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The Role of Maps in GIS
 

The Role of Maps in GIS

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Clint Brown's Technology Keynote presentation at the 2010 ESRI International User Conference on Wednesday, July 14th.

Clint Brown's Technology Keynote presentation at the 2010 ESRI International User Conference on Wednesday, July 14th.

For more information: http://www.esri.com/uc

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    The Role of Maps in GIS The Role of Maps in GIS Presentation Transcript

    • The Role of Maps in GIS
      Clint Brown
    • “Mapping” encompasses a lot
      Traditional media
      Paper maps
      Imagery
      New media
      Web maps
      Mobile maps
      Geographic information
      People have learned to use and appreciate the value of “new media” maps, and GIS can exploit this
    • People use maps for many activities
      To communicate and convey large amounts of information
    • To find patterns
      Crime
      Median Age
    • To view information over time
    • To derive new information using analysis
      Malaria Predictions
      Heat map of crime
      Optimizing routes
    • To communicate ideas, concepts, designs, …
      Sarah Ellingson
    • To get status reportsOperational dashboards
      Haiti Earthquake response
      Water utility operational dashboard
      BP Oil Blowout
    • To compile geographic information
      Most GIS organizations compile and maintain information inventories (e.g., Hydrology, Soils, Geology, Transportation, Boundaries, Parcels, etc.)
    • Maps are made from a series of layers
      • Layers represent logical collections (themes) of information – Roads, Trails, Surface Elevation, Hydro, . . .
      • The contents of each map are organized as a series of layers
      A map is a kind of geographic information model . . .
      . . . GIS is founded on map layer concepts
    • There are many types of GIS map layers
      Multi-scale Basemaps
      Features
      Imagery
      Also:
      • 3D layers
      • Surface layers
      • Etc.
      Derived Layers (e.g., Model Results)
    • Multi-scale BasemapsBasemap layers provide a framework and context for working with other map layers
      Topographic
      Geology
      General purpose city
      Imagery
      Parcels
      Utilities
    • General Purpose City Map: Pasadena, California
    • Basemaps
      Basemap Sandwich
      Fused Base Map
      Reference Overlay
      Theme
      Terrain
      Geology
      Topographic Basemap
      Imagery Hybrid
    • BasemapsUsing map sandwiches
      Terrain underlay
    • Basemaps Using map sandwiches
      Reference overlay
      Names, transportation, hydro, . . .
    • Basemaps Using map sandwiches
      Slide your theme into the sandwich
      Population, Hydrology, Geology, Soils, Land use, Ecoregions, . . .
      Median Age
    • Basemaps Using map sandwiches
      Imagery Hybrid
      Imagery plus Reference Overlay
    • Types of layersFeature layers
      . . . Feature shapes plus attributes
      Portrayed using symbols, colors, and labels — based on attribute values
      Assign symbols to attribute values (e.g., street class) . . . . . . and labels (e.g., street name)
    • Feature layers have information popupsLayers as interactive reports
      Maps tell stories
    • Feature layers have attachmentsAdd photos and other documents to a feature
      . . . how features communicate rich information
    • Feature layersAre used to compile and edit data
      Example:
      • Geodatabase schema for parcels
      • Parcel fabric uses specialized topological rules for how elements fit together to form the parcel fabric
      • A Map Document has Layers
      • Layers have symbology and labels
      • Layers have Feature Templates for editing
    • Some layers are derivedGeocoding layers
      Feature layer created from an address table
    • Sensor layersFeature layers can be created for sensor networks
      Traffic cameras
      Stream gauges
    • Image layers (Raster)
      • Individual image files
      • Mosaics: Collections of imagery used as integrated map layers
    • Surface layers
      Contours and Elevation Points
      DEM Rasters
      Terrains (Multi-resolution Tins)
