervasivecorruption of high-level politicians extending wellinto the private sector in order to bleed the countrydry became undeniable (where 0.3% of GNP wentto bribes). This is Greece in 2010; will it surpriseyou when it’s reported here? Illinois passed a 66%income tax increase in January 2011 to help paybut half of the expected $16 Billion budget shortfall.
  26. 26. 26 Why I Built This Presentation?My education/life was in a world where egos andcodependent relationships often create personalgoals that undermine best practices. Alas, everyschool is perfectly designed to achieve exactlythe results it gets (with only their builders able tomake changes). Except, as schools struggle todefend (or cover up) their elaborate techniquesand try to explain why morale is low, they do littlemore than blame the victims of those systems. It’s time to stop blaming the children when there are “professional” adults in the room
  27. 27. 27 First Step Always Vocabulary• When Confucius decided to work for the local reining prince, he considered the first task to be “defining the names of things” since when words do not correspond to facts, improvements and justice not possible and people only confused – Likewise, when God gave Adam the task of managing the world, the first task was also to name everything – Vision more key than ideas (30% are in creative class) – Disraeli, “Key to success is consistency of purpose.”• Such legitimacy starts with valid perspective – Do children have an educational “issue” or “injury?” Do teachers use an Entity or Systems Theory viewpoint?
  28. 28. 28Who’s To Blame? The college professor said: “Such rawness in a student is a shame, lack of preparation in High School is to blame.”
  29. 29. 29 Who’s To Blame?Said the HighSchool teacher:“Good heavens!That boy’s a fool.The fault ofcourse is with theMiddle School.”
  30. 30. 30 Who’s To Blame?The MiddleSchool teachersaid:“From stupiditymay I be spared.They sent him inso unprepared.”
  31. 31. 31Who’s To Blame? The primary teacher huffed: “Kindergarten blockheads all. They call that preparation – why, it’s worse than none at all.”
  32. 32. 32Who’s To Blame? The Kindergarten teacher said: “Such lack of training never did I see. What kind of woman must that mother be.”
  33. 33. 33 Who’s To Blame?The mother said:“Poor helplesschild. He’s not toblame. His father’speople were all thesame.”
  34. 34. 34 Who’s To Blame? Said the father at the end of the line: Americans so love to blame, we “I doubt the rascal’s have 4% of world’s even mine.” population but 25% of prisoners. And sadly, about a fifth of the time, he’s right! (Phillipp, 1972; DNA Diagnostics Center, Texas, 1999; Popovich, 2000)
  35. 35. 35 The “Fragile” Disadvantaged (core to America’s future, whatever that may be)• Alas, conventional pedagogical wisdom holds the poor, the disadvantaged, and “culturally different” are a fragile lot; that the academic rigor by and large found only in elite or private schools would crush the lower self-esteem of such children – For example, a past Odyssey of the Mind coordinator repeatedly told me it was commonly known that ALL of the city’s “gifted” children lived in the wealthier foothills• We must “deschool” such teacher-friendly outlook – Ivan Illich said (1970) student imagination is “schooled” to accept effort in place of value (as health treatment is mistaken for care – it’s not just the thought that counts)
  36. 36. 36 The “Giving Enemy” Claim• The “poor” child supposedly carries a crushingly heavy bundle of cultural and intellectual baggage – “Disadvantaged,” “socially deprivation,” absent fathers, and illegitimacy is said to cause child’s failure to learn – Every major social problem (crime, unemployment, etc) has been framed within such a victim-blaming ideology• Which are the most run down federal buildings? Prisons? No, it’s our public Elementary Schools. – Moreover, what of frightened and insensitive teachers, incompetent principals, irrelevant curriculum, insulting history books, as well as the many other ways schools fail to teach? (see Blaming the Victim by William Ryan)
  37. 37. 37 In 1969, William Ryan wrote, “Despite all their fancy words, it’s still bigotry”• They boldly shout, “The neglected are not BORN inferior, circumstances have MADE them inferior.” – But, just a new and greater stigma, “They can easily get out of the cycle of neglect if only they were motivated” – They condemn the vague social pressures of the past while ignoring the victimizing social forces right now!• The formula is so smooth, it seems totally rational – First, find a social problem and identify those affected – Second, measure how they’re different from rest of us, how they’re less competent, skilled or, less “human” – Third, characterize these differences as the root cause – Finally, build a bureaucracy to help “fix” the victim
  38. 38. 38When “Helping” Makes It Worse• In 1951, Powers & Witmer studied 630 delinquent boys, half were counseled and sent to YMCA and half were sent home. After 5 years, the therapists felt most of the boys had “benefited substantially.” All the so "schooled" boys agreed saying therapy gave them insights and the YMCA kept them out of trouble. But, a 1981 study showed the “helped” boys committed twice the felonies and also doubly affected by alcoholism, depression, mental illness, and lower job satisfaction than those simply left alone (The Crying Game by Dr. Richard Bolstad).
  39. 39. 39 “Help” Making It Worse (Cont)• Violence in American streets can similarly only be truly addressed when gangs are seen as an asymptotic key to the solution instead of only as a primary entity root cause (as gangs are but a natural result of the relational disorganization of disfranchised Irish, Italian, Black, Hispanic, etc).• While Chicago’s Vice Lords opened schools and businesses and the Black Panthers gave kids breakfast, the “War on Gangs” only caused an end to reforms with more ghettos and violence (it’s LA’s FACES that’s uniting the Red & Blue).
  40. 40. 40 “Help” Making It Worse (Cont)• While it’s popular to think guns are responsible for violence in Africa, political scientists agree it’s instead the well-intentioned actions of American relief efforts that corrupt governments by “giving them fish instead of teaching them how to fish.” (State-Building: Governance Fukuyama 2004; Dead Aid, Mayo 2009) – Then, after failing, they cry, “I just need more money!”• William Ryan suggested school vouchers (AZ #1 in Charter School Law), tying teachers’ salaries to standardized test scores (AZ had country’s 1st TAP pilot program), shrinking bureaucracy (half the cost of education), and jobs (not job training)
  41. 41. 41 Unfair Advantage Of Wealth• Marilyn Adams tells in “Beginning to Read” how Middle Class children get 3000 hours of reading books, rhymes, and other pre-literacy training while poor kids get only 200 hours of such stuff – Further, that middle class parents talk twice as often as well as four times more positively to their children• She suggests that what happens during the first five years is the best predictor of future reading – Yet, 80% of U.S. millionaires self-made, half with no inheritance, and sadly 4 out of 5 of their children fail (*)• What if we capture and deliver best teaching?
