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Ch21 Ch21 Presentation Transcript

  • The Monetary System PowerPoint Slides prepared by: Andreea CHIRITESCU Eastern Illinois University© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 1permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • The Meaning of Money • Money – Something people use to buy goods and services from other people – Money is liquid: how easy converted into a medium of exchange (cash vs. house) • Functions of money – Medium of exchange – Unit of account – Store of value© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 2permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • The Kinds of Money • Commodity money – Money that takes the form of a commodity with intrinsic value • Fiat money – Money without intrinsic value – Used as money because of government decree or order© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 3permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • Money in the U.S. Economy • Money stock – Quantity of money circulating in the economy • Currency – Paper bills and coins in the hands of the public • Demand deposits (checking account) – Balances in bank accounts - depositors can access on demand by writing a check© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 4permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • Money in the U.S. Economy • Measures of money stock – M1 • Currency • Demand (checking) deposits and other checkable deposits • Traveler’s checks – M2 • M1 plus • Savings deposits & small time deposits • Money market mutual funds© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 5permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • Figure 1Two Measures of the Money Stock for the U.S. Economy The two most widely followed measures of the money stock are M1 and M2. This figure shows the size of each measure in 2009.© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 6permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • Where is all the currency? • 2009: $862 billion currency outstanding – Average adult: holds about $3,653 of currency – Much of the currency is held abroad – Much of the currency is held by drug dealers, tax evaders, and other criminals • Cash is king? Not a good way to hold wealth – Can be lost or stolen – Doesn’t earn interest© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 7permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • The Federal Reserve System • Federal Reserve (Fed) – The central bank of the United States • Central bank – Institution designed to • Oversee the banking system • Regulate the quantity of money in the economy© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 8permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • The Fed’s Organization • The Federal Reserve – Created in 1913 – After a series of bank failures in 1907 – Purpose: to ensure the health of the nation’s banking system© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 9permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • The Fed’s Organization© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 10permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • The Fed’s Organization • Board of governors – 7 members, 14-year terms • Appointed by the president & confirmed by the Senate – The chairman • Directs the Fed staff • Presides over board meetings • Testifies regularly about Fed policy in front of congressional committees. • Appointed by the president (4-year term)© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 11permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • The Fed’s Organization • The Federal Reserve System – Federal Reserve Board in Washington, D.C. – 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks • Major cities around the country • The presidents - chosen by each bank’s board of directors© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 12permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • The Fed’s Organization • The Fed’s functions – Regulate banks & ensure the health of the banking system • Regional Federal Reserve Banks • Monitors each bank’s financial condition • Facilitates bank transactions - clearing checks • Acts as a bank’s bank • The Fed – lender of last resort • Control the money supply (monetary policy)© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 13permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • Federal Open Market Committee • FOMC – 7 members of the board of governors – 5 of the twelve regional bank presidents • All twelve regional presidents attend each FOMC meeting, but only five get to vote – Meets about every six weeks in Washington, D.C. – Discuss the condition of the economy – Consider changes in monetary policy© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 14permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • Federal Open Market Committee • Fed’s primary tool: open-market operation – Purchase & sale of U.S. government bonds • FOMC - increase the money supply – Open-market purchase (buy bonds) • FOMC - decrease the money supply – Open-market sale (sell bonds)© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 15permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • Banks and the Money Supply • Reserves – Deposits that banks have received but have not loaned out • The simple case of 100% reserve banking – All deposits are held as reserves • Banks do not influence the supply of money© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 16permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • Fractional-Reserve Banking • Fractional-reserve banking – Banks hold only a fraction of deposits as reserves • Reserve ratio – Fraction of deposits that banks hold as reserves • Reserve requirement – Minimum amount of reserves that banks must hold; set by the Fed© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 17permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • Fractional-Reserve Banking • Excess reserve – Banks may hold reserves above the legal minimum • Example: First National Bank – Reserve ratio 10%© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 18permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • The Money Multiplier • The money multiplier process – Original deposit = $100.00 – First National lending = $ 90.00 [= .9 × $100.00] – Second National lending = $ 81.00 [= .9 × $90.00] – Third National lending = $ 72.90 [= .9 × $81.00] –… – Total money supply = $1,000.00© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 19permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • The Money Multiplier • The money multiplier – Amount of money the banking system generates with each dollar of reserves – Reciprocal of the reserve ratio = 1/R • The higher the reserve ratio – The smaller the money multiplier© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 20permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • Fed’s Tools of Monetary Policy • Changes the quantity of reserves – Open-market operations – Fed direct lending to banks • Changes the reserve ratio – Reserve requirements© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 21permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • Fed’s Tools of Monetary Control • Open-market operations – To increase the money supply • The Fed buys U.S. government bonds – To reduce the money supply • The Fed sells U.S. government bonds – Used most often by Fed© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 22permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • Fed’s Tools of Monetary Control • Fed lending to banks • More lending to banks increases the money supply • Banks borrow at the discount rate • Banks borrow from other banks • Banks can also borrow from other banks at the federal funds rate • The Fed can change the federal funds rate • Higher discount/federal funds rate means less bank borrowing and fewer bank loans© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 23permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • Fed’s Tools of Monetary Control • Reserve requirements – Remember R in the money multiplier – An increase in reserve requirement • Decrease the money supply – A decrease in reserve requirement • Increase the money supply – Used rarely – disrupt business of banking© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 24permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.