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# Graphical aids

## by Jijo G John, Student on Aug 04, 2012

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## Graphical aidsPresentation Transcript

• DEFINITION Graphs are the visual teaching aids for presenting statistical information and contrasting the trends or changes of certain attributes.
• TYPES There are four main types of Graphs namely: Bar Graphs Line Graphs Pie Graphs Pictorial Graphs
• BAR GRAPHS A bar graphs consists of the bars arranged eitherhorizontally or vertically from a origin base. Twoperpendicular lines from a point (called origin) workas the reference line. Bar are especially useful incomparing and contrasting two variables or two groupson the same attributes.
• Some useful points to be keep in mind while preparing a bar chart are as follows:- before making a bar chart make a rough sketch of it in a note book. For drawing the bar graph use the chart paper of 50 x72 cm size. Use different colour shades for the two contrasting groups.
•  The bar should be equi-spaced. Write the tittle of the chart in bold letters. Write the key to the bar graph in a box on the right hand side corner of the chart paper. Write the numbers on the top and bottom of the each bar.
• LINE GRAPHS A free hand smooth line through various points indicating the instantaneous values of two variables at various moments is called line graph. The line may be straight line or curved line indicating the relation ship between two variables.if there are abrupt changes between the variables ,those are shown by dotted lines.
•  The squares on the graph board or graph paper helps in accurate plotting . Sketch pens or markers can be used to write the caption ,shows x-axis ,y-axis, scale along x-axis ,scale along y-axis and actual curve joining different points.
• PIE GRAPHS This graph is usually shown as a disc or circledivided into sectors of different angles to represent thefractions or percentages of the divisions of adistributive attribute.
• Some useful points to be keep in mind while preparing a bar chart are as follows:- Find out the angles from the percentage or fraction. Draw the circle on a chart paper of full size using a big compass carrying a sketch or marker pen.
•  Divide the circle into appropriate sectors using the protractor. Colour each section and write the corresponding percentage. Caption the pie graph in a bold letter.
• PICTORIAL GRAPHS A pictorial graph consist of picture of sametype but the different sizes or it may be made with thepictures of same size but different number to representdifferent magnitudes.
• THANK YOU