1.VALIDITY Refers to the degree to which the tool measures what it is intended to measure. Weighing scale measures body weight and its valid; a tool which is valid for one measure, need not be valid for another.
TYPES: a) Content validity: This is concerned with the sampling adequency of the content area being measured. They also point out errors in items and make recommendations for changes. b) Criterion related validity: Correlates with another criterion. e.g, anxiety during exam. They are two type i.e, predictive(admission test predict the future of student) and concurrent.
c) Construct validity: In construct validity the investigator in concerned with the question. Is the concept under investigation being adequately measured? Is there a valid basis for inferring the score? Evidence of construct validity is not established with in a single study.
2.Reliability: Refers to the accuracy and consistency of a measuring tool. A mesure is reliable when an individual remains nearly the same in repeated measurements. Reliability is measured by reliability coefficient.3.Sensitivity and appropriateness: Sensitivity refers to the capability to detect changes or difference when they to occur. Multy model measurements are made because of variation in sensitivity.
If a measure is in appropriateness, it could measure wrongly.4.Objectivity: Objectivity means freedom from bias. A test should yield a clear score value of each performance.5.Economy: Test can be given in short period of time6.Practicability: Simplicity of administration, scoring and interpretations are important factors in selecting a test.
7.Interest: Both the researcher and the subject should enjoy the experience of data collection.
OBSERVATION: Observation is one of the basic and oldest research method to gather data. It is a two part process i.e, 1) someone to observe observer and 2) there is something to observe the observed. characteristics of observation It is both physical & mental activity. Observation is selective. Purposive and not casual.
T YPES OF OBSERVATION: Participant observation In this, the observer is a part of phenomenon or group which is observed and he acts as both an observer and participant. Non-participant observation In this method, the observer stands apart and does not participate in the phenomenon. Observation in unnoticed manner.
Direct observation Observation of an event personally by the observer when it take place. Indirect observation Mechanical observation Controlled observation It is carried out in the lab or field. It has pre-planning. Uncontrolled observation
OBSERVATION TOOLS AND RECORDING DEVICES1. Schedule2. Field observation log3. Mechanical devices
INTERVIEW It is an organized conversation with the client to obtain client history. Types of interview:. Face-face interview. Telephone interview. Computer Assisted Personal Interview
PHASES OF INTERVIEW Orientation phase: Introduce ourself and maintain IPR Working phase: Gather the information Termination phase: Coming to an end
INTERVIEWING PROCESS o Preparation: planning, list of name, address, location, trained person, implementation, hard working, don’t deviate from the topic, friendly, unbiased and timing. o Introduction Investigator is a stranger to the respondents. o Developing rapport o Carrying the interview forward
o Recording the interview To avoid lose of datao Closing the interview