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Ch18

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  • 1. Open-Economy Macroeconomics: Basic Concepts Principles: Chapter 31 PowerPoint Slides prepared by: Andreea CHIRITESCU Eastern Illinois University© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 1permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 2. Basic Concepts • Closed economy – Economy that does not interact with other economies in the world • Open economy – Economy that interacts freely with other economies around the world – It has imports and exports© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 2permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 3. International Flow of Goods • Trade surplus – Excess of exports over imports – Net exports > 0 • Trade deficit – Excess of imports over exports – Net exports < 0 • Balanced trade – Exports equal imports© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 3permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 4. International Flow of Goods • Factors that affect a country’s net exports: – Prices of goods at home and abroad – Exchange rates – Incomes of consumers at home and abroad – Transportation cost – Government trade policies© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 4permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 5. The increasing openness of the U.S. economy • Why increase in international trade? – Lowering transportation costs – Advances in telecommunications – Government’s trade policies • NAFTA • GATT© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 5permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 6. Figure 1The Internationalization of the U.S. Economy This figure shows exports and imports of the U.S. economy as a percentage of U.S. gross domestic product since 1950. The substantial increases over time show the increasing importance of international trade and finance.© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 6permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 7. International Flow of Capital • Capital Flows – Purchase of one country’s assets residents of another country • physical capital investment + financial investment (stock/bonds) • Net Capital Flows – Amount of foreign assets bought by domestic residents minus the amount of domestic assets bought by foreigners© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 7permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 8. International Flow of Capital • Factors that affect net capital outflow – Real interest rates and returns – Economic and political risks of holding assets abroad – Government policies that affect foreign ownership of domestic assets© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 8permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 9. Net Exports=Net Capital Outflow • When NX > 0 (trade surplus) – Selling more goods and services to foreigners than it is buying from them – From net sale of goods and services • Receives foreign currency • Buy foreign assets • Capital - flowing out of the country: NCO > 0© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 9permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 10. Net Exports=Net Capital Outflow • When NX < 0 (trade deficit) – Buying more goods and services from foreigners • Than it is selling to them – The net purchase of goods and services • Needs financed • Selling assets abroad • Capital - flowing into the country: NCO < 0© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 10permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 11. Figure 2Net Capital Outflow … how is it related to net exports?© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 11permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 12. Figure 1The Internationalization of the U.S. Economy This figure shows exports and imports of the U.S. economy as a percentage of U.S. gross domestic product since 1950. The substantial increases over time show the increasing importance of international trade and finance.© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 12permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 13. Exchange Rates • Nominal exchange rate – Rate at which a person can trade currency of one country for currency of another • Appreciation – Increase in the value of a currency • Buy more foreign currency • Depreciation – Decrease in the value of a currency • Buy less foreign currency© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 13permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 14. Exchange Rates • Depreciation in the U.S. exchange rate – U.S. goods - cheaper relative to foreign goods – Consumers at home and abroad - buy more U.S. goods and fewer goods from other countries • Higher exports • Lower imports • Higher net exports© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 14permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 15. Exchange Rates • Appreciation in the U.S. exchange rate – U.S. goods - more expensive compared to foreign goods – Consumers at home and abroad - buy fewer U.S. goods and more goods from other countries • Lower exports • Higher imports • Lower net exports© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 15permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 16. Nominal exchange rate during a hyperinflation • Natural experiment – hyperinflation – High inflation – Arises when a government prints money to pay for large amounts of government spending • German hyperinflation, early 1920s – Money supply, price level, nominal exchange rate • Move closely together© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 16permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
  • 17. Figure 3 Money, Prices, and the Nominal Exchange Rate during the German Hyperinflation This figure shows the money supply, the price level, and the exchange rate (measured as U.S. cents per mark) for the German hyperinflation from January 1921 to December 1924. Notice how similarly these three variables move. When the quantity of money started growing quickly, the price level followed, and the mark depreciated relative to the dollar. When the German central bank stabilized the money supply, the price level and exchange rate stabilized as well.© 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 17permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

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