Spies, Lies and Sunken Subs


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STEM program for Life Long Learning with an emphasis on the cold war, critical thinking exploring the sinking of the Soviet K129, US SSN Scorpion, and Cuban Missile Crisis

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  • ~ 200 persons died trying to get over the wall 1961-1989 Daisy Ad: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDTBnsqxZ3k
  • Typical sub limit 1000ft; NR-1 3,000 ft; Soviet Titanium Hull subs 5,000 ft (Craven; p. 107) DSRV min 3,000 – “actual depth is still classified” …. (note 5,000+ ft Soviet expectation, and 20K “rule”) “… advanced deep submergence vehicles produced by the DSSP – Trieste II (must be a 20K diving machine), NR-1, and the intelligence submarines ” Also from Craven: the Finnish Mir submersibles (film Titanic) “are said to be the most advanced deep submergence vehicles in existence” Seals can dive circa 600 ft. – Craven doing project to “place and unprotected human as a free swimmer in the ocean to depths greater than 1000 ft.” (p143) – French have publicized dives to 3,000 ft (p. 153) The Abyss (movie) liquid diving model has a problem … O2 is ok for virtually any depth; but no way to plurge CO2 2 and 20 rule (Craven, p 152) – 2000 ft covers the worlds continental shelves; 20,000 provides access to almost all of the deep ocean.
  • From Project Azorian book
  • Re: Blind Man’s Bluff’s sources per R. Craven “they personally believe that the time is ripe for the public to know, or they had been officially encouraged to do so with a sufficient amount of obfuscating disinformation.” p199 Craven lead the Navy investigations and searches for both K129 and Scorpion
  • Miles to “Azorian” site: Hawaii – 1835.132 Eniwetok – 2236.718 Wake – 1635.941 Midway – 830.189 Adak – 806.531
  • Seacliff built in 1968 with depth of 6500 ft; rebuilt in 1984 with depth of 20,000 ft. --- note, as a DSRV – rescue vehicle it could piggyback on a sub, not just a surface ship, with underwater attach and release – stealth operations!
  • Craven, P203 on Scorpion – Kelly was aware of super-secret hydrophone installations in the hands of another government agency …
  • Craven P204+ reports K129 track Taking latitude 65n and going east over the international date line (not 40!) expected boomer route (explains Soviet search in the 60’s) If it’s mission was as we suspect, it would take a great circle route and cross the date line at 45n “ the Russians were searching along this line – the great circle route to the date line and much further” Then Craven asserts the 40n180 spot Which is “not where it was supposed to be” (since Soviets looking elsewhere) “ ..a high probability that the sub had gone rogue” “ The Soviets would have no idea that their ship was a rogue unless we told them” (p207) Explosion on the surface p210; p212 – dead in water, on surface with hatches open Numbers on sail of K129 clearly visible (but classified?) The CIA referred to Craven’s Halibut search for K129 as “the hunt for Red September” Two warheads missing one obviously torn from it’s missile (p216) The probability that a detonation of high-energy explosive in the warhead was the cause of damage…” “ I conducted a Bayes subjective probability assessment and concluded there was a small probablility that the Russian submarine .. could have reached Hawaii with a nuclear warhead.” LBJ didn’t want to hear this analysis; Nixon and Kissinger did – Nixon awarded the Halibut the Presidential Unit Citation (first peacetime) in undisclosed trip to Hawaii.