      Composite
    • Derived layersGeoprocessing Results
      Analytical Models
      Optimizing Travel Times
      Areas within 2-, 4-, and 6-hours by truck
      Suitability map
      Polygon overlay of flood plains on parcels
      Spatial statistics
      Derived layers for spatial analysis and to automate tasks (e.g., ETL)
    • ArcMapTo create a map, you create layers and add them to your map
      The Table of Contents helps you to organize the layers in your map
    • Layers encapsulate how you work with GIS datasets
      How datasets are classified, symbolized, and labeled
      How to view and work with feature attributes
      How features are edited
      Attribute table
      HTML popups
      New in Version 10
      Feature editing templates
    • Layer properties
      Subsets (Queries)
      Scale-dependent display properties
      Joins and relates
      Attribute field properties
      Alias names
      Visible fields
      Hidden fields
      Display expressions
      Time properties
      Group layers
      Visible fields, expressions, captions, …
      Time Slider
      Editing templates
    • Your map helps you to
      Compile and edit shared features
      Define the visible map scales
      Derive a new layer by analyzing information in other layers
      Can be saved and shared as map packages and layer packages
      ArcMapMap documents and layers encapsulate your knowledge
    • Users share maps and layersUsing ArcGIS Online
      Free Online Storage
      Groups
      Share
      Map packages and
      Layer packages
      Search / Use
      Desktop Users
    • ArcGIS 10
      ArcGIS is about making, using, and sharing GIS maps and apps for many purposes
      Desktop Maps (MXD, MPK, MSD, LYR, LPK)
      Web Maps and Apps
      Mobile Maps and Apps
    • ArcGIS is an online system for using geographic information everywhereA range of clients — GIS desktops, Web browsers, and mobile devices
      Connected to maps and geographic information services from thousands of organizations worldwide.
      On local computers (and as files on disk)
      Published as GIS Web services for use within an enterprise
      Published and shared in the cloud
    • GIS web mapsA new kind of map that works on the web
      Shared with everyone
      Works everywhere
      In browsers
      Mobile devices
      In custom apps
      And in GIS desktops
    • Web MapsSharing GIS with everyone
      There is a new map media called a web map
      This is one of many map patterns for the web and is already widely used (e.g., by Google, Microsoft Bing, ArcGIS Online, etc.)
      This pattern involves the use of multi-scale base maps plus operational overlays (mashups)
      Each map is published as an open map service on the web
      Published with multiple APIs: REST, SOAP, WMS, WCS, KML
      A Web Map combines these in a common application
      Simple HTML and Mobile APIs are used to assemble web applications that reference REST endpoints (URLs).
      Only a few dozen lines of code are needed to create great web map apps
      With ArcGIS Online, making a map is even easier (No web programming)
      Make a Web Map
    • Web maps can be created and shared Web browser (ArcGIS.com)
      Create your Web map at ArcGIS.com and in Explorer Online
    • Web maps can be sharedArcGIS Explorer Online
    • Web maps can be sharedAdd notes and build presentations with Explorer Online
      Using maps to tell stories
    • Web maps can be sharediPhone, iOS, Android, . . .
    • Web maps can be shared Using Custom Apps
      Web APIs for Javascript, Flex, Silverlight, SharePoint, iOS, and Android
    • Web maps can be sharedArcGIS Explorer Desktop
      Adding tasks for modeling and analysis
    • Web maps can be sharedArcMap
    • Web maps can be sharedArcMap
      Perform advanced work:
      Editing, Geoprocessing, Modeling, . . .
    • How to create great web maps and apps
    • Web Maps
      A web map is a set of web map layers.
      Each layer is based on a web map service.
      A web map service in ArcGIS is published using a map document.
      You author your web map layers as map documents in ArcMap and publish them as map services.
      You combine a set of web map layers from multiple services in your web map application.
