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Effects of heat on food

Effects of heat on food






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    Effects of heat on food Effects of heat on food Presentation Transcript

    • Effects of Heat onFood and Cooking Methods
    • • Coagulation – exposureof proteins to excessiveheat toughens them andmakes them dry. Mostproteins completecoagulations or arecooked at 71’C to 85’C
    • • By cooking properly,tough meats can bemade tender.
    • • Acids, like lemonjuice, vinegar andtomato products do twothings to proteins: 1. speed coagulation 2. help dissolve some connective tissue
    • CARBOHYDRATES• Caramelization• Gelatinization• Acids inhibits gelatinization
    • • The softening of fruitsand vegetables incooking is, in part, thebreaking down of fiber.
    • • Sugar makes fiber firmer• Baking soda makes fiber softer.
    • • When fats are heated,they begin to breakdown.
    • Smoke point – thetemperature at whichthe fat deterioraterapidly and begins tosmoke.
    • • Mineral componentsmay be leashed out, ordissolved away fromfoods during cooking.
    • • Vitamins andpigments may also bedestroyed by heat, bylong cooking and byother elements presentduring cooking.
    • A. ConductionB. ConvectionC. Radiation
    • A. Conduction 1. When heat moves directly from one item to something touching it.
    • 2. When heat moves from one part of something to an adjacent part of the item.
    • B. Convection1. Natural – hot liquids and gases rise while cooler ones sink.
    • 2. Mechanical – heat is transferred more quickly to the food and the food cooks faster.
    • C. Radiation 1. Infrared – an electric element or ceramic element heated by a gas flame becomes so hot that it gives of infrared radiation which cooks the food.
    • 2. Microwave – the radiation generated by the oven penetrates partway into the food, where it agitates the molecules of water.
    • 1. Moist-Heat MethodsThose in which the heatis conducted to the foodproduct by water orwater-based liquidssuch as stock andsauces or by steam.
    • 2. Dry-Heat Methods Heat is conducted without moisture, that is by hot air, hot metal, radiation or hot fat.