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Cs100  lec 3 cont1 hardware - system unit and memory)
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Cs100 lec 3 cont1 hardware - system unit and memory)


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  • 1. 3 Fundamental Elements of a Computer
    • Work like a team to complete tasks
    • 1. System Unit
    • 2. Output Devices
    • 3. Input Devices
  • 2. System Unit
    • The core of a computer responsible for processing and storing data and controls all computer functions
    • It is where data are processed into information
    • It works with peripheral devices
  • 3. System Unit
    • System Case – a plastic and metal box that houses components such as the motherboard, disk drives, power supply and etc.
      • System Case Types
      • 1. Desktop – designed to sit horizontally
      • 2. Tower – designed to sit vertically
      • a. Full-tower case
      • - used for PC servers
      • - requires extra space for additional hard disks, interface cards and redundant power supply
      • b. Midi-tower case
      • - usually used for high-end user PCs
      • -require extra devices and interface cards but not as
      • many as a server
      • c. Mini-tower case
      • - used for office or home PCs
      • - where additional internal devices and interface cards are
      • limited
  • 5. System Unit:
    • Motherboard
    • Microprocessor or (CPU)
    • Memory Chips
    • Ports
    • Buses
    • Expansion Slots and cards
  • 6.  
  • 7. Motherboard
    • “ System Board”
    •   is the main printed, flat circuit board in an electronic device such as microcomputers. The board contains expansion slots (sockets) that accept additional boards (expansion Cards).
  • 8.
    • The motherboard contains:
    • microprocessor
    • the primary storage chips (or main memory cards)
    • Buses
    • and all the chips used for controlling the peripherals.
  • 9. Microprocessor
    • A microprocessor is a processor whose elements are miniaturized into one or a few integrated circuits contained in a single silicon microchip. It executes instructions.
    • In a microcomputer, the central processing unit (CPU) is held on a single microprocessor.
    • In order to function as a processor, it requires a system clock, primary storage, and power supply.
  • 10. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    • is the computing part of the computer that interprets and executes program instructions.
    • It is also known as the processor.
    • In a microcomputer, the CPU is contained on a single microprocessor chip within the system unit.
    • The CPU has two parts: the control unit and the arithmetic-logic unit.
  • 11. Control Unit
    • is the circuitry that locates, retrieves, interprets and executes each instruction in the central processing unit.
    • The control unit directs electronic signals between  primary storage  and the  ALU , and between the  CPU  and  input/output devices .
  • 12. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
    • is a high-speed circuit part in the CPU.
    • performs arithmetic (math) operations, logic (comparison) operations and related operations.
    • The ALU retrieves alphanumeric data from memory and then does actual calculating and comparing. It sends the results of the operation back to memory again.
  • 13.  
  • 14. Chip
    • is an integrated circuit.
    • Microscopic circuit board is engraved in a chip made by silicon. Chips are approximately 1/16- to 1/2-inch square and about 1/30-inch thick.
    • Chips hold a few dozen to several million transistors.
    • A chip is also called an integrated circuit, microelectronic, semiconductor, or silicon chip.
    • For example, an Intel Pentium chip has 3.2 million and Pentium Pro has about 6 million transistors.
  • 15. Storage Devices (Memory) : 2 types of memory - Main / Primary - Secondary
    • Main / Primary / RAM
    • Closely connected to the processor
    • Quickly and easily change, volatile
    • Holds the programs and data that the processor is actively working with
    • Interacts with the processor millions of times per second
    • Types of RAM
    • 1. Dynamic RAM (DRAM) – constantly refreshed by the CPU or it will lose its contents
    • 2. Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) – synchronous by the system clock and is much faster than DRAM
    • 3. Static RAM (SRAM) – faster than any DRAM and will retain its contents w/o having to be refreshed by the CPU
    • 4. Rambus DRAM – faster and more expensive than SDRAM and is the type of memory used with Intel’s P4 chip
  • 18.
    • Secondary
    • Slow compared to main memory
    • Used for long-term storage of programs and data, non-volatile
    • Ex.