      There is a common pattern for web maps
    • Creating a GIS Web MapA commonly used pattern
      Multi-scale Basemap(s)
      Operational Overlay(s)
      Tools for working with each layer
      A GIS app to bring this to life
    • Building a multi-scale base mapA series of related maps for each map scale
      Using ArcMap
      Define map scales
      Build a map for each map scale
      Put the set of layers for each map scale in a group layer
      Set scale-dependent drawing for each group layer
      Generate a cached map service
      Optional:
      • Define Interactive feature reports
      • Locator
    • Community BasemapsYou don’t have to build it all yourself. Your map can be part of a community map.
      You need a set of multi-scale base maps to accomplish your work
      No user can assemble their complete map. You need contributions from other users as well
      ESRI wants to support your efforts to build and publish your collective information as a series of great base maps
      A unified, harmonized series of basemaps authored and shared by the ArcGIS community
    • Operational LayersThe focused set of layers that users work with
      Editing and data access layers
      Observations, sensor feeds, incidents
      Query results
      Result layers that are derived from analytical models
      Earthquakes
      Inundation Areas &Affected Buildings
      Incidents, Customer Calls, Work Orders
    • Operational layers
      Put interesting data behind your maps. Use tools to reach into that data.
      “What can you do with a single mouse-click?”
      Maps as interactive reports enable you to simplify the cartography (e.g., fewer and simpler labels)
    • Operational Layers are used for information accessLayers as interactive, georeferenced reports
      Operational Overlay
      Operational Overlay
      Base Map
      Basemap Sandwich
    • Simplest Report is Information PopupThe most common layer report method
      Avoid use of
      Feature and Object IDs
      Abbreviated / technical field names
      Code values
      Poorly formatted real numbers
      Etc.
    • Operational LayersLayers as interactive reports
      Interactive reports are controlled by adding information to specific results columns in your geodatabase
      Add columns with meaningful valuesto your feature tables
      Populate report attributes for each feature
      Identify the audience. Focus on delivering information to help them do their work
    • Operational LayersThe focused set of layers that users work with
      Include tools for rich operations
      Examples
      Calculate population within 100 miles of an earthquake
      Show current stream flow
      Project Planning
      Earthquakes
      Stream Flow
      Water Utility Plans
    • Operational LayersCartographic design is important
      Good symbology and labels
      Support for scale-dependent display
      Not relevant at these map scales
    • Apps use basemaps plus operational overlaysOut-of-the-box apps and custom apps
      Operational layers require:
      Cartographic design (e.g., scale-dependencies)
      Popup Report Design
      Tools to work with the layer’s content
      Maps tell stories
      Use Presentations in ArcGIS Explorer
      Associate specific tools with each operational layer
    • Observations and ImplicationsAnd random thoughts . . .
    • Better maps are needed
    • Key points
      The GIS community builds and maintains important information sets
      Maps – both 2D and 3D, are the way this geographic information is brought to life
      However, most GIS professionals are not cartographers
      But, …There is a GIS mapping “community”
      The mapping community can provide the designs and build map specifications for the rest of us for web delivery (i.e., templates)
      The mapping community can share its designs and map templates
      Users can import their data into these templates and publish maps on the Web
    • Most GIS maps and apps are too complicatedSimplify and Streamline
      One-size-fits-all, general Übermaps
      Applications with (too) many options and toolbars and bells and whistles and the kitchen sink, etc.
      Designing map and geodatabase together leads to simpler data models that are streamlined
    • GIS for everyone means your GIS must be relevant and vitalOld ways of GIS are no longer sustainable
      Current Focus
      Future
      Individual organizations have their own maps
      Independently designed map documents and geodatabases
      Slow to deploy and adapt
      Focus is on data formats and dataset sharing
      Standards efforts are focused on this too. Clunky sharing and standards.
