Cs100 lec 3 cont1 hardware - system unit and memory)

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Cs100 lec 3 cont1 hardware - system unit and memory)

  1. 1. 3 Fundamental Elements of a Computer <ul><li>Work like a team to complete tasks </li></ul><ul><li>1. System Unit </li></ul><ul><li>2. Output Devices </li></ul><ul><li>3. Input Devices </li></ul>
  2. 2. System Unit <ul><li>The core of a computer responsible for processing and storing data and controls all computer functions </li></ul><ul><li>It is where data are processed into information </li></ul><ul><li>It works with peripheral devices </li></ul>
  3. 3. System Unit <ul><li>System Case – a plastic and metal box that houses components such as the motherboard, disk drives, power supply and etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System Case Types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Desktop – designed to sit horizontally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Tower – designed to sit vertically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Full-tower case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- used for PC servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- requires extra space for additional hard disks, interface cards and redundant power supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Midi-tower case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- usually used for high-end user PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-require extra devices and interface cards but not as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many as a server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Mini-tower case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- used for office or home PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- where additional internal devices and interface cards are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> limited </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. FULL TOWER MIDI TOWER MINI TOWER
  5. 5. System Unit: <ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessor or (CPU) </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Chips </li></ul><ul><li>Ports </li></ul><ul><li>Buses </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion Slots and cards </li></ul>
  6. 7. Motherboard <ul><li>“ System Board” </li></ul><ul><li>  is the main printed, flat circuit board in an electronic device such as microcomputers. The board contains expansion slots (sockets) that accept additional boards (expansion Cards). </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>The motherboard contains: </li></ul><ul><li>microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>the primary storage chips (or main memory cards) </li></ul><ul><li>Buses </li></ul><ul><li>and all the chips used for controlling the peripherals. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Microprocessor <ul><li>A microprocessor is a processor whose elements are miniaturized into one or a few integrated circuits contained in a single silicon microchip. It executes instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>In a microcomputer, the central processing unit (CPU) is held on a single microprocessor. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to function as a processor, it requires a system clock, primary storage, and power supply. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>is the computing part of the computer that interprets and executes program instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also known as the processor. </li></ul><ul><li>In a microcomputer, the CPU is contained on a single microprocessor chip within the system unit. </li></ul><ul><li>The CPU has two parts: the control unit and the arithmetic-logic unit. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Control Unit <ul><li>is the circuitry that locates, retrieves, interprets and executes each instruction in the central processing unit. </li></ul><ul><li>The control unit directs electronic signals between  primary storage  and the  ALU , and between the  CPU  and  input/output devices . </li></ul>
  11. 12. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) <ul><li>is a high-speed circuit part in the CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>performs arithmetic (math) operations, logic (comparison) operations and related operations. </li></ul><ul><li>The ALU retrieves alphanumeric data from memory and then does actual calculating and comparing. It sends the results of the operation back to memory again. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Chip <ul><li>is an integrated circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic circuit board is engraved in a chip made by silicon. Chips are approximately 1/16- to 1/2-inch square and about 1/30-inch thick. </li></ul><ul><li>Chips hold a few dozen to several million transistors. </li></ul><ul><li>A chip is also called an integrated circuit, microelectronic, semiconductor, or silicon chip. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, an Intel Pentium chip has 3.2 million and Pentium Pro has about 6 million transistors. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Storage Devices (Memory) : 2 types of memory - Main / Primary - Secondary <ul><li>Main / Primary / RAM </li></ul><ul><li>Closely connected to the processor </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly and easily change, volatile </li></ul><ul><li>Holds the programs and data that the processor is actively working with </li></ul><ul><li>Interacts with the processor millions of times per second </li></ul><ul><li>Types of RAM </li></ul><ul><li>1. Dynamic RAM (DRAM) – constantly refreshed by the CPU or it will lose its contents </li></ul><ul><li>2. Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) – synchronous by the system clock and is much faster than DRAM </li></ul><ul><li>3. Static RAM (SRAM) – faster than any DRAM and will retain its contents w/o having to be refreshed by the CPU </li></ul><ul><li>4. Rambus DRAM – faster and more expensive than SDRAM and is the type of memory used with Intel’s P4 chip </li></ul>