  • Craven discloses U. Hawaii discovery of radioactive oil slick (p216) Sites: 40/180 – Craven, CIA, Azorian, 25N,167– Red Star Rogue 30N 165W, A Matter of Risk – 1978 === 25N, 170w – destination per Bruce Rule’s Book
  • Ethics question: You are sitting on a high level committee chartered to analyze a situation and make recommendations. After some work, a high level official instructs you “Your report is to match the conclusions already reached by the executive office, which is. …” What is your appropriate ethical response? What if the mandated conclusion is intended to cover up executive biases or errors? What if it is intended to protect national security? What if it may cause harm to persons or property? What if it may cause economic harm? Based on real world example of instruction given to the Wakelin presidential commission on the government relationship to the ocean and ocean activities. Directed conclusion was “The oceans are not of commercial importance to the Unites States.” source: John Pina Craven, member of said committee, and former Chief Scientist for the US Navy Special Projects Office, in his book “The Silent War” pg 249 (end of chapter 17)
  • William Reed observation that the improved Boresight (from Sanders input Oct 25) helped to corner the Soviet subs, but also force them to make critical decisions about firing their nuclear torpedoes … only in 1995 did the US confirm the torpedoes were nukes. Craig Reed interviewed principals involved with soviet subs: Ryurik Ketov, B4 Cmdr – also published paper AF Dubivko, B36 Cmdr (also Anatoliy Andreeve, and Vladlen Naumov from B36)- unpublished memoir Victor Frolov B130 Exec Officer [Captain Shumkov] B 59 (no interview with principal?) [Capt. Savitsky] [rules of engagement – if pressure hull ruptured by enemy action or orders from Moscow p71] US Polaris subs (6) leave Holy Loch Scotland, Oct 16 th ; 2 from other ports, 16 missiles each 161 Planes (B52s and B47s) with Nukes in rotation and disbursed to remote fields
  • deployed from the Kola peninsula northwest of Murmansk on October 1, 1962, bound for Mariel port in Cuba
  • The posting also includes the U.S. Navy message on October 24, 1962, detailing the "Submarine Surfacing and Identification Procedures" to be followed by U.S. forces enforcing the quarantine of Cuba, including dropping "four or five harmless explosive sound signals" after which "Submerged submarines, on hearing this signal, should surface on Easterly course." The State Department communicated this procedure to "other Governments" including the Soviet Foreign Ministry, but the Soviet submarine commanders, in a series of interviews in recent years, report they never received the message.Oct
  •   Captain Valentin Savitsky, unable to establish communications with Moscow, "became furious" and ordered the nuclear torpedo to be assembled for battle readiness. Savitsky roared "We're going to blast them now! We will die, but we will sink them all." Deputy brigade commander Second Captain Vasili Archipov calmed Savitsky down and they made the decision to surface the submarine Another submarine, B-88, left a base at Kamchatka peninsula, on 28 October, with orders to sail to Pearl Harbor and attack the base if the crisis over Cuba escalated into U.S.-Soviet war. Commanded by Captain Konstatine Kireev, B-88 arrived near Pearl Harbor on 10 November and patrolled the area until 14 November when it received orders to return to base, orders that were rescinded that same day, a sign that Moscow believed that the crisis was not over. B-88 did not return to Kamchatka under the very end of December
  • Craven was asked to serve on the Defense Intelligence Agency Scientific Advisory Board but Sen. Brooke was requested to verify his “political correctness”. Then asked to serve on the Nixon’s presidential (Wakelin) commission to look at the governments relationship with the ocean and ocean activities (1969) “ conduct our study for the good of the nation without restraint” Then Haldeman or Ehrlichman informed the committee “report to match conclusions of the executive office” ===================================== Full Texas (Republican) party statement: “ Knowledge-Based Education – We oppose the teaching of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) (values clarification), critical thinking skills and similar programs that are simply a relabeling of Outcome-Based Education (OBE) (mastery learning) which focus on behavior modification and have the purpose of challenging the student’s fixed beliefs and undermining parental authority. ” http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/post/texas-gop-rejects-critical-thinking-skills-really/2012/07/08/gJQAHNpFXW_blog.html http://s3.amazonaws.com/texasgop_pre/assets/original/2012Platform_Final.pdf
  • Spies, Lies and Sunken Subs