      Focused interactive maps that are mission-based
      Transformation to shared web maps for delivery
      Work together on common designs (Templates)
      Use of Web maps for information access
      Use of Web maps to communicate and tell stories
      Simplify and streamline
      Maps and templates will play a critical role
    • The ArcGIS Community will create and share great GIS maps and apps (Content)
      ESRI is building some core maps
      Imagery, streets, locators
      Demographic and business maps
      ESRI is engaging with our user communities on other strategic maps (collaborative)
      Topographic map, Image map, Street map, Others
      Many of you will create and share maps
      Hosted at ArcGIS Online
      User-managed
      Great map and app designs shared as templates
    • Lessons learned
      Group layers do a lot for your design (e.g., scale-dependent display, organizing information by theme, . . .)
      Frequently, you’ll need maps to be more specific at larger map scales
    • Base maps become more specific at larger map scales
    • Base maps become more specific at larger map scales
    • Base maps become more specific at larger map scales
    • Lessons learned
      • Important to design maps and geodatabases in unison
      Leads to simpler data models that are streamlined
    • Lessons learned
      Leverage map content from other users
      Use “map sandwiches” for some base maps
    • Lessons learned
      Leverage map content from other users
      Use “map sandwiches” for some base maps
    • Lessons learned
      Leverage map content from other users
      Design your maps to fit with others’
    • Lessons learned
      Leverage map content from other users
      Design your maps to fit with others’
    • Lessons learned
      Building the content is the hard work.
      Creating the map is a fraction of the effort.
      We all have something valuable (extremely valuable) to contribute
      • 12 hours of data processing
      • 90 minutes to cache
      • Seven map scales 1:36,000 to 1:1,000
      Cambridge, MA and Harvard University
    • Lessons learnedGIS content is almost always better than consumer web maps
      Up-to-date
      Trusted & Understood
      Authoritative
      Known quality
      . . . and consumer web maps can improve through the use of GIS content
    • Summary
    • GIS is evolving to emphasize the role of maps How we communicate with GIS
      Maps portray logical collections of geographic information as map layers
      They are at the heart of how GIS is used
      They provide an effective metaphor for modeling and organizing geographic information as a series of thematic layers
      Maps encapsulate everything we do with GIS
    • The new Web GIS trend will require better maps and information
      Will drive a resurgence in the need for high quality, up-to-date information
      The traditional data compilation work of GIS professionals will be needed to meet this need
      Web GIS deployments will lead to increased professional GIS work and sharing for
      Data automation
      Editing
      Mapping
      Analysis
      Automation
      3D GIS
      Map use
      A key goal in ArcGIS 10 is about meeting these needs
    • Key points
      Unified map designs are needed
      Harmonized map views that can be mashed up together
      Shared data schemas and maps across organizations
      This leads to shared apps across organizations
      Shared maps and apps are recognizable. Consumers can learn to use and apply familiar maps
      Synergy
      Crowd sourcing by the GIS community
    • Base Maps plus Operational OverlaysThere are many types of “base maps”
      Consumer maps provide imagery and streets. These are important but do not provide the context for addressing all problems.
      Additional web maps are needed to provide the context or framework for addressing a range of problems.
      The GIS community must provide these base maps.
      Very few web maps can be built by a single organization.
      A collaborative effort is needed to bring our content together in a series of unified, harmonized, continuous basemaps.
    • Thank You
    • Useful Links
      Download slides at: http://blogs.esri.com/Dev/blogs/arcgis
      Look for BLOG article named “The role of maps in GIS” by Clint Brown
      Help topics
      The role of maps: http://help.arcgis.com/en/arcgisdesktop/10.0/help/index.html#/How_maps_are_used_in_GIS/00v200000016000000/
      ArcMap documents and Web maps: http://help.arcgis.com/en/arcgisdesktop/10.0/help/index.html#/ArcMap_documents_and_Web_maps/00v200000017000000/
      Web GIS concepts and implementation steps: http://help.arcgis.com/en/arcgisdesktop/10.0/help/index.html#/An_overview_of_Web_GIS/00530000008r000000/
      Map Templates Gallery: http://resources.arcgis.com/content/maptemplates/about
      Community Basemaps: http://resources.arcgis.com/content/community-basemap/about