  42. 42. 42We know our children are not the problem asIn Marva Collins South Chicago school’s first year,all 13 learning disabled, low IQ children (labeled as “unable to read”) tested as advancing five years Illiterate Fourth graders taught by Ron Clark in Harlem read at above grade in but three monthsBronx school children taught by David MacEnultywon the NYC Chess Tournament (as well as 200trophies in the top 5 in the nation) EVERY YEARHigh School students taught by Jaime Escalante in East LA were more likely to graduate from Ivy League colleges than kids from Hollywood High
  43. 43. 43 “Teachers are not equipped with the skills and knowledge they need to excel.” - Louis V. Gerstner Jr. (was CEO of IBM until 2002 and is now Chairman of the Carlyle Group)“People still believe in the tradition of dedicated,self-sacrificing school teachers. They don’t know how the profession has changed What was once the poor man’s burden has become everyone’s.” - Marva Collins (Marva Collins Story) “With this new generation and these new teachers, I don’t think [schools] are going to change too much.” - Dr. Jaime Escalante (America’s Greatest Teacher, Stand and Deliver)
  44. 44. 44 “Schools bring little influence to bear on a child’s achievement that is independent of his background and general social context; this very lack of an independent effect means that the inequalities imposed on children by their home,neighborhood, and peer environment are carried along to become the inequalities with which theyconfront adult life at the end of school. Equality ofeducational opportunity must imply a strong effect of schools independent of the child’s immediate environment, and that strong independent effect is not present in American schools.” - Dr. James Coleman
  45. 45. 45“How many effective schools would you have to see to be persuaded of the educability of poorchildren? If your answer is more than one, then I submit that you have reasons of your own for preferring to believe that basic pupil performance derives from family background instead of school response to family background. Whether or not we will ever effectively teach the children of the poor isprobably far more a matter of politics than of social science and that is as it should be.” - Dr. Ron Edmonds
  46. 46. 46 “An effective school is defined in the research as one in which equal proportions of low and middle income level children evidence high levels of mastery of the essential curriculum. In an effectiveschool, there are no differences in the proportion of students mastering the basic skills as a function of the group to which they belong.” - Dr. Larry Lezotte and Dr. Ron Edmonds “We can produce many examples of howeducational practice could look different, but we can produce few, if any, examples of teachers engaging in these practices.” - Dr. Richard F. Elmore (father of school reform)
  47. 47. 47 “There are schools that have done this – but it all depends on the leader. Even a popular principal can be responsible for a failing culturewith, ‘let’s all be happy and take care of these kid’s social and emotional needs that’s the best wecan do.’ In that case, I tell them that’s hogwash and that they’re only being content to sentence these children to a life of poverty (very respectfully, of course). Alas, some are just doing whatever theycan merely to be compliant and stay out of trouble. And, we have eight schools this year that went toperforming and now are back at underperforming.” - Brian Putnam, Director AZ School Improvement
  48. 48. 48 What’s The Problem?“To many neuroscientists, todays mainstreameducation system is mired firmly where medicinewas during the Middle Ages. Practices continuebased on tradition, not science, just as medievaldoctors used leeches to bleed patients withoutknowing whether it worked. Today, we know thatbloodletting actually prevented healing [just asmost modern] political philosophies and fads like‘child-based’ and ‘back-to-basics’ [foil learning].”/ - Alanna Mitchell
  49. 49. 49And, You’re A Crazy, Mean Liar!Malcolm Gladwell writes how no more than fivepercent of your choices are rational. Dr. StanleyMilgram showed two thirds of you would torture astranger to death if told to and the rest would goat least half way. Dr. Paul Ekman showed you liethree times every ten minutes. Plus, the MMPI(the grandfather of all personality tests) uses asevidence of a lying personality the failure to admitthe fear of getting caught is the only thing keepingyou from sneaking into a movie theater withoutpaying as science has long documented you allknow deep down (if honest) what thieves you are.
  50. 50. 50 Do I Just Not Like People?• The only way I can like people is to assume the problem is with me – leaving me a codependent, overworked, depressed neurotic toiling to help; and two thirds of us are exactly such dissociated neurotics (half clinically) with doctor visits more often the result of neurotic stress than even colds• But, not liking people would create a persecuted personality disorder at high risk for addictions and reckless behavior as an emotional vampire; and a third of us prefer jobs but to only control others in counseling, teaching, law enforcement, religion, & management (with half clinically so disordered)
  51. 51. 51Why Only Two Insane Choices?• Being raised solely on Entity Theory beliefs left us with only the options of seeing the problem in ourselves (to still “love” them) or to blame others• Failing to separate the problems from individuals, we end up only seeing children as disobedient, lazy, embarrassing, or just looking for attention• We should see “failing” kids but in environmental terms of whether the work is too hard, if they are stressed, or just in need of tutoring and support – Never praise the child, only the deed (or value choice) – Requires a more complex Systems Theory perspective
  52. 52. 52 Entity Theory (or Nativism)• It is typically believed biology decides our destiny – Overall intelligence or skills seen as a fixed entity with kids always told success is due to ingrained abilities – Such teachers often say, “I could never be good at ” – Such raised children see themselves as just plain smart, dumb, good, or bad (i.e.: “I am smart at this”) – Instruction based generally on “whole” memorization• But, kids so educated lose the ability to handle simple problems after failing at any difficult ones – This is because difficult problems reinforce the belief that they’re not smart (or pretty) enough to be “good”
  53. 53. 53 The Truth About Entity Theory• Neuroscientists have shown skills and personality have empirically little to do with the neurons we were born with. Teachers’ influences on growing synaptic networks are more likely to determine if a child will grow up to be a surgeon or a slacker. – With quality relationships at “windows of opportunity”• Promoting opposing belief in incremental mastery – In Hindu and Buddhist cultures, parents worry that too much praise will make kids “too big for their britches” (see – Chinese & Japanese mothers place stronger emphasis on hard work & cooperation than do American mothers
  54. 54. Deming’s theory of management is based on a humanistic philosophy that believes allpeople are educable, that they want to do a good job, and that they deserve respect. McGregor’s Theories of Motivation X-theory Which do you use? Y-theory • People dislike work • Work is good for growth and will try to avoid it and people want to be • People prefer to be interested by their work directed and must be • Self-discipline is more forced to put out effort effective; people seek & • People are motivated desire responsibility by fear over “security” • People driven by hope with little creativity – to realise potential with except, of course, for creativity common but getting around rules! sadly much underused 54
  55. 55. 55 “The Rule Of Small Numbers” (slow down for more reflective thinking)• Dr. Kahneman and Dr. Tversky showed people usually make decisions based on the smallest number of possible factors (Nobel Prize in 2002) – Are those in California or Ohio happier? Most believe (incorrectly) Californians are happier based on just the weather or the available beach because they fail to also consider crime, cost of living, and regular earth quakes.• Bigotry & relativism the result of “small numbers” – 95% decisions made in 20th of a second on single factor• Football players vary greatly in size and skills as compared with rugby or soccer players as pausing play encourages greater strategy & specialization
