The Closing of the Western Frontier by:  Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS  Chappaqua, NY
Essential Questions <ul><li>What national issues emerged in the process of closing the western frontier? </li></ul><ul><li...
Key Tensions Native  Americans Buffalo Hunters Railroads U. S. Government Cattlemen Sheep Herders Ranchers Farmers
Key Tensions Ethnic Minorities Nativists Environmentalists Big Business Interests   [mining, timber] Local Govt. Officials...
the Railroad builders
Railroad Construction
“ The Big Four” Railroad Magnates Charles Crocker Mark Hopkins Leland Stanford Collis Huntington
Promontory Point, UT (May 10, 1869)
the cowboys
The Bronc Buster Frederick Remington
Black Cowboys
the GUNSLINGERS
Colt .45 Revolver God didn’t make men equal. Colonel Colt did!
Legendary Gunslingers & Train Robbers Jesse James Billy the Kid
Dodge City Peace Commission, 1890
the MINERS
Prospecting
Mining Centers:  1900
Anaconda Copper Mining Co. (MT)
Mining (“Boom”) Towns-- Now Ghost Towns Calico, CA
The Cattlemen & the Sheep herders
The Cattle Trails
Land Use:  1880s
New Agricultural Technology “ Prairie Fan” Water Pump Steel Plow [“Sod Buster”]
Barbed Wire Joseph Glidden
The Range Wars Sheep Herders Cattle Ranchers
Minority groups in the West
Regional Population Distribution by Race:  1900
Regional Population Distribution by Race:  1900
Black “Exoduster” Homesteaders
Blacks Moving West
The Buffalo Soldiers on the Great Plains
A Romantic View
The Buffalo Soldiers & the Indian Wars
The “Chinese Question” <ul><li>Exclusion Act (1882)   - Oriental Exclusion Act   - Chinese Exclusion Act </li></ul>
The Tong Wars:  1850s-1920s Began in San Francisco in 1875.
African American & Chinese Populations: 1880-1900
The Farmers
Frontier Settlements:  1870-1890
Homesteads From Public Lands
1887 Land Promotion Poster for the Dakota Territories
What is the Message of this Picture?
The Realty--A Pioneer’s Sod House, SD
Rain Follows the Plow!
Frederick Jackson Turner The Significance of the Frontier  in American Society   (1893)
Newlands Reclamation Act  (1902) Francis Newlands
the plains indians
Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1851) Colorado Gold Rush (1859)
Colonel John Chivington Kill and scalp all, big and little! Sandy Creek, CO Massacre November 29, 1864
Capt. William J. Fetterman 80 soldiers massacred December 21, 1866
Treaty of Medicine  Lodge Creek (1867) 2 nd  Treaty of  Ft. Laramie (1868) Reservation Policy
Gold Found in the Black Hills of the Dakota Territory! 1874
The Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 Chief Sitting Bull Gen. George Armstrong  Custer
Chief Joseph  I will fight no more forever! Nez Percé tribal  retreat (1877)
Geronimo, Apache Chief:  Hopeless Cause
Helen Hunt Jackson A Century of Dishonor  (1881)
Susette La Flesche Omaha Indian    lecture tour on Native American issues in the 1870s
Dawes Severalty Act (1887): Assimilation Policy Carlisle Indian School, PA
Arapahoe “Ghost Dance”, 1890
Chief Big Foot’s Lifeless Body Wounded Knee, SD, 1890
Indian Reservations Today
Crazy Horse Monument: Black Hills, SD Lakota Chief
Korczak Ziolkowski, Sculptor Crazy Horse Monument His vision of the finished memorial.
Mt. Rushmore:  Black Hills, SD
the myth & legend of the west
The Traditional View of the West
William “Buffalo Bill” Cody’s Wild West Show
“ Buffalo Bill” Cody & Sitting Bull
Legendary  Female Western Characters Calamity Jane Annie Oakley
The Fall of the Cowboy Frederick Remington
what were the long-term effects of the westward experience?
Destruction of the Buffalo Herds The near extinction of the buffalo.
Yellowstone National Park First national park established in 1872.
National Parks
Conservation Movement John Muir With President Theodore Roosevelt
Sierra Club Founded in 1892
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Closing The Western Frontier

  1. 1. The Closing of the Western Frontier by: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>What national issues emerged in the process of closing the western frontier? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the West hold such an important place in the American imagination? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways is the West romanticized in American culture? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Tensions Native Americans Buffalo Hunters Railroads U. S. Government Cattlemen Sheep Herders Ranchers Farmers
  4. 4. Key Tensions Ethnic Minorities Nativists Environmentalists Big Business Interests [mining, timber] Local Govt. Officials Farmers Buffalo Hunters Lawlessness of the Frontier “ Civilizing” Forces [The “Romance” of the West]
  5. 5. the Railroad builders
  6. 6. Railroad Construction
  7. 7. “ The Big Four” Railroad Magnates Charles Crocker Mark Hopkins Leland Stanford Collis Huntington
  8. 8. Promontory Point, UT (May 10, 1869)
  9. 9. the cowboys
  10. 10. The Bronc Buster Frederick Remington
  11. 11. Black Cowboys
  12. 12. the GUNSLINGERS
  13. 13. Colt .45 Revolver God didn’t make men equal. Colonel Colt did!
