GV1244Definitions of LLS
Put Your Thinking CapWhat are language learning strategies?Are learning strategies and  learning styles the same?
Rubin (1975)  LLS are the techniques or  devices that learners use to  acquire a second language  knowledge.
Stern (1975)  LLS are some general order  approaches to learning which  govern the choice of specific  techniques.
Bailystok (1978)    LLS are methods or conscious   enterprise for exploiting   available information to improve   competen...
Naiman (1978)  Language learning strategy is a  generally a more or less  deliberate approaches to  learning.
Cohen (1984)  LLS are mental operations that  learners used to accomplish  learning tasks.
Tarone (1983)  Language learning strategy is an  attempt to develop linguistic &  sociolinguistic competence in  the targe...
Rubin (1987)  LLS are set of operations, steps,  plans & routines of what learners  do to facilitate the obtaining,  stora...
Wenden (1987)  LLS refer to language learning  behaviours learners actually  engage in, strategic knowledge  about learnin...
Wenden & Rubin (1987)  LLS refer to what learners do to  learn & do to regulate their  learning.
Chamot (1987)  LLS are techniques,  approaches, or deliberate  actions that students take in  order to facilitate learning...
Oxford (1989)  LLS are steps taken by the  learner to aid the acquisition,  storage & retrieval of  information.
Oxford (1990)  LLS are specific actions taken by  the learner to make learning  easier, faster, more enjoyable,  more self...
Oxford (1993)  LLS are specific actions,  behaviours, steps or techniques  that students use to improve  their progress in...
Mohamed Amin Embi (1996)  LLS are plans and/or actions that  learners take to enhance the  process of language learning.
Put Your Thinking Cap What are the differences between language learning strategies & language use strategies?
LLS vs LUS  Second language learning & use  strategies are steps taken by the  learners either to improve the  learning of...
LLS vs LUS  Language learning strategies are  used when learners do not have  the purpose of communication  but have the p...
LLS vs LUS  Strategies of language use are  used when learners do not have  the purpose of learning but have  the purpose ...
Language Use Strategies  Language use strategies include  i) language performance  strategies & ii) communication  strateg...
Language Performance Strategies  Language performance  strategies include cognitive  processing strategies, strategies  fo...
Communication Strategies  Communication strategies focus  on getting a message across.
Put Your Thinking Cap What are the main features or characteristics of language learning strategies?
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Definitions of Language Learning Strategies

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Definitions of Language Learning Strategies

  1. 1. GV1244Definitions of LLS
  2. 2. Put Your Thinking CapWhat are language learning strategies?Are learning strategies and learning styles the same?
  3. 3. Rubin (1975) LLS are the techniques or devices that learners use to acquire a second language knowledge.
  4. 4. Stern (1975) LLS are some general order approaches to learning which govern the choice of specific techniques.
  5. 5. Bailystok (1978) LLS are methods or conscious enterprise for exploiting available information to improve competence in second language.
  6. 6. Naiman (1978) Language learning strategy is a generally a more or less deliberate approaches to learning.
  7. 7. Cohen (1984) LLS are mental operations that learners used to accomplish learning tasks.
  8. 8. Tarone (1983) Language learning strategy is an attempt to develop linguistic & sociolinguistic competence in the target language to incorporate these into one’s interlanguage competence.
  9. 9. Rubin (1987) LLS are set of operations, steps, plans & routines of what learners do to facilitate the obtaining, storage, retrieval & use of information, and to regulate learning.
  10. 10. Wenden (1987) LLS refer to language learning behaviours learners actually engage in, strategic knowledge about learning, to learn & regulate a second language learning.
  11. 11. Wenden & Rubin (1987) LLS refer to what learners do to learn & do to regulate their learning.
  12. 12. Chamot (1987) LLS are techniques, approaches, or deliberate actions that students take in order to facilitate learning & recall of both linguistic & content area information.
  13. 13. Oxford (1989) LLS are steps taken by the learner to aid the acquisition, storage & retrieval of information.
  14. 14. Oxford (1990) LLS are specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, & more transferable to new situation.
  15. 15. Oxford (1993) LLS are specific actions, behaviours, steps or techniques that students use to improve their progress in developing second language skills.
  16. 16. Mohamed Amin Embi (1996) LLS are plans and/or actions that learners take to enhance the process of language learning.
  17. 17. Put Your Thinking Cap What are the differences between language learning strategies & language use strategies?
  18. 18. LLS vs LUS Second language learning & use strategies are steps taken by the learners either to improve the learning of a second language or the use of it.
  19. 19. LLS vs LUS Language learning strategies are used when learners do not have the purpose of communication but have the purpose of learning.
  20. 20. LLS vs LUS Strategies of language use are used when learners do not have the purpose of learning but have the purpose of communicating.
  21. 21. Language Use Strategies Language use strategies include i) language performance strategies & ii) communication strategies.
  22. 22. Language Performance Strategies Language performance strategies include cognitive processing strategies, strategies for solidifying newly acquired language & strategies for determining the amount of cognitive energy to expand.
  23. 23. Communication Strategies Communication strategies focus on getting a message across.
  24. 24. Put Your Thinking Cap What are the main features or characteristics of language learning strategies?
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