  56. 56. 56Investors Also Often Fail – Why?(good investing doesn’t follow common sense)• OShaughnessy (“What Works on Wall Street”) says there are two basic ways to make decisions – The Clinical or Intuitive Method is based more on one’s knowledge, experiences, and common sense – The Quantitative or Actuarial Method instead based on relationships proven by large samples of data – OShaughnessy found most experienced investors (like teachers) prefer the Intuitive Method, which is usually wrong or beaten by the Actuarial Method – David Faust from The Limits of Scientific Reasoning, “Human judgment is far more limited than we think.” • Or, “gut decisions are nothing but using excrement for brains”
  57. 57. 57 The Value Of Grades• In studies in the 60’s, teachers of “high-IQ AP, gifted” classes were told previously graded C and D students were A and B kids and teachers of “remedial” classes were told students that had been getting A’s and B’s were C and D students (named “Pygmalion Effect” by Harvard profs who found most teachers are but discouragers, not encouragers)• What do you think happened to the kids’ grades? A. Grades were consistent with previous year B. Grades were somewhat inverted C. Grades were completely reversed
  58. 58. It Seems Just Common Sense 58 (that learning is based more on teacher’s ability to teach than student’s ability to learn called “Sweeney’s Miracle”)• I’ve mentioned this study to hundreds of people and most everyone has correctly predicted how the study found the grades were fully reversed – It seems but common sense grades do not in any way reflect the student’s motivation and intelligence, but only the teacher’s favoritism and bias (teacher’s pets) – Any child enrolled in lower-level courses are more likely to earn a “D” or “F” (Cooney, 2002) and “slower” kids’ grades improve when moved to tougher classes (Dept of Ed, 2000: – But, you can’t manage what you don’t measure and, grades, in fact, profitably assess teacher achievements
  59. 59. 59 Intelligence Lost• Harvard’s Dr. Howard Garner (author of Multiple Intelligences) showed that almost all children scored genius level IQ’s up to the age of four, down to 10% as teenagers and 2% when >20.• Where did their intelligence go? Discouragement.• Stanford’s Business School Dr. Michael Ray calls it the “Voice of Judgment” in his creativity courses• Harvard’s Dr. Livingston and Dr. Rosenthal have shown there are far more Negative Pygmalions than positive ones (only creating “Groupthink”)
  60. 60. 60Nurture Advantage Over Nature• Elephants, Dolphins, and even Neanderthal man with larger brains exhibit greater innate thinking – Neanderthals failed to advance their technologies for over a hundred thousand years (just like any animal) (See Dr. Hauser’s Wild Minds: What Animals Really Think)• Extended childhood (as human brains continue maturing until age 25) fosters reflective thinking – We are so environmentally affected that I’ve worked with a dozen blind programmers but not one deaf one (verbal language is so key to cognitive development)• Antecedent to one’s normative moral/emotional identity & artistic expression of resulting values
  61. 61. 61 What It Means To Be Human (to exceed both nature and nurture)• It’s not about having opposable thumbs, making tools, raw intelligence, language, or being able to recognize one is physically different from others• It’s about seeing differences in moral choices – recognizing who we are (different from others) based solely on our personal values; knowing what we stand for, what the Greeks called “ethos”• Which would you rather be a bear or a wolf? The bear is an introvert; the wolf an extrovert. It’s not a personality for us (the bear cannot be a wolf; the wolf cannot be a bear), but a value difference.
  62. 62. 62 Values & Beliefs Can Change(see 50 ways to untwist thinking by Dr. Burns)• It may be hard to change one’s emotional make- up (how quickly & strongly one gets emotional) – Can be made worse, as in a post-traumatic disorder• But, Myers-Briggs results will change in 6 months• It’s not that hard to change one’s values, attitudes, beliefs, or thinking patterns (called “growing up”) – It is possible to change addictive behavior, if not the temptations (changes can be coerced by drug courts) – Feelings of triumph (fiero), from beating an opponent or from just stretching oneself to known limits and beyond (such as an “epiphany”), core to changing values/beliefs
  63. 63. 63 Teaching Is Not Informing! (goal should never be changing opinions but behaviors)• Galileo proved to his students at the University of Pisa that Aristotle was wrong to say heavier items of similar size would fall faster; unfortunately, the University continued teaching Aristotle’s reality >> He had “informed” but not “taught” <<• Teaching (or sales, or evangelism) isn’t based on superior speaking, debating, or presenting skills• It’s about skills for encouraging an ethical identity – Thus, Socrates (and Christ) used questions to so lead – Marva Collins starts with Shakespeare on conscience, Aristotle on virtues, and Emerson on self-reliance (*)
  64. 64. 64 Entity Theory in Government• Communism is firmly based on Entity Theory with the idea that if the “evil” systems (of capitalism and religion) are removed, a “Socialist Man” will emerge of perfect character; but, hasn’t happened – Steven Levitt and others have well shown lone people are very poor at assessing risk and avoiding temptation – And, as in communist countries, American teachers rarely get paid for performance (only years in service)• Democracy is instead based on the idea integrity is simply about building quality relationships with accountability using good checks and balances
  65. 65. 65 Simplified Systems Theory (enthusiasm and apathy are both infectious)• Aristotle summed up in his Metaphysics lectures, “The whole can be more that the sum of it parts”• But, how can 1+2+3 possibly be different than 6? – Entity theory suggests it would be by a special 1 being equal to more than 1 (where other 1’s don’t count)• Systems Theory focuses on the “mortar” impact – Bricks are part of system (a house) just as the building is part of system (the neighborhood, weather, etc) and the lifespan of the bricks will depend on how used (or, parts act differently when used than when isolated) – All sciences now based on systems thinking (history, programming, accounting, architecture, social work )
  66. 66. 66 Process improvements generating exponentialparadigm shifts cause informational singularities Such as the Agricultural Revolution for theHunter-Gatherer, then the Industrial Revolution,and finally last century’s Information Revolution. But, what might come next?Many believe it will be a fifth wave revolution ofrelational sciences as a development basis for a “new” economy based on social capital
  67. 67. 67“Might Is Right” Not Human Creed• Science Age: free and compulsory education – Rising above technology created class distinction• Industrial Age: welfare (at least for our citizens) – Conquering imperialism and U.S. worker exploitation• Information Age: now universal health care – Alcoholism, child abuse, new occupational ailments• Next Symbiotic Age: with coming financial care – Overcoming collapsing social norms and hierarchies, greater displaced workers with 20% without education necessary to find any place in the modern workforce, viral stuff, and ever increasing wealth mal-distribution
  68. 68. 68 Top Performers Can Be Made• Whether athletic or academic, from ballet to surgery, top performers nearly always end up to be made, not born; “it turns out talent has been greatly overrated” (see the Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance, 2006)• We know motivation and encouragement as well as deep practice with great feedback and master coaching can overcome anything (and yet seven of ten employees are still sadly neither motivated nor competent to perform the basics of their job) – “Bad Apples” are likewise systemically made, not born
  69. 69. 69 Yet, We Use Lucky Breaks• Malcolm Gladwell details in “Outliers: the Story of Success” how only lucky breaks and arbitrary advantages are the source of most successes – Dr. Barnsley showed in the 80’s how the best hockey players are five times more likely born in January than November, baseball players are almost twice as likely born in August than July, and soccer players are most likely born in September (now January) – due to the arbitrary age cut offs done in respective kid’s leagues• Any child can excel with the encouragement and education sadly now reserved for a precious few – "There is a brilliant child locked inside every student"