  14. 14. Legendary Gunslingers & Train Robbers Jesse James Billy the Kid
  15. 15. Dodge City Peace Commission, 1890
  16. 16. the MINERS
  17. 17. Prospecting
  18. 18. Mining Centers: 1900
  19. 19. Anaconda Copper Mining Co. (MT)
  20. 20. Mining (“Boom”) Towns-- Now Ghost Towns Calico, CA
  21. 21. The Cattlemen & the Sheep herders
  22. 22. The Cattle Trails
  23. 23. Land Use: 1880s
  24. 24. New Agricultural Technology “ Prairie Fan” Water Pump Steel Plow [“Sod Buster”]
  25. 25. Barbed Wire Joseph Glidden
  26. 26. The Range Wars Sheep Herders Cattle Ranchers
  27. 27. Minority groups in the West
  28. 28. Regional Population Distribution by Race: 1900
  29. 29. Regional Population Distribution by Race: 1900
  30. 30. Black “Exoduster” Homesteaders
  31. 31. Blacks Moving West
  32. 32. The Buffalo Soldiers on the Great Plains
  33. 33. A Romantic View
  34. 34. The Buffalo Soldiers & the Indian Wars
  35. 35. The “Chinese Question” <ul><li>Exclusion Act (1882) - Oriental Exclusion Act - Chinese Exclusion Act </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Tong Wars: 1850s-1920s Began in San Francisco in 1875.
  37. 37. African American & Chinese Populations: 1880-1900
  38. 38. The Farmers
  39. 39. Frontier Settlements: 1870-1890
  40. 40. Homesteads From Public Lands
  41. 41. 1887 Land Promotion Poster for the Dakota Territories
  42. 42. What is the Message of this Picture?
  43. 43. The Realty--A Pioneer’s Sod House, SD
  44. 44. Rain Follows the Plow!
  45. 45. Frederick Jackson Turner The Significance of the Frontier in American Society (1893)
  46. 46. Newlands Reclamation Act (1902) Francis Newlands
  47. 47. the plains indians
  48. 48. Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1851) Colorado Gold Rush (1859)
  49. 49. Colonel John Chivington Kill and scalp all, big and little! Sandy Creek, CO Massacre November 29, 1864
  50. 50. Capt. William J. Fetterman 80 soldiers massacred December 21, 1866
  51. 51. Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek (1867) 2 nd Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1868) Reservation Policy
  52. 52. Gold Found in the Black Hills of the Dakota Territory! 1874
  53. 53. The Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 Chief Sitting Bull Gen. George Armstrong Custer
  54. 54. Chief Joseph I will fight no more forever! Nez Percé tribal retreat (1877)
  55. 55. Geronimo, Apache Chief: Hopeless Cause
  56. 56. Helen Hunt Jackson A Century of Dishonor (1881)
  57. 57. Susette La Flesche Omaha Indian  lecture tour on Native American issues in the 1870s
  58. 58. Dawes Severalty Act (1887): Assimilation Policy Carlisle Indian School, PA
  59. 59. Arapahoe “Ghost Dance”, 1890
  60. 60. Chief Big Foot’s Lifeless Body Wounded Knee, SD, 1890
  61. 61. Indian Reservations Today
  62. 62. Crazy Horse Monument: Black Hills, SD Lakota Chief
  63. 63. Korczak Ziolkowski, Sculptor Crazy Horse Monument His vision of the finished memorial.
  64. 64. Mt. Rushmore: Black Hills, SD
  65. 65. the myth & legend of the west
  66. 66. The Traditional View of the West
  67. 67. William “Buffalo Bill” Cody’s Wild West Show
  68. 68. “ Buffalo Bill” Cody & Sitting Bull
  69. 69. Legendary Female Western Characters Calamity Jane Annie Oakley
  70. 70. The Fall of the Cowboy Frederick Remington
  71. 71. what were the long-term effects of the westward experience?
  72. 72. Destruction of the Buffalo Herds The near extinction of the buffalo.
  73. 73. Yellowstone National Park First national park established in 1872.
  74. 74. National Parks
  75. 75. Conservation Movement John Muir With President Theodore Roosevelt
  76. 76. Sierra Club Founded in 1892
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