HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT,TRENDS AND ISSUES IN THE FIELD OF CARDIOLOGY
MILESTONES IN CARDIOLOGY
1628 : William Harvey, an English physician, first describesblood circulation.1706 : Raymond de Vieussens, a French anatomyprofessor, first describes the structure of the hearts chamberand vessels.1733 : Stephen Hales, an English clergyman and scientist, firstmeasures blood pressure.1801 : Francisco Romero ,a Spanish surgeon done the firstcardiac surgery known as Open Pericardiostomy1816 : Rene T.H. Laennec, a French physician, invents thestethoscope.
1896 : Dr. Ludwig Rehn, a GermanSurgeon Performed first successful heart surgery on human beingwithout any complications; he stitched a wound on the heart ofGerman soldier.1899: Two SwissPhysiologists Introduces the process of defibrillation on dogs heart1903 :Willem Einthoven, a Dutch physiologist, develops theelectrocardiograph.1912 : James B. Herrick, an American physician, first describesheart disease resulting from hardening of the arteries.
1938 :Robert E. Gross, an American surgeon, performs first openheart surgery.1947: Defibrillator was first time used on human being during theopen heart surgery by Dr. Claude Beck(Prof. Surgeon at WesternReserve University)1951 :Charles Hufnagel, an American surgeon, develops a plasticvalve to repair an aortic valve.1952 : F. John Lewis, an American surgeon performs first successfulopen heart surgery.
1952 : Dr. John F. Lewis, an American Surgeonused hypothermia to temporarily slow down the heartbeat making it accessible to lengthen the time of OpenHeart Surgery.1953 :Jhon H. Gibbon, an American surgeon, first uses amechanical heart and blood purifier.1954: Dr. Earl E. Beckon, an American Surgeon devised first artificial pacemaker for the heart.1954 : First cross circulation operation was performedby Dr. C. Walton Lillihie(American Surgeon)
1961: J.R.Jude, an American cardiologist, leads a team performingthe first external cardiac massage to restart a heart.1964: Dr. James D. Hardy of the University ofMississippi, attempted the first heart transplant from a nonhumanprimate – a chimpanzee named Bino -- into a human. The patientwas 68-year-old Boyd Rush. After only 90minutes, the heartstopped functioning because it was too small to maintain circulationon its own .1965 :Micheal DeBakey and Adrian Kantrowitz, Americansurgeons, implanted mechanical devices to help a diseased heart.1967: Dr. Rene Favaloro , an American Surgeonused a vein from the leg to bypass a blocked coronary artery. Thisprocedure, known as coronary artery bypass surgery .
`1967 :Christian Barnard , a South African surgeon, performsthe whole heart transplant from one person to another.1974: Andreas Gruentzig performed the first peripheralhuman balloon angioplasty.1980 : Michel Mirowski , a PolishCardiologist, the first ICD (Implantable CardioverterDefibrillators) --weighing 9 ounces and about the size of adeck of cards – was implanted into a human patient.1982 : Willem DeVries, an American surgeon, implants apermanent artificial heart, designed by Robert Jarvik, anAmerican physician, into a patient.
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT INCARDIAC NURSING
The 1960s The first coronary care unit was founded in Scotland, by Dr.Desmond G. Julian . The 1970s A survey in the journal Circulation in 1978 indicated coronarycare units had reduced mortality from heart attack and sudden cardiacarrest by up to 20 percent in the previous decade.
The 1980s The Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing(SPVN), founded in Boston in 1982 and renamed theSociety for Vascular Nursing (SVN) in 1990. The 1990 The Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association(PCNA) was founded in the United States as the LipidNurse
The 21st Century The first Cardiac and Vascular Nurse examinationswere administered by the PCNA in May 2001 and coursesare certified.
TRENDS AND ISSUES INCARDIOLOGY
STAGES OF CARDIAC CARE Screening Diagnostic and staging
Treatment Follow up
THE RECENT TRENDS IN CARDIOLOGY MINIMALLY INVASIVE HEART SURGERY. ROBOTICALLY ASSISTED HEART SURGERY Minimally invasive heart surgery. Types of Minimally Invasive Heart Surgeries Minimally Invasive Valve Surgery Minimally Invasive CABG Surgery Off-pump/beating heart bypass surgey
ROBOTICALLY ASSISTED HEART SURGERY Types of Robotically Assisted Heart Surgeries Robotically Assisted Valve Surgery. Robotically Assisted Bypass Surgery. Robotically Assisted ASD . Robotically Assisted Removal of Cardiac Tumors.
BENEFITS OF MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGICALTECHNIQUES Small incisions. Small scars. Shorter hospital stay after surgery. Low risk of infection. Low risk of bleeding and blood transfusion . Shorter recovery time and faster return to normal activities/work. Division of the sternum is not needed for robotically assisted heart surgery.