  70. 70. 70 Many Ways To Aid Learning• Develop good time management skills with to-do checklists, prioritizing assignments, quiet study space, designated study time, summarizing class notes, weekly cleanup, and household schedule• A 1980 study found artificial lighting increases agitated behavior, fatigue, and reduced rationality; another that natural lighting increases scores 20% – Do outside field trips and install skylights in classrooms• Dr. Guy Berard in “Hearing Equals Behavior” details how just ten days of auditory integration training increased child maturity and IQs by 15%
  71. 71. Schools Typically Invalidate Kids 71 (any teacher who believes in “unteachable” students shouldmorally be forced to leave the classroom, but this is not done)• An abusively invalidating environment is defined as one where a person’s feelings are discounted as either inaccurate or inappropriate with regular comments like “life would be easier if you were more motivated,” “worked harder,” and “had more character,” plus “oh, you should never get angry”• Organizational behavior and culture are based on the same factors that set the stage for individual personalities; thus, schools exhibit “human-like” deviant and irrational behaviors that can benefit from psychotherapy – help no school ever gets
  72. 72. 72 So, Problem Is Self-Sustaining• Adults with more experience and knowledge will always have a more “structured” worldview than children; this disparity naturally produces chronic misunderstandings where children are then seen as “difficult” and adults are seen as “out of touch”• The resulting school (not individual) Borderline pathology (due to Entity Theory internal conflicts and primitive defenses) becomes a key hindrance• But, Self-Psychology integrates Systems Theory with Freudian psychoanalysis to make available an empathetic unifying framework of subjectivity See “Thinking and Working Contextually” by Stolorow, Orange, and Atwood
  73. 73. 73Need Empathetic Extrospection (kids need it to be safe to discuss and resolve problems)• “One size fits all” psychology urging introspection has only cultivated a narcissistic me-generation – Since Lacsh’s book, “Culture of Narcissism,” there are more self-help books for the lonely self-absorbed than even diet books, it’s such a part of our national identity• Kohut’s real empathy provides for more cohesion – Empathy is a slow investigative attempt to objectively “taste” anothers experience; shouldn’t be confused with being kind, just a “near-experience” observation• “Self” Psychology works to get kids more involved in their own growth and feeling less manipulated – All kids have had bad experiences with authorities/rules
  74. 74. 74 Fighting Bounded Rationality• Herbert Simon showed we are, at best, but partly rational and so rely on rules of thumb and favor ease of effort and simpler (satisfactory) solutions rather than optimal ones (fighting best practices)• Moreover, schools are pools of loosely coupled strategies/structures naturally resistant to change• Instead of “rationalist” management focus on centrally determined standards for conformance (or, benevolent dictatorship), we must emphasize relationships, professional education with market incentives, and a consensus on goals and values
  75. 75. 75 Who is to blame? We all are! Principals, teachers, & parents must eachpromise students, “I will never let you fail.”
  76. 76. 76Sign a Student Learning Contract• Principal, teachers, parents, students should sign a Student Learning Contract agreeing academic success comes from a cooperative environment• Students agree to the responsibilities of – Being respectful to other classmates – participating in discussions while giving everyone a chance to speak – Putting forth their best effort into all schoolwork without being defensive if their work (or any idea) is criticized – Obeying all of all the rules, both at home and at school – Studying at least 15 minutes a day for every subject – Always showing up to school on time and being well prepared with all homework and needed material
  77. 77. 77Sign a Student Learning Contract• Teachers agree to the responsibilities of – Providing a safe and comfortable environment • Communicating and consistently enforcing rules for conduct – Providing students with clear and concise expectations (e.g.: providing a syllabus written at the child’s level) – Providing ample time for their students to receive any necessary extra help, say, after or before school – Identifying essential versus nonessential learning goals, “mass customizing” accordingly their instructional units – Coordinating homework with other school faculty – Always showing up on time and being prepared – Working to make learning an enjoyable experience
  78. 78. 78Sign a Student Learning Contract• Principals agree to the responsibilities of – Knowing the most current theories and practices while only employing research-based instructional strategies – Involving all participants (i.e.: counselors) in the design and implementation of important decisions and policies – Being situationally aware (able to predict what can go wrong day to day with sensitivity to operational details) – Being an effective change agent comfortable with actively challenging the status quo and systematically considering new and better ways of doing things – Never focusing on the wrong school and classroom practices or miscalculate the order of changes required
  79. 79. 79Sign a Student Learning Contract• Parents agree to the responsibilities of – Spending 15 minutes per day reading to their children • Or, 15 minutes per day listening to their children read aloud – Monitoring their children’s schoolwork and activities – Maintaining a clear discipline policy with their child – Ensuring a good night’s sleep (wake up without alarm) – Attending all parent-teacher conferences – Volunteering time for at least two school activities every year (PTA, field trip, science fair, club, etc.) – Supporting (as well as questioning) their child’s school – Always showing up on time and being ready to work (and steadfastly ensuring their children do the same)
  80. 80. 80 Engaging Families Is Critical• Not something staff work at when they have time – Reply to “Who runs the school?” must be “We all do.”• Should include academically oriented activities – Such as workshops for improving parenting skills and training to understanding standards and assessments• Start with school-family relational assessment – Parents (like kids) want to feel respected by the staff – Principal Dr. Steve Constantino would regularly meet with all parents every Thursday night at local Dennys• Let students lead open houses and conferences – And, re-title “Curriculum Night” to “Family Fun Night”
  81. 81. 81 Top Parental Responsibilities• Daily Attendance, especially in Elementary School• Ensuring a good night’s sleep (10 hours for a child and 8 hours for a teenager) increases I.Q. by 20% – Missing but four hours of sleep twice a week (say, on weekends) leaves any person always as if legally drunk• A 1985 National Commission on Reading report declared reading aloud is the greatest contribution a parent can make (shown true even for teenager) – Stories from Pied Piper to David and Goliath spurs the imagination, familiarizes a code of conduct, & develops a sense of meaning with both cultural and moral literacy • Milton’s Paradise Lost, Marshall’s Miss Nelson, Eph 4:25
  82. 82. 82Today, Gender and Race Matter (Schools in Tucson Unified School District)• Erickson Boys 28% less likely to pass AIMS• Their African Americans, 31% less likely to pass• Gale Boys 8% less likely to pass AIMS• Their African Americans, 13% less likely to pass• Bloom Boys 12% less likely to pass AIMS• Their African Americans, 25% less likely to pass• ‘02 AZ graduation rates: 60% for minorities and 80% for whites; 67% for boys and 75% for girls• In 2000, only six Arizona Latinos/as took the Advanced Placement Computer Science Exam
  83. 83. 83As Boys Are Less Likely to Pass
  84. 84. 84And, Economics and Race Rule
  85. 85. 85Teacher Gender/Ethnicity Matters• Dee, Schoenwald, Letourneau, & Halliday-Boykins showed ethnicity and gender dissimilarity between teacher and child far increased chances for failure – Poor blacks more likely to be found “mentally retarded” – Boys w/good skills 4X than girls found to have problems – Teachers have far higher expectations of students that look like them, or even those just with similar last names• Ewing and Taylor (2006) found that teacher-child conflicts more likely for boys and good predictor of violent aggression as well as academic problems• Sciutto, Nolfi, Bluhm (2006) also showed teachers are far more likely to refer boys for ADHD testing
