South Korea


Published on

This is my power point presentation about South Korea for LIT 002 / World Literature.
* brief history
* culture
* traditions
* literature
* landmarks
* economic
* others

Published in: Education, Travel

South Korea

  2. 2. South Korea ( officially the Republic of Korea), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. The name Korea is derived from Goryeo, a dynasty which ruled in the Middle Ages. It shares land borders with North Korea to the north, and oversea borders with China to the west and Japan to the east. Capital: Seoul Administrative Divisions: 9 Provinces (North and South Chungcheong, Gangwon, Gyeonggi, North and South Gyeongsang, Jeju, North and South Jeolla) 7 metropolitan cities: ► Busan ► Daegu ► Daejeon ► Gwangju ► Incheon ► Sejong City ► Ulsan
  3. 3. The Flag of South Korea, or Taegukgi is the national flag for the Republic of Korea. It has three parts:  A white background which represents peace and purity.  a red and blue Taeguk, which is a red and blue Taiji yin- and yang- symbol in the center, represents the balance of the universe  and four black trigrams which represents the heaven ☰(kun), earth ☷(kon), water ☵(kam), fire ☲(yi)
  4. 4. HISTORY OF KOREA Monarchy Begin: Gojoseon by Tangun (legendary:2333 B.C) Three Kingdoms and Gaya (