2. First Aid It is a fact that accidents do happen in the home, school and in almost all places. You may not to think of anybody, especially your love ones, as involved in any mishap, but you should be prepared to meet such emergencies. It is important to know how you should respond in emergency situations-what to do and what not to do. Knowing what to do in case of accidents will help much in responding confidently and coping with the situation. Importance of Possessing Knowledge in First Aid
3. <ul><li>is a temporary but urgent care given to persons who are injured or who suddenly become sick. This emergency care is given while the victim is waiting for qualified medical help. The rendering of first aid is common in everyday incidents that involved wounds, fainting, sprains, cramps, and so on. Everybody should have the knowledge in giving first aid. Even children should know simple emergency procedures. </li></ul>First Aid
4. Kinds of Open Wounds A wound is any break in he skin or mucus membrane. The break becomes a good entry point for microorganisms to cause infection and an exit for blood loss. The wound may vary in terms of appearance, tissue damage, and cause.
5. <ul><li>1. Abrasion are damages on the superficial layer of the skin because of scraping caused by accidental falls commonly encountered by children at play and students during sports-related activities. Little blood and fluids may come out from the ruptured tiny blood vessel. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk: Infection </li></ul><ul><li>1. Wash the wound with soap and clean water to remove dirt. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Dry it with a clean gauze or cotton to protect it from infection. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cover with a sterile (free from microorganisms) gauze dressing and secure with plaster. If the wound is small, a band aid will serve the purpose. </li></ul>Kinds of Open Wounds First Aid
6. <ul><li>4. If the wound can be protected from dirt and flies, expose to air will hasten the healing process. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Avoid using cotton as dressing. Cotton fibers will adhere to the abrasion. </li></ul>
7. <ul><li>2. Laceration is characterized by irregular cut or tear on the skin and its underlying tissues. It is usually caused by unsharp object like irregular edges of metal roofing's and animal teeth. After it has healed, ugly scars usually develop on the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk: Infection and Too much loss of blood </li></ul><ul><li>1. If the wound is dirty, wash it with soap and clean water. </li></ul><ul><li>2. If there is severe bleeding, stop the bleeding first by pressing the sides of the wounds. </li></ul><ul><li>3. After the bleeding has stopped, cover the wound with a sterile dressing. In case of severe bleeding, the wound </li></ul>
8. <ul><li>may not be washed any more because the bleeding has removed the dirty that may be in the wound. </li></ul><ul><li>4. If it was caused by rusty </li></ul><ul><li>objects, consult the physician </li></ul><ul><li>for antitetanus injections. </li></ul>5. If it was caused by an animal bite, the animal should be secured be observed for signs of rabies. Seek medical consultation for possible antirabies injections.
9. 3 . Incision is usually caused by sharp objects, like broken glass or ceramics, blades, and knives. Risk: too much loss of blood and infection <ul><li>Stop the bleeding by pressing The sides of wound. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cover the wound with sterile dressing and secure the injury with a plaster or bandage. </li></ul><ul><li>3. If the object is rusty and dirty, See the doctor for antitetanus injection. </li></ul>
10. 4. Puncture is a small but deep wound that could possibly penetrate the inter-nal organs. It is caused by pointed objects, like ice pick, arrow, nails, and bullets. Clotted blood seals the wound resulting in possible infection. The absence of air and the presence of moist and warm environment contribute to the growth of microorganisms. Risks: internal bleeding and infection 1. If the pointed instrument is still embedded in the flesh, do not attempt to remove it. The embedded instrument could serve as a plug to prevent bleeding, and touching it might unnecessarily move the instrument and cause further blood vessel, tissue, and nerve damage.
11. Furthermore ,such precaution of not touching the tool of injury protects you from any liabilities. 2. Protect the embedded instrument from getting better. 3.Take victim to the nearest hospital.
12. 5. Avulsion is caused by forceful tearing of a body tissue due to animal bites, explosions, and forceful pulling. Examples are wounds caused by the snatcher’s pulling of earrings from the earlobes. Risk: infection <ul><li>Wash the area with soap and clean water. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is severe bleeding,control the bleeding first. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for the torn part of the Body. This may still be sewn Back by the doctor. </li></ul>
13. Wrap the severed part with a clean material, such as handkerchief use the clean side), put it in a plastic bag then pack it with Ice for preservation. 4. Take the victim together with the severed part to the hospital.