  86. 86. NEA President, “A boy might 86 never have a ‘teacher like me’”• Alas, few minorities or men are teaching in K-12 – USAToday says 17% of America’s schools have not a single minority or male teacher, 38% with no minorities – Teachers: 75%-90% white women; Students: 30% – Teacher-child ethnicity explain 27% of grade disparity *• Dr. Thomas Dee, “Girls have better educational outcomes when taught by women and boys are better off when taught by men.” (12+% gap, 2006) – “Boys are 2-3 times more likely than girls to be seen as disruptive, inattentive, and unlikely to do homework.” – Hilary Clinton has been a long time supporter of single- sex education (like her alma mator, Wellesley College)
  87. 87. 87 Plus, Lack of Cultural Literacy• New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy says, “No one in the English-speaking world can be considered literate without a basic knowledge of the Bible.” – To understand a “David and Goliath” battle, Solomon- like wisdom, Ronald Reagan’s “Shining City on a Hill” reference, Martin Luther King’s “Mountain top” speech• 81 percent of English teachers in Oregon agreed that the Bible ought to be taught in their schools * – Milton’s Paradise Lost, Camus’ The Fall, Leon Uris’ Exodus, Hemingway’s Old Man And The Sea confusing without a Biblical background to Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, the Last Supper, and crucifixion references
  88. 88. 88 Where Should We Start?• We are LAST for 3 R’s but FIRST in self-esteem• The greatest correlation is with poor teaching – Student scores vary more than 20% by changing teachers –> 2-6 times as by grade, school, or district – Teachers are academic underachievers, yet paid more than accountants/engineers (CNN: “Best paying job”) – Children don’t fail due to home conditions or aptitude, but primarily being discouraged by their teachers to the point of giving up (teachers matter most is NEA policy)• It stems from denying quality is measurable, failing to see the problem lies inside the room, and dividing the world into “us” and “them”
  89. 89. 89 “Cookie Cutter” Doesn’t Work• Education must be tuned: mass-customization – Dr. Carl Jung observed we are all kinesthetic auditory, visual, etc – but, that we tend to use one sense more • “I can’t put my finger on it; so, let’s explore it deeper!” • “I hear you loud and clear; that sounds like a great idea!” • “I can’t see what your saying, show me how you did it!” (me) • “This plan smells” or “This leaves me with an awful taste” – Dr. Gardner detailed 8 intelligences (and others 1,400) • Every person is both somehow above and below average • All programs developed 1st for slow learners as we are all LD• And, children learn faster when NOT sitting quietly – But, few teachers even use music in curriculum
  90. 90. 90So, Teachers Must Be Scientists• Just using straight “Best Practices” isn’t enough; there has to be a way to understand and track effective techniques with each individual/class – Thus, good teachers are good at math / statistics as a basis for successfully employing a scientific approach• It can’t just be a lesson plan; rather a dynamic, nonlinear, and creative teaching process with a committed emphasis to testing and confirmation – Optimizing students’ chances of learning rather than forcing students to learn in a way that optimizes the teachers’ chances of completing their lesson plans – Such outcome-based discovery starts by asking “Why”
  91. 91. 91 Why Can’t Johnny Read?(taken from teacher of a failing boy was asked (true story), 1. How many ways are there to spell the sound “a” [the long vowel sound]? “Four,” responded the teacher. there are 11 ways to spell the “long-a” sound 2. What are the classifications of the different “ch” sounds? “I have no idea,” answered the teacher. “ch” is the French (as in champagne), the English (as in church), and the Italian (as in ache) 3. What is the significance of the letters “e,” “i,” and “y?” The teacher had no knowledge of the answer. the letters “e”, “i” and “y” are vowel signalsHow can kids learn what teachers don’t know?
  92. 92. Few Teachers Are Terminated 92 For Poor Performance• When teachers are fired, it is usually for gross misconduct and not for inadequate instruction• Besides, the process can take years, it is costly, as well as personally devastating for all involved – In 1994, NY “Blueprint for the Professionalization of Teaching” showed it takes an average of 455 days and $177,000 to fire a teacher ($317,000 with appeal)• Nothing angers parents and taxpayers more than unfit teachers remaining in the classroom – How much do we need to pay before it is fair to expect competent teachers in every classroom?
  93. 93. 93Who’s Responsible For Change?• Quality theory is based on the simple, self-evident premise that every system is perfectly designed to deliver exactly the results it currently produces – Deming insisted the system (districts, principals, and teachers) is to blame for 94% of all scholastic problems• “Excelling” principals make a 20% improvement – Teachers are discouraged into giving up by principals who often use inane review systems to promote friends• The principal is the pivotal leader working to guide and support dedicated teachers to “informed professional judgment” (Barber)
  94. 94. 94 How To Get Better Teachers(Performance accountability and merit pay)• Today, ability is not tracked and has no bearing on assignments, curriculum influence, paycheck – Why should anyone want to join a school that does not base responsibilities and rewards on the value added (like teacher efforts and long-term student progress)?• Milken Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) – Professional growth based on evaluated teaching – Multiple career paths (Associate, Mentor, and Master) – Market-driven compensation (e.g.: more for math, etc.) – Nine states (over 30% of students) had TAP initiatives: Arizona (forgotten), South Carolina, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia
  95. 95. 95 TAP Pay And Quality Focus• Iowa was 1st state to adopt TAP-like pay initiatives – Ironically, Iowa was also first to adopt teacher salary schedules based solely on district longevity (in 1930’s). – Today, leaving a school district means pay gets halved• Education Week’s Quality Counts rates Arizona a grade of D and Fordham Foundation grades AZ a C-minus for our efforts to improve teacher quality – Carpenter surveyed 361 U.S. school reform proposals from 1987 to 1997 and only 3 were on teacher quality – “Arizona still has no cohesive policy or requirements for professional development at the state level.” – page 5 AZ Governor’s Committee for Teacher Quality, 2007
  96. 96. 96 “Teaching At Risk” (by The Teaching Commission)• “Little advancement potential, minimal possibilities for promotion, and few financial rewards for individual contributions to organizational success” – For “almost nothing to attract America’s best and brightest into the classroom and keep them there”• The report calls state leaders to (sadly ignored) – Give more hiring and firing responsibility to schools – Encourage local innovation in teacher compensation – Resist pressures for across the board pay increases• Honor Roll mark of distinction to the Teacher Advancement Program for best track record – 2nd place for Minnesota’s TAP-like pay system
  97. 97. 97 1999 National Education Summit Called For Pay-For-Performance• The Colonial School District in PA began paying individual bonuses based on test scores in 2000• Florida started program in 2001 that included – Market-driven compensation, performance-based accountability, multiple career paths with multiple entry paths and support and mentoring for new teachers, as well as targeted ongoing professional development• In 2005, AZ SB 1074 required evaluations of 25% of districts for performance-based compensation systems with the final report being due June 2010 – But alas, I can’t find this report anywhere in the media• 10 yrs after summit, Pres. Obama calls for TAP
  98. 98. 98 “Good Teacher” Predictors• Advanced knowledge of the subject matter, especially for math, computers, and science• Coursework and certification in subject area• Prestige of degree institution and advanced degrees, especially for secondary schools• High literacy and verbal test scores as well as previous history of academic excellence• Pedagogical coursework, but ONLY when coupled with advanced content knowledge• High scores on licensure and aptitude exams• NOT National Teachers Exam or experience!