  14. 16. DYNAMIC RAM SDRAM
  15. 17. RAMBUS DRAM SRAM
  16. 18. <ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Slow compared to main memory </li></ul><ul><li>Used for long-term storage of programs and data, non-volatile </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy disk </li></ul><ul><li>ZIP Disk </li></ul><ul><li>SuperDisks </li></ul><ul><li>HiFD Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Card </li></ul><ul><li>Hard disk </li></ul><ul><li>Optical disk </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic tape </li></ul>
  17. 19. Secondary Storage <ul><li>1. Floppy Disk (1.44 MB) –also called as diskette or disk, is a removable flat piece of mylar plastic package in a 3.5-inch plastic case . </li></ul><ul><li>8“ floppy disk (large floppy) </li></ul><ul><li>5 ¼“ floppy disk (minifloppy) </li></ul><ul><li>31/2” floppy disk (micro floppy) </li></ul><ul><li>2. ZIP Disk (100 to 250 MB) – special disks that uses their own ZIP disk drive. </li></ul><ul><li>3. SuperDisks (120 MB) – uses a SuperDisk Drive and can also read standard 1.44 MB floppy disk, which a ZIP drive cannot do. </li></ul><ul><li>4. HiFD Disk (200 MB) – uses a HiFD drive and can also read standard 1.44 MB floppy disk. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Flash Disk (128 MB to 16GB) – uses the USB </li></ul><ul><li>6. Memory Card (16 MB – 2GB) – used in cameras, cellphones </li></ul>
  18. 20. 8”, 5.25”, 3.5” floppy disks 8”, 5.25”, 3.5” floppy disk drives
  19. 21. ZIP DISK SuperDISK HiFD DISK
  20. 22. FLASH DISK MEMORY CARD
  21. 23. <ul><li>Hard Disk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are made up of thin but rigid metal platters covered with a substance that allows data to be held in the form of magnetized spots. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonremovable hard disk – also known as fixed disk, is housed in a microcomputer system unit and is used to store nearly all programs and most data files. </li></ul><ul><li>Removable hard disk – or hard disk cartridges, consist of one or two platters enclosed along with read/write heads in a hard plastic case, which is inserted into a microcomputer’s cartridge drive </li></ul>
  22. 24. REMOVABLE HARD DISK NONREMOVABLE HARD DISK
  23. 25. <ul><li>Optical Disk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A removable disk, usually 4.75” in diameter and less than 1/20 of an inch thick, on which data is written and read through the use of laser beams. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compact Disk Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) –can hold up to 650 MB of 300,000 pages of text </li></ul><ul><li>Compact Disk-recordable (CD-R) – can be written to only once but can be read many times </li></ul><ul><li>Compact Disk-rewritable (CD-RW) – also known as erasable optical disk </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Versatile disk or digital video disk, with read only memory (DVD-ROM) – a CD-style disk with extremely high capacity, able to store 4.7 – 17 GB </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Media Disk (UMD) – The disc is only two and a half inches wide and weighs only .35 ounces but it still has plenty of space for material with its 1.8 gigabyte capacity. </li></ul>
  24. 26. CD-ROM / CD-ROM DRIVE CD-R CD-RW DVD-ROM UMD
  25. 27. <ul><li>Magnetic Tape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A thin plastic tape made up of mylar film coated with iron oxide that can be magnetized. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Other Memories used in the computer <ul><li>Read Only Memory Basic Input Output System (ROM BIOS) </li></ul><ul><li>A chip that provides the industry's standard program code that operates the fundamental components of the PC </li></ul><ul><li>The routines that allow the setup configuration of a PC </li></ul><ul><li>The Power-on Self Test (POST) diagnostic tests for the PC </li></ul><ul><li>Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Random Access memory </li></ul><ul><li>Stores the configuration of the PC (password, disk types, amount of memory installed, current time and date). This prevents the need for reconfiguration when powering on a PC </li></ul>
  27. 30. CMOS RAM ROM BIOS
  28. 31. Expansion Slots <ul><li>are receptacles inside a system unit that printed circuit boards (expansion boards) are plugged into. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer buyers need to look at the number of expansion slots when they buy a computer, because the number of expansion slots decides future expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>In microcomputers, the expansion slots are directly connected to the bus. </li></ul>
  29. 32. Expansion Boards <ul><li>are also called expansion cards, controller cards, plug-in boards, adapter cards, or interface cards. </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion boards are printed circuit boards that have many electronic components including chips. They are plugged into expansion slots. </li></ul>
  30. 33. Ports <ul><li>A  port  is an external connecting socket on the outside the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a pathway into and out of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>A port lets users plug in outside peripherals, such as monitors, scanners and printers. </li></ul>
  31. 34. Bus <ul><li>A  bus  is a data pathway between several hardware components inside or outside a computer. It not only connects the parts of the CPU to each other, but also links the CPU with other important hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>The other important hardware includes memory, a disk control unit, a terminal control unit, a printer control unit, and a communications control unit.  </li></ul>

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