15. Bleeding from small wounds will stop even without first aid or after applying local or slight pressure. If the bleeding in severe, a major blood vessel may have been cut. In such cases, if bleeding is not stopped, the victim may die in few minutes because of the loss of blood. To stop bleeding, one has to act fast and do the following:
16. 1. Press the wound firmly with your bare hands or of possible with an absorbent material. The absorbent material will prevent your hands from slipping . 2. To lessen the flow of blood, elevate the wounded area above the level of the heart if the wound is on the limbs. 3. if bleeding stops, apply firmly any clean or possibly sterile absorbent dressing. Secure the dressing with a plaster or bandage. 4. Loosen the bandage if the victim’s fingers are becoming pale, blue or numb. 5. If the blood seeps through the dressing, apply another layer of dressing without removing the first layer. Removing it might disturb or remove the clotted blood that plugs the wound
17. <ul><li>6. If bleeding from the limbs does not stop, apply direct and firm pressure on the pressure points where the arteries are superficially located (See figure 8.4 and 8.5) </li></ul><ul><li>7. The pressure points should be pressed against the bone to close the open blood vessel for not more than fifteen minutes to prevent permanent tissue damage due to prolonged absence of blood carrying oxygen and nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Immobilize the wounded part while keeping the victim warm. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Seek medical help immediately. </li></ul>
18. <ul><li>Closed Wounds or “Pasa” </li></ul><ul><li>Closed wounds or have no evident break or cut in the skin but deeper layers may be injured. They are commonly caused by a force, such as blows, falls or traffic accidents. A bruise and a black eye are considered closed wounds. They may appear red in color, becoming bluish because of bleeding from ruptured tiny blood vessels. It also accompanied with swelling and soreness on the injured part. </li></ul><ul><li>*What to Do with closed Wounds </li></ul><ul><li>Apply cold compress to constrict the blood vessels to prevent the rush of blood that causes discoloration, swelling and pain. </li></ul>
19. 2. On a black eye, do not apply ice. This could damage its delicate parts. Cold compress (soak in cold water) is an effective first aid. 3. Black eye should be checked by a doctor to determine any involvement of the delicate parts of the eye, especially if there is visual disturbance. 4. For bruised cases among the elderly, the physician should examine the victim for bone fracture. Elderly people are more prone to fracture because their bones are beginning to become brittle.
20. Dressing and Bandages The correct use of dressings and bandages can be helpful in rendering effective first aid. But inappropriate use could aggravate the injury or cause complications. There are commercially prepared dressings and bandages in drugstores but one can always improvise, especially in emergency situations. A Dressing. These are clean and absorbent materials. The commercially prepared dressings are usually sterile. If cotton will be used as improvised dressing, it should be lined with a gauze to prevent the cotton from sticking on the injured area. Besides causing pain when the fibers are being removed while the wound is being cleaned, the removal of the fibers could also disturb the tissues that have formed on the wound. Dressings are used for the following purposes.
21. 1. To protect the wound from germ-causing infection 2. To absorb blood, secretions, and other fluids that ooze from the wound 3. To prevent too much loss of fluids, especially in third-degree burns 4. To protect against pain caused by external pressure and irritation 5. To protect blisters from breaking
22. <ul><li>If commercially prepared sterile dressings are not available, any of the following can be used as long as they are clean. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. handkerchief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. towel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. pillowcase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. table napkin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. bed sheet for injuries involving large areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. rolled toilet paper or tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*How to Apply Dressing </li></ul><ul><li>The side of the dressing that will be in contact with the wound should be protected form getting soiled or contaminated with microorganisms by not allowing anybody or anything to touch it. </li></ul><ul><li>It should cover the wound and extend up to an inch around the injured part </li></ul><ul><li>Secure the dressing with a plaster or bandage </li></ul>
23. B. Bandaging. Bandages are durable clean strips of absorbent material that can be used for the following purposes. 1. To keep the dressings and splints in place 2. To support and immobilize the injured part 3. To maintain pressure on dressings that control bleeding There are available gauze and elastic bandages in drugstores but one can always use the following items as improvised bandages. 1. necktie 2. scarf 3. handkerchief 4. wide ribbons
24. Precautions in Applying Bandages 1. Expose the fingers and toes so that blood circulation to these digital parts could be checked. 2. Loosen the bandage if the victim’s finger or toes show signs of discolorations ( pale or bluish ), numbness, and coldness to the touch. 3. If elastic bandage is being used, avoid stretching it too much.