  99. 99. 99Why Doesn’t Experience Help?• Research shows few teachers improve after but a few years of teaching – unlike teachers in other countries where they get targeted professional training based on relevant classroom experiences• In the same way we teach doctors and nurses to do the same things in the same way (deliver a baby, suture a wound, and give a shot, say), we need to teach teachers educational best practices• The problem is U.S. teachers aren’t taught basic educational theories or classroom management – For some example videos, look <here> and <here>
  100. 100. 100 How to Evaluate A Teacher• Increases in student standardized test scores – Including decreases in gender and ethnic variances – With some value also placed on following two years• Annual knowledge exams with more $ for math, computer, & special ed (skills – not coursework)• Classroom observation by independent experts• 360 degree performance evaluations by other teachers, students, parents, and principal• With bonuses for mentoring and special projects• Rewards should not be restricted to pay alone – Also include increased professional responsibility, tuition assistance, and recognition by state government
  101. 101. 101Effective School Characteristics• Strong instructional leadership from the principal• Teachers that can well convey high expectations• Pervasive and well understood instructional focus• A safe climate conducive to teaching and learning• Use of measures of pupil achievement as the core basis for evaluation of educational programs• Well versed and practiced in quality theory / tools• Uses most appropriate quality tools and models for teaching and management – using only a few• Practice only makes permanent – change slowly
  102. 102. 102The Successful Professional is• Motivated, strong work ethic, feels accountable• Creative, open minded, with “street smarts”• Able to shift ecology and policies by being flexible• Open to peer supervision: feedback and forward• Likely to volunteer to be trained, esp. “advanced”• Apt to have a background in child development• Able to take the quick “lead” in decision making• Apt to keep score and prefer pleasing results (like standardized test scores) instead of simply vague promises from but pleasing (undemanding) efforts
  103. 103. The role of leadership is to optimize the system . . 103 . Aim of the Organization Goals & Measures Failing State Passing State Desired State
  104. 104. 104 Leadership Evaluation (Baldrige Award)In the leadership category, staff members areasked to rate a series of statements to examinehow the principal and staff leaders set directionfor the school, identify and sustain a set of values,convey performance expectations, and maintain afocus on student learning, such as “To whatdegree does the principal and staff leadershiprespond to the needs of all stakeholders of theschool, maintain a safe and orderly climateconducive to learning, and use data to assessboth group and individual performance of staff?”
  105. 105. BQSA Action Plan Indicators Best 105 3 Goal 2.5 2 s co r e 1.5 1 2001 0.5 0 2002 Cat 1 Cat 2 Cat 3 Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 6 #3 #19 #24 #28 #37 #42 statement #3. During the past two years, I have accepted a formal leadership role to help establish short and long range targets for our school.19. I use strategic student performance data to identify areas such as staff, curriculum materials and staff training to which resources should be reallocated.24. I collect data to determine satisfaction of other staff to whom we send our students.28. I Look for sources of appropriate comparative information and data from outside of schools as well as from within the academic community.37. I track the degree to which our safe and healthful work environment goals are achieved.42. I formally monitor the degree to which new curriculum is implemented in our school.
  106. 106. 106Alas, Most Efforts Are Thwarted• Winning AZ TAP program shelved and forgotten – A $1,000, in fact, is paid to teachers whose school fails• Prop 301 monies for TAP-like performance based compensation used for only flat salary increases – Superintendent Keegan said pay only on group (rather than individual) performance was “inconsistent with the intent of this provision,” but legislators couldn’t agree on any formal oversight procedures, so they set none. – Arizona ignored Governor Hull’s Education Task Force advice on moving away from a uniform salary schedule with pay bonuses based on professional development, student progress, parent satisfaction, and achievement
  107. 107. 107 Arizona Prop 301 Flattened• Voters understood it would mean more money for classrooms, better pay for teachers, more control at the local level, as well as more info for parents• Centerpiece is the Classroom Site Fund, or CSF ($33.8 million in 2004-05), as the money was to go directly to the classroom (none was authorized for admin expenses or to supplant existing funds) – 20% (or about $1250) for flat teacher pay increases – 40% (or about $2500) for performance-based pay increases for teachers, but used only for flat team pay – 40% (or about $2500) for site-chosen classroom efforts, but most all schools use just for more flat pay increases
  108. 108. 108 AZ AIMS Is 46th Easiest Exam• 77% of Arizona 4th graders achieved proficiency on the state reading test but only 23% passed the national NAEP reading exam• This 54-percentage-point disparity means Arizona ranks 46th among the 50 states on this measure• The AIMS test has been greatly simplified since 90% of students failed the original exam – In 2003, it took a score of 73 percent or greater on the AIMS Reading test to pass, but only 59 percent in 2005
  109. 109. 109 Escaping Public Education• CBS 60 Minutes covered a girl (Erica) in 1980 that was labeled by Chicago public school “experts” as “borderline retarded, learning disabled, and unable to ever learn to read or write.”• They followed up in 1996 after she had left public education for a charter school and found she had just graduated from U of Virginia, Cum Laude• Chubb & Moe argue government financed schools are by their nature bureaucratic and ineffective – For example, I was told I’d be lucky to end up a ditch digger but graduated from a top engineering school
  110. 110. Chicago Mayor Calls Charter 110 Schools “Only Solution Left”• Chicago closes 60 low-performing schools and opens 100 new ones: a third will be charters and a third will be operated by independent agencies• New York City opens 200 new charter schools• Philadelphia has authorized 52 charter schools and has contracted with six for-profit as well as nonprofit organizations to run 45 other schools• 27 Milwaukee charters, 15 with district employees• Alas, the only place where Arizona gets an A for education is for it’s excellent Charter School Law – NCLB funds semi-virtual charters in public schools
  111. 111. 111 Charters Do More• Only 3 of 78 ‘06 TUSD Elem Schools are Excelling• There are more excelling Charters (w/ less money) – Academy of Tucson, AmeriSchools, BASIS K-12 School, Daisy Education Sonoran Science K-12 Academy, Hermosa Montessori Elementary, Khalsa Elementary Family, and Lifelong Learning Academy – No alternative schools (Old Pueblo Childrens Acad.) serving “at-risk” students are excelling in Tucson• 5,200 TUSD students leaving over a two year period for charters have cost TUSD $27 million – As little can be done to improve poor schools (report)
