DEFINITION OF RESEARCH “Research is a process systemically searches for new facts and relationships” -NotterTYPES OF RESEARCH There are three broad types of approaches to research. these are:- i) Historical Research Approach ii) Survey Research Approach iii) Experimental Research Approach
i) HISTORICAL RESEARCH APPROACH Historical research is a systemic compilation of data and the critical presentations,evaluation and interpretation of facts regarding people ,events and occurrences of the past. Historical research is viewed in three different ways:- Historical Approach: which refers to the organisations of historical facts in support of the new concepts to be developed.
Historical Subjects: Reffering to biographies of great man ,manographs or places and sketches of ideas ,throughts and trends. Historical Techniques: Which reffers to research that is conducted on the basis of historical records and documents. COLLECTION OF DATA Data for historical research are usually in the form of written records of the past,periodicals,diaries,books,letters,newspapers,reports etc.
Historical sources of data are classiffied into two main categories:- A.) Primary Sources eg: First hand informations such as associated with person,group,periods or events fossils,skeletons,tools,weopons,clothings,buildings,furnitu res,pictures ,paintings,coins,art objects etc. B.)Secondary Sources eg: history books & encyclopedias.
ii) SURVEY RESEARCH APPROACH The survey method primarily focussed on thepresent.survey is the most appropriate method ofgathering information from a large sample. eg: Indian counsel of medical research collectedgrowth data through measurement of height,weight,chest and head circumferences of a large number ofchildrens for all part of india.
PURPOSES The main purposes of survey approach includes:- a.) Description Survey are frequently conducted for the purposes of making discoveries on the distribution of certain traits or attributes.A number of nursing studies have been conducted for the purpose of describing the phenomena relating to nursing process. eg: Needs of cardiac patients,beliefs of mother on breast feeding,stress of pre-operative patients etc.
` b.) Explanation Survey explains phenomena,for this purpose ,two or more variables are examined to find relationship between phenomena. eg: Survey of subject education and their knowledge on prevention of heart disease may indicate education is one of the factors that influence health knowledge. c.) Exploration Survey can provide search devices .ie,researcher can explore new situation,new organisation or a new group.
eg: The researcher wishes to examine the depth of womens attitude towards breast self examination as a preventive health practice.TYPES OF SURVEY RESEARCH There are various types of survey research:- 1. Descriptive survey 2. Correlated survey 3. Comparative survey 4. Evaluative survey 5. Developmental longitudinal and cross sectional survey 6. Case study 7. Retrospective survey
1. DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY In the survey approach,one can describe in a systemic way, the facts and characteristics of the population .this type of research is called descriptive survey. eg: “A public opinion survey to assess eligible couples”attitude towards family planning practices.
2. CORRELATED SURVEY A descriptive study when seeks relationship between variables is called correlated study.here the researcher investigates the extent to which variation in another variable (eg: educational level) corresponds with variations in another variable(eg: perceived nutritional needs)based on correlation coeffecients.therefore data are collected on more than one variable from the same group of subjects.(eg:educational level and perceived nutritional needs)and the magnitude of relationships between variables are estimated.
3. COMPARATATIVE SURVEY Let us suppose,you wish to compare the “perceived needs” of survey is called as comparatative survey. eg: The researcher requires a list of needs-certain against which the comparison would be made between the urban and rural womens perception of nutritional needs.
4. EVALUATIVE SURVEY There is another type of survey approach appropriate for studying the effectiveness of a particular method .this method is called an evaluative survey.5. DEVELOPMENTAL LONGITUDINAL AND CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY Suppose,you wish to study the growth and development pattern of children from birth to five years of age. this is an example of developmental survey.
The study can be done in two ways:- The researcher can follow a group of newborn infants from their birth to five year of age to assess aspect of their growth and developmental patterns this is called an Longitudinal survey. The researcher can takes samples from the age groups of birth-three,four-six,seven-nine months etc.this is called as Cross-sectional survey.
6. CASE STUDY In a case study the survey is based on one ore more samples .case study can also be made of individuals from certain recognised groups- drugaddicts,alcoholics,professionals,subjects belonging to particular ethnic group,on institutes such as schools,factories,hospitals etc.
7. RETROSPECTIVE SURVEY In retrospective survey,the researchers may also likes to investigate possible cause and effects relationship by observing some existing consequences and looking through the data from the past for plausible causal factors. eg:you wish to identify the factors characterizing persons having either high or low accident rates.
iii) EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH APPROACHExperimental approach is a powerful design for testing hypothesis of causal relationships among variables.TYPES OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHA.) True or classical experimental design Pretest-post-test control group design Solomon four group design Post-test only control group designB.)Quasi-Experimental designC.)Pre-Experimental design