    1. 1. Spies, Lies and Sunken Subs Jim Isaak http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    2. 2. The Sixties • JFK elected in 1960, assassinated 1963 • Berlin wall raised 1961 • Cuban Missile Crisis – Oct.1962 • Dasiy ad –’64 election • Vietnam war – US Combat troops enter 1965 • Movements: Free Speech, Woman’s Rights, Anti-war, Hippie • Martin Luther King and RFK assassinated,1968 • Beatles (1960-1970) • Neil Armstrong steps on moon 21-July-1969 http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    3. 3. Movie Time Project Azorian http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    4. 4. Homework Take a book and/or try some web research http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    5. 5. Books 1. White, Michael & Polmar, Norman: Project Azorian; 2010 2. Sewell, Kenneth; Red Star Rogue; 2005 3. Sharp, David; The CIA’s Greatest Covert operation; 2012 (Principal) 4. Burleson, Clyde; The Jennifer Project; 1977 5. Collier, Wayne & Vamer, Roy; A Matter of Risk; 1978 (Principal) 6. Craven, John Pina; The Silent War; 2001 (Principal) 7. Sontag, Sherry & Drew, Christopher; Blind Man’s Bluff; 1998 (hard copy & Paper back) 8. Reed, Craig; Red November; 2011 (ref. to Sanders Assoc.) 9. Offley, Ed; Scorpion Down; 2007 (hard copy, paper back) 10. Sewell, Kenneth; All Hands Down; 2008 11. Vyborny, Lee & Davis, Don; Dark Waters; (NR1) 2003 12. Dunham, Roger; Spy Sub; 1996 (Halibut, “Viperfish”) 13. Rule, Bruce; Why the USS Scorpion Was Lost; circa 2011 http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    6. 6. Spies, Lies and Sunken Subs Class 2 Delving Deep “Ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free” (John 8, and CIA motto) http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    7. 7. Azorian “Documentary” • June 10, 1974 oval office tapes – final go/no go on Glomar Explorer (what meeting when) – (oops, Nixon flew to Austria that day!) (Nixon Library visitor log http://www.nixonlibrary.gov/virtuallibrary/documents/PDD/1974/080%20June%201974.pdf ) • Hammer on sub in video • Bell transferred to Soviets • 9,000 vs 22,000 pictures from Halibut • Redaction in log entry of “Bel Hudson”? http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    8. 8. Returns June 19 After Middle East tour http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    9. 9. Just for orientation http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    10. 10. Subs • “Boomers” (Missile subs) are for strategic “MAD” defense • Attack subs, and some others, are spy subs – they can attack shipping (WWI, WWII), or other subs; but also offshore monitoring of radio signals; wiretapping of undersea cables, photographing opponents latest devices – like subs – even in the opponents harbors. • Most sub activities are secret – 30 year gag rule is normal some are more secret • Subs can land SEALS, spies, et al – and extract them • Most subs have a ~1000 ft limit; special systems like NR-1 may go deeper; and of course Trieste, Alvin, et al can do this • The majority of the ocean is between 2000 & 20000 ft deep http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    11. 11. The Context 1967 Dec. – John Walker starts selling US Navy info to Soviets, starting with Codes used to communicate to/from US Subs (caught 1985) 1968 Jan 23– USS Pueblo (& KW-7) captured by North Korea (/Soviets) 1968 Mar. 11 1200Z – Soviet Sub K129 Sinks in North Pacific 1968 May 22 – US Sub Scorpion Sinks in the Atlantic 1968 Summer – USS Halibut locates & photographs K129 http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    12. 12. K 129 1968 Mar. 11 1200Z – Soviet Sub K129 Sinks in North Pacific (local midnight) 1968 Summer – USS Halibut locates & photographs K129 (“Red September” designation by CIA) 1969 Apr. – Project initiated to recover key parts of K129 1972 – Glomar Explorer Launched – CIA project under Hughes Summa Corporation cover: “Mining Manganese Nodules” http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    13. 13. K129 http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    14. 14. Rendition of K129 http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    15. 15. K129 Picture http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    16. 16. ActII Glomar Explorer http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    17. 17. A Cover Story • “For the first two hours, Ito’s detailed monologue described the Hughes empire and Summa’s plans for undersea mining…” • “Next came an hour on the organizational structure of the independent drilling company, Global Marine…” • “What you’ve heard about our plans in the last three hours is a complete lie … We are going to recover a sunken Russian submarine and you are working for the CIA” Wayne Collier, Summa HR manager [5] http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    18. 18. Manganese Nodule Documented as typically swag from Summa corporation http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    19. 19. http://is.gd/7KYNYU Dated June 1974 (xfer of ship to Hughes) With misleading return address Coin not mentioned in any of the Azorian books to the best of my knowledge