  112. 112. 112 With Less• In 2008, Chicago said $11,300 was insufficient to educate a child while Collins spent $5,500 & Basis (Newsweek’s #1 H.S.) spends just a little bit more• Public schools under report spending (leaving out new building costs, health and retirement benefits, debt interest payments) by 23% in Chicago, 44% in D.C., and 90% in LA – resulting in, on average, public schools outspending privates by 93% (*)• Basis claims the difference is not hiring teachers (and 4 out of 5 of their instructors are not certified) – Others: ability to fire bad teachers or federal regulations
  113. 113. 113 As Accountability Is Better• Parents like smaller schools with better attitudes (wanting to be there), discipline, and test scores – Leaving poorly communicating public school teachers who provide no or little vocational or “life” lessons – Running away from unsafe and bulling cultures, and teachers not consistent, challenging, or inclusive• 2005 report says TUSD needs better customer problem resolution, marketing, curriculum, and classroom flexibility (with, that is, specializations) – Legislators recognize schools must be autonomous to be effective; so, charter schools can request waivers from govt. regulations that interfere with their vision
  114. 114. 114 Reading First Scandal Scandal(Example of our U.S. Ed Leadership Failure)• Direct Instruction (DI), Success for All, Reading Mastery, & Open Court have the most supporting data but received only 3% of Reading First funding (mostly going to unproven whole-word programs) – Sadly, most state use simple “one size fits all” programs• OiG audit used only to attack Bush Admin (w/ little concern for American’s children) when it was the states doing the excluding and focused on DI’s connection to Bush Admin when DI was blocked• Is there any hope for a real public education when politics comes before our children?!?
  115. 115. 115 What Really Works?• What Works Clearinghouse recently concluded few comprehensive or supplemental programs have any proof (i.e.: using randomized trials or a comparison group) that they work, except for• Reading Recovery is a short-term intervention (3 to 5 months) one-to-one tutoring, best if available to all students as a supplement to best practices – Fast Forward, Instructional Conversations & Literature Logs, Reading Mastery, Early Intervention in Reading, SpellRead, Ladders to Literacy, Reading Recovery, Stepping Stones to Literacy, PALS, Earobics, Voyager Literacy System, The Expert Mathematician, etc.
  116. 116. 116 Top Intervention Programs• The What Works Clearinghouse recommends: – Accelerated Middle Schools had positive effects on progressing in school & potentially on staying in school – Check & Connect had positive effects on staying in school and potentially on progressing in school – ALAS (Achievement for Latinos through Academic Success) had potentially positive effects on staying in school and on progressing in school – Career Academies had potentially positive effects on staying in school and on progressing in school – Real Math Building Blocks and Mathematics Pre-K – DaisyQuest and Phonological Awareness Training
  117. 117. 117 Other Successful Programs• What Works Clearinghouse also recommends: – Positive Action had very positive effects on behavior and on academic achievement – Too Good for Drugs and Violence had positive effects on knowledge, attitudes, and values – Too Good for Violence had potentially positive effects on behavior and on knowledge, attitudes, and values• But, no comments for Arizona’s NREL Six-Traits! – First, Six-Traits is NOT a writing program and so it is not designed to help build student writing strategies – Plus, Kozlow and Bellamy (2004) found no evidence Six-Traits teacher training positively impacted students
  118. 118. 118 TUSD Hot For “21st Century”• Program offers homework sessions, academic activities, as well as enrichment programs such as art, drama, music, and recreational activities• But, 10 years of research on these after school programs have shown performance not impacted• And, a recent IES study using an additional year of follow-up data still showed no improvement in reading test scores or grades in math, science, social studies, or English but sadly higher levels of negative behavior (suspensions, punishments, and teachers complaining about student behavior)
  119. 119. 119 More Rationality Is Needed• Wilderness camps provide the worst results, but are our most well funded programs – WHY? – 7,500 wilderness camps in U.S., 4,500 freelance instructors; and, primary approach used in Tucson• Sadly, DARE (like adventure programs), while very emotionally attractive, provides little return – Perhaps, because it tried to give good choices instead of teaching children how to make good decisions (only providing fish instead of teaching how to fish corrupts)• Such failing programs focus on improving student instead of relationships (studying & social skills)
  120. 120. 120 NOT Every Opinion Is Valid! Hypotheses or Check with Valid OpinionIntelligent hunch IPO Analysis and Action (Input) (Processing) (Quality Output) Textbook All questions Theory and Controlled Critical Thinking means are “valid” Experiences identifying assumptions, “Wishful Thinking” or issues, and criteria for judgment for making “Blowing Smoke” by sound conclusions “Peacock” or “Weasel” from the evidence.
  121. 121. 121 Quality Tools and ThinkingKISS should mean “Keep It Simple, but Smarter”• Time Management • No excuses attitude• Brainstorming • Common Agenda• Affinity Diagramming • Systems & Systemic• Tree Diagramming • Recognize & Reward• Prioritization Matrix • Think “outside the box”• Pareto Analysis • Sharing / Commitment• Force Field Analysis • Primarily data driven• PDSA Cycle usage • Continually improving• Teams/Quality Circles • J-curve grading• Malcolm Baldrige • Keep it simple, not easy
  122. 122. 122 “SMART” Goals Not Enough• Specific goals (What, When, Where, How, Why)• Measurable goals (in order to track & improve)• Action-oriented goals (defined achievable steps)• Realistic goals (in values, perceptions, finances)• Time sensitive goals (deadlines for each step) – BUT, just getting up in the morning at 7 am is “SMART”• “SMARTER” goals are much better with• Extensible goals (hard-to-do objectives)• Rewarding goals (financial, health, reputation)
  123. 123. 123 The Maturity Gap• Experts and students admit the primary problem is a lack of maturity & procedures and routines – “My social life was the most important thing,” “I didn’t want to miss out on a good time,” “I procrastinated”• Students need to be able to rely on themselves and learn time-management in order to support the natural desire for learning and development• The aim of education is to mould the character of students and thus draw out the best in them• Are our children growing up or only older? But – Can we expect of students what schools can’t do?