    • Floppy disk
    • ZIP Disk
    • SuperDisks
    • HiFD Disk
    • Flash Disk
    • Memory Card
    • Hard disk
    • Optical disk
    • Magnetic tape
  • 19. Secondary Storage
    • 1. Floppy Disk (1.44 MB) –also called as diskette or disk, is a removable flat piece of mylar plastic package in a 3.5-inch plastic case .
    • 8“ floppy disk (large floppy)
    • 5 ¼“ floppy disk (minifloppy)
    • 31/2” floppy disk (micro floppy)
    • 2. ZIP Disk (100 to 250 MB) – special disks that uses their own ZIP disk drive.
    • 3. SuperDisks (120 MB) – uses a SuperDisk Drive and can also read standard 1.44 MB floppy disk, which a ZIP drive cannot do.
    • 4. HiFD Disk (200 MB) – uses a HiFD drive and can also read standard 1.44 MB floppy disk.
    • 5. Flash Disk (128 MB to 16GB) – uses the USB
    • 6. Memory Card (16 MB – 2GB) – used in cameras, cellphones
  • 20. 8”, 5.25”, 3.5” floppy disks 8”, 5.25”, 3.5” floppy disk drives
  • 23.
    • Hard Disk
      • are made up of thin but rigid metal platters covered with a substance that allows data to be held in the form of magnetized spots.
    • Nonremovable hard disk – also known as fixed disk, is housed in a microcomputer system unit and is used to store nearly all programs and most data files.
    • Removable hard disk – or hard disk cartridges, consist of one or two platters enclosed along with read/write heads in a hard plastic case, which is inserted into a microcomputer’s cartridge drive
  • 25.
    • Optical Disk
      • A removable disk, usually 4.75” in diameter and less than 1/20 of an inch thick, on which data is written and read through the use of laser beams.
    • Compact Disk Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) –can hold up to 650 MB of 300,000 pages of text
    • Compact Disk-recordable (CD-R) – can be written to only once but can be read many times
    • Compact Disk-rewritable (CD-RW) – also known as erasable optical disk
    • Digital Versatile disk or digital video disk, with read only memory (DVD-ROM) – a CD-style disk with extremely high capacity, able to store 4.7 – 17 GB
    • Universal Media Disk (UMD) – The disc is only two and a half inches wide and weighs only .35 ounces but it still has plenty of space for material with its 1.8 gigabyte capacity.
  • 27.
    • Magnetic Tape
      • A thin plastic tape made up of mylar film coated with iron oxide that can be magnetized.
  • 28.  
  • 29. Other Memories used in the computer
    • Read Only Memory Basic Input Output System (ROM BIOS)
    • A chip that provides the industry's standard program code that operates the fundamental components of the PC
    • The routines that allow the setup configuration of a PC
    • The Power-on Self Test (POST) diagnostic tests for the PC
    • Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Random Access memory
    • Stores the configuration of the PC (password, disk types, amount of memory installed, current time and date). This prevents the need for reconfiguration when powering on a PC
  • 31. Expansion Slots
    • are receptacles inside a system unit that printed circuit boards (expansion boards) are plugged into.
    • Computer buyers need to look at the number of expansion slots when they buy a computer, because the number of expansion slots decides future expansion.
    • In microcomputers, the expansion slots are directly connected to the bus.
  • 32. Expansion Boards
    • are also called expansion cards, controller cards, plug-in boards, adapter cards, or interface cards.
    • Expansion boards are printed circuit boards that have many electronic components including chips. They are plugged into expansion slots.
  • 33. Ports
    • A  port  is an external connecting socket on the outside the computer.
    • This is a pathway into and out of the computer.
    • A port lets users plug in outside peripherals, such as monitors, scanners and printers.
  • 34. Bus
    • A  bus  is a data pathway between several hardware components inside or outside a computer. It not only connects the parts of the CPU to each other, but also links the CPU with other important hardware.
    • The other important hardware includes memory, a disk control unit, a terminal control unit, a printer control unit, and a communications control unit.