    20. 20. The Coin http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    21. 21. Glomar Explorer 1972 – Glomar Explorer Launched – CIA project Hughes Summa Corporation cover: “Mining Manganese Nodules” 1974 Aug – Part of K129 recovered from 16,500 Ft below ocean (July 10 – Aug 9) (Nixon resigned Aug 8) 30 years of limited revelations about these events – 1975 News break; 2001 -2012 series of related books http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    22. 22. Long baseline positioning http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    23. 23. “Captain, you are very young and inexperienced, but you will learn that there are some things that both sides have agreed not to address, and one is that event [USS Scorpion] and our K-129 loss, for similar reasons.” Soviet Admiral Navoytsev to US Capt. Peter Huchthausen in 1987 [9] http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    24. 24. Assignment • Read one of the books – What happened to the K129/Scorpion? – What was it doing at the time? • Does this seem believable? • For given "facts", how solid are they? Which are clearly well founded, which need confirmation? • How might you confirm specific information? • Are there obvious flaws in the source that might indicate other errors as well? (Note: spelling, grammar, and such all affect perception and credibility) • What experience does the author/source have that might add credibility? • What interest might the author/source have that might undermine credibility? • How would the author/source "know" that? • Is the author holding back information or misleading in some area and acknowledging it? http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    25. 25. Week 3 Test Depth http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    26. 26. Big Questions • What are the questions we have? • What related information would help us sort things out? • What do we seem to know? • Do we believe it? http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    27. 27. The Big Question Why did K129 sink? “The CIA will not permit me to publish any information I have relating to the cause of the loss. However, I can state that I find inconsistencies between every one of the hypotheses that have been presented by AZSORIAN authors and my own personal knowledge of the target’s condition and its contents. None of the proposed scenarios convincingly explain all of the existing data and facts relevant to the loss of the K-129” “I don’t know what caused the loss of the K-129, but I believe there is a fairly strong likelihood that the truth, if exposed, could still be embarrassing to the governments of the United States and the Russian Federation. The list of people who actually know the cause of the K-129’s loss is very small – and that list is getting smaller every year. I suspect if I knew the truth, I would choose not to publish it.” David Sharp, CIA Mission Director of Recovery Systems [3] http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    28. 28. SOSUS, AFTAC • AFTAC info (from Project Azorian) • Test explosions on June 9th to validate/calibrate • Note: Soviet Subs work on Moscow Time this is 4PM Station 1st Event 2nd Event Midway 12:14:30 12:20:28 Adak (SOSUS) 12:18:56 12:24.55 Wake 12:30:12 12:36:10 Hawaii 12:33:22 12:39:20 Eniwetok 12:40:30 na http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    29. 29. http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    30. 30. Stories • USS Swordfish collided with K129 (Soviet assertion) • USS Scorpion was sunk by Soviets in revenge for K129 • K129 went rogue and was trying to launch an attack on Hawaii perhaps as if they were a Chinese sub • Trieste II recovered an (outer space) alien from the K129 site in 1972 • K129 materials provided to Soviets and China resulted in significant changes in relations between the US and these countries • Glomar Explorer got more than reported front 20% of K129 • The “Glomar Response” – Freedom of Information Act response by CIA “We cannot confirm or deny that we have any records relevant to … but if we did they would be classified” (upheld in 1976) http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    31. 31. What might you hear? Bayesian search theory used by Craven to identify area for Scorpion http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    32. 32. Toys & Tools • USS Halibut – reconfigured for special ops • Trieste II – Deep with devices for retrieval • NR1 http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    33. 33. Trieste http://is.gd/7KYNYU Built 1953, US Navy acquired 1958 Decommissioned 1966 23 January 1960, - 35,797 ft Challenger Deep
    34. 34. Trieste II http://is.gd/7KYNYU In service, Sept., 1969 Test depth 20,000+ Operated as if Trieste I for many years
    35. 35. DSRV http://is.gd/7KYNYU Depth 5,000 ft In service 1979 Can be loaded into cargo plane as well as piggyback with sub
    36. 36. NR1 http://is.gd/7KYNYU Length 150 Ft Launched Jan 1969 Depth ?? Dual mission sub – research & military – under guise of “DSRV” program Rickover’s baby
    37. 37. Possible NR2 http://is.gd/7KYNYU Youtube video asserts this US mini-sub was fireing a laser at Somali pirates circa 2011 Screen shot has many problems for a “real” picture Ship appears to be 190 ft long or so Rand report on NR2 is publicly available Implication is that it was not built
    38. 38. Different Data • 11 plus non-crew were on K129 (typically KGB or GRU?) • US satellite detected a missile fuel explosion [2] on surface • U. Hawaii research vessel Teritu located radioactive oil slick off leeward islands [8, 2] • Body near sub in Halibut pictures was wearing outdoor gear – implies sub on surface at time of explosion [8, 6, 2, but variations in other books] • K129 could launch R-21 missiles underwater, while moving, with a range of 900+ miles (1700 w/lighter load?) • Chinese subs could launch R-13 Missiles, Thought to be Surface Launch at defined longitude/latitude points while stationary with a range of 350 miles http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    39. 39. Spies, Lies and Sunken Subs Getting to the bottom (It is not always a good idea) http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    40. 40. A Test True or  False? Explain … http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    41. 41. The Collision Assertion • If the USS Swordfish hit K129, why did it go to Japan for repairs rather than Hawaii? • Conflicting stories of “entering Yokosuka harbor with veiled damage” vs simply a bent periscope -- & picture in Asahi newspaper from March 17, 1968 • Boat logs provided to Soviets show sub in N. Japan Sea and that it surfaced under unexpected ice flow • This is “still” the perspective of key Soviet military persons and Soviets may have decoded radio signals from the Swordfish • Subs collide – Nov 1969 K19 collides with USS Gato – June 1970 K108 collides with SSN-639 Tautog – Feb 1992 K276 (SSN) hit by SSN 698 Baton Rouge “Tailing to close” – Mar 1993 K407 (SSBN) hit by SSN 646 Grailing “passing in front” – Aug 2000 Kursk sunk, indications that SSN- Memphis may have struck Kursk Why might US or Soviets lie about this situation? What information would we need to sort it out? http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    42. 42. The Accident If K129 had an onboard mishap, resulting in a fuel explosion of one or two of the missiles, it could sink the boat. Clearly the US would cover up information until all chance of recovery and possible recovery had passed --- but why be concerned after that? While the Soviets would be embarrassed – clearly they lost the sub in any case; why cover up or refuse to acknowledge an accident? – They have admitted other sub accidents. What information would support/or discount this theory? http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    43. 43. Rogue Attack Suggested by Craven, thesis for Sewell “Published” Position of sub – 40n 180w appears too far for R21 missiles to reach Hawaii (but Midway?) Was status/location consistent with emulating Chinese attack? (surface, long/lat, distance?) How does this theory align with the Russian and US agreement to remain silent? “But the secret hiding within the secret – the motivations of that Soviet captain and his crew – had remained in tact and that, ironically, is the secret that ought to be reveled” J Craven http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    44. 44. 3-Way Cold War 1968 Nov. – Nixon Elected President high Sino-Soviet Tension 1969 Apr. – Project initiated to recover key parts of K129 (crypto, missiles, torpedoes, code books) 1969 Nov – SALT I Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Start 1971/72 – Kissinger, Nixon trips to China 1969 – Border fights http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    45. 45. Where? http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    46. 46. 4 reported positions Pearl Harbor and the Soviet search area http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    47. 47. Critical Thinking • We know many of the things being said are not correct – Loose Lips Sink Ships – Great hooks to sell books – Governments hiding secrets/ embarrassments – Censorship of (or by) knowledgeable authors • So what tools do we have to sift the facts from the noise? What are they missing pieces? What questions might we ask and/or research to resolve key points? http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    48. 