  124. 124. 124 Self-Reliance Must Come First• Marva Collins starts 2nd to 4th grade classes with – Shakespeare’s Richard the 3rd on conscience, Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Essay on “Self-Reliance,” Aristotle’s essay views on ethics and virtues, & Plato’s “Republic” – Children young as 3½ and 4 are admitted to Marva’s school (often sadly labeled “un-educatable” by public schools) and guaranteed to be reading by Christmas• Development of personality / social relationships key: Service-learning, First Step, and Praleska – Schools that use punishment as primary tool against antisocial behavior have greater rates of aggression, vandalism, truancy, and dropouts (Mayer, 1991)
  125. 125. 125More Civics And Ethics Education• Fosters voter participation & free speech support*• Tucson’s “Jobs for Life” focuses on honesty and reliability as top skills required for employment – – – Also see:• Alas, few teachers want to teach such life lessons considering them far too practical and unromantic – Michigan went from least to most civics classes (2005) – Current Arizona state curriculum only a smoke screen (
  126. 126. 126Classroom Size NOT A Problem• Overall, the teacher to student ratio has doubled as students increased 50% while teachers tripled – U.S. has an average class size of 26, as compared to 41 in Japan, but Japan produces far higher test scores• The exception is for grades before third grade – 1999 DOE report showed reducing K-2 class size leads to higher achievement (only when teachers modify their teaching methods for smaller classes), especially for poor and minority students; so much so, the total costs are reduced – because a good education costs LESS BUT, the study also showed good teachers matter more – New studies show similar results for Pre-Kindergarten
  127. 127. 127 2nd Grade Testing Crucial (and helping parents with reading issues)• 75% of poor readers in 3rd grade will continue to be poor readers in High School (Shaywitz, 1997) – Research has also shown that parents with reading difficulties predict a higher-than-normal rate of reading disabilities in their children (31-62% versus 5-10%) – The cost is much higher for helping these students later rather than earlier (thusly, testing should be done in 2nd Grade to identify students for early intervention) – Two-thirds of reading disabled children can become average or above average readers if identified early (the other one-third lost only due to failing curricula) • For example, 32 Head Start programs had the lowest scores on the Early Childhood Environmental Rating (Bryant, 1993)
  128. 128. 128Better Pay Scale, Not Better Pay• A K-12 teacher can easily make $75,000 a year (and $100,000 is quite possible) in South Carolina even though it is twenty-sixth for teacher salaries because they don’t pay everyone the same – So move there if you’re a good teacher; stay home if not – Any teacher still here, no more salary complaints please• The effects of a poor K-2 education were turned around for me by my 3rd grade teacher, who was somehow sadly the school’s lowest paid teacher because she was a new, uncertified instructor – Other professions have over a 100% pay differential
  129. 129. 129 Adam Smith’s “Marginal Utility”• “America believes in education: the average professor earns more money in a year than a professional athlete earns in a whole week.” – In “The Wealth of Nations,” Adam Smith asked why a diamond (athletes) could fetch so much more money in the marketplace than could water (teachers and Phds). • >40,000 new Phds each year; only a few hundred athletes – Most states devote more than half of their funding to education (66% in Arizona). Americans spent 10.7% of 1995 income on education (plus 15% to 42% on college tuition) – the only higher bills are for food, housing, and medical care. Yet, Napolitano has proposed legislation costing another $325 billion. How much is enough?
  130. 130. 130 Overcome Just Getting Along• A 2006 Partnership for 21st Century Skills survey of HR said the five skills most crucial to success in the workplace are: professionalism/work ethic, teamwork, oral communications, ethics/social responsibility/honesty, reading comprehension.• Alas, far down on the list were mathematics and science while survey respondents even issued a plea for K-12 educators and colleges to get away from developing basic knowledge sets or skills• How did we build a economy with little value for English, Math, and Science in workers?
  131. 131. 131 A “Real” Teacher Is• Adults often wrongly laugh at kids who complain about school not being fun as if they should face some dark reality that life is but pain until you die• A “real” teacher is a salesperson (or persuader)• A “real” teacher is an entertainer (or cheerleader)• A “real” teacher is a motivational speaker• A “real” teacher is an evangelist (of virtues)• A “real” teacher is an instigator of discontent (as real learning requires self-evaluation and conflict)• Here’s a couple of examples of “real” teachers
  132. 132. 132 Dr. Jaime Escalante• East Los Angeles Garfield High School – Overcoming strong racist attitudes and math books used by Bolivian 5th graders – Built a math program that beat Hollywood High with 25% of America’s Mexican math students – For over 450 AP students a year (by 1987)• Reform required a new principal, Henry Gradillas (previous one threatened to fire Jaime for coming in early) and overcoming “supportive” counselors• Escalante’s students went on to graduate from MIT, Harvard, Yale, Berkeley, USC, and UCLA
  133. 133. 133 Toughened Math Standards (using a “team” approach with students “against” tests)• First, 7-week summer sessions (every grade) to make up for poor Junior High math programs – Braving the ensuing wrath of the community/parents• Gave tutoring sessions before and after school• Coordinated efforts with counselor and principal• Increased hiring standards for new teachers• Open admission: anyone could join his classes!• This all meant some classes had 50 students – Alas, used by teachers union to get him dismissed – Then, teachers and aids that Escalante hired forced out, taking large pay cuts to go to other districts / jobs
  134. 134. 134 Alas, No Room For The Best (sadly, crucial supportive principal is typically missing)• New principal that reassigned Jaime to asbestos removal said, “They’re just disgruntled former employees, such backbiting only hurts the kids.” – Other teachers routinely sent him hate mail and threats• John Perex, VP of Teachers Union, said, “Jaime didn’t get along with some of the teachers at his school. He pretty much was a loner.” (1990)• 2 years later, only 4 students passed BC Calculus – Sports fans would be outraged, for comparison, if a team showed such a change after replacing a coach• What’s up with a system that values working with others more highly than effectiveness?
  135. 135. 135 When “Groupthink” Rules (or, how great teachers are routinely destroyed)• Psychologists use this 1984 movie term to depict a group incapable of critically assessing the pros and cons due to being so tightly connected they can only be in support of one side of an issue – Such groups become an overprotective clique, putting the political goal of squashing dissent above all other matters, and so the likelihood of them taking the humane, but more difficult, action greatly decreases• Reformers should take a close look at what Jaime Escalante did and at what was done to him before passing another law or new policy – LA kids today exhibit PTSD more than Baghdad kids
  136. 136. 136 Then, Mobbing Follows (*)• Dr. Heinz Leymann identified main stress process – His first language was Swedish, his second German, but he labeled the menace with English word, mobbing • Dr. Selye won 1964 Nobel Prize for main workplace ill: stress – Term 1st used in Sweden, Germany, Italy, France, etc • In 1999, hotel employee awarded 100,000 francs for being humiliated in front of others; In 2000, a woman’s suicide attempt classified as work accident due to constant abuse from manager; In 2002, year in prison and 15,000 Euros fine – By 1999, “mobbing” found relevant to cases of mass shooting sprees in Canada and US; alas, Columbine found to have worst culture of abuse ever recorded as worst mobbing sadly found in universities and schools