48. Some observations • Soviet decode(?) of KW-7 might have disclosed a US sub collision in ‘real time’ – from Swordfish or other sub • Russia knows what is at 40n 180w by now (has submersibles, etc.) • Actual site has “legs” from Clementine (Claw), and residual sub • Thousands of pictures of K129 exist, most still restricted (Halibut in 68 “Velvet Fist”, Operation Sand Dollar, Trieste II?, returns of Halibut, et al; Glomar 2, Glomar Explorer, ----post 1974???) • Craven given the Distinguished Civilian Service Award (DoD’s highest), “I have never seen the citation” • Key Craven assertion – US strategy in many cases has been to convince the Soviet leader that he was not in control of his armed forces & recovery was intended to be “in Soviet view” • Sewell suggests data was given to both Soviets and China – facilitating improved relations with each • Howard Hughes was likely a major campaign contributor to Nixon’s Election a half billion dollar project directed his way may have had political vs military incentives • Robert Ballard visited Scorpion site in 1985 along with the discovery of the Titanic in NR-1 (a dual purpose operation) http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    49. 49. Resources 1. White, Michael & Polmar, Norman: Project Azorian; 2010 book & PBS show 2. Sewell, Kenneth; Red Star Rogue; 2005 3. Sharp, David; The CIA’s Greatest Covert operation; 2012 (Principal) Appendix A: Perception Management and Disinformation 4. Burleson, Clyde; The Jennifer Project; 1977 5. Collier, Wayne & Vamer, Roy; A Matter of Risk; 1978 (Principal) 6. Craven, John Pina; The Silent War; 2001 (Principal) 7. Sontag, Sherry & Drew, Christopher; Blind Man’s Bluff; 1998 8. Reed, Craig; Red November; 2011 (ref. to Sanders Assoc.) 9. Offley, Ed; Scorpion Down; 2007 10. Sewell, Kenneth; All Hands Down; 2008 http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    50. 50. 1962 Subs and the Cuban Missile Crisis http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    51. 51. Cuban Missile Range http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    52. 52. Flash back to 1962 • 1960 Dec.- Soviets start using burst sub transmissions • 1961 US SOSUS network established UK to Iceland • 1962 May – Polaris missile launch success • 1962 Fall – Soviet Union installs nuclear missiles in Cuba • 4 Soviet Diesel subs, each with one nuclear torpedo, approach Cuba – in theory to start sub base there • 1962 Oct 25 – Sanders suggests simulated burst transmissions • 1962 Oct. US Blockade – brinksmanship situation – Soviet ships turn back – All four Soviet Subs forced to surface & retreat (one pulled a fast escape) – All four subs seriously considered firing their nuclear torpedoes http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    53. 53. Oct 1 4 Foxtrots to Cuba http://is.gd/7KYNYU With Nuclear Torpedoes – 2 “special weapons” each
    54. 54. The Burst Problem Short – difficult to detect, but could once nature was identified Encoded – hard to analyze Short – limited time to “triangulate” => 10 Mile But … Saunders Associate Nashua contribution Send a similar signal from a known ship near the sub -- & correct for variations http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    55. 55. Foxtrot locations B-59 is at top http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    56. 56. • Oct 24, 1962 US directive to Soviets: – Will drop 4-5 harmless explosives – Subs should surface on Easterly course • Soviet Sub commanders didn’t get “the memo” • Red November (Reed) suggests that all four considered firing nuclear torpedoes • “Man who saved the world” suggests at least one http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    57. 57. 1 minute to midnight Soviet sub B-59, commanded by Valentin Savitsky October 27, 1962 “Ok” from Political Officer Blocked by Deputy Brigade Commander Archipov http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    58. 58. http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    59. 59. Post mortum • 1963 June 20 -- Red phone agreement – US/Soviet leaders • 1964 Khrushchev leaves office • 1964 first China nuclear device test • 2001 March - meeting of principles in Havana disclosed that tactical and some medium range nukes could/would have been used (McNamara, Castro, Soviet folks, etc.) http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    60. 60. Resources – http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB75/ Subs of October (GWU National Security Archive) – PBS “The Man Who Saved the World” 2012 – http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB399/ Update 2012 – McNamara World Affairs Council on FORATV • http://fora.tv/2005/03/09/Robert_McNamara • Fog of War video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=afVzS742enE – Peter Huchthausen, October Fury; New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc., 2002 http://is.gd/7KYNYU
    61. 61. Parental warning "Knowledge-Based Education – We oppose the teaching of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) (values clarification), critical thinking skills and similar programs that are simply a relabeling of Outcome-Based Education (OBE) (mastery learning) which focus on behavior modification and have the purpose of challenging the student’s fixed beliefs and undermining parental authority” A Texas political party platform point for 2012 Source: Scientific American, p. 71; Nov. 2012 Warning: This program is intended to challenge fixed beliefs and develop critical thinking http://is.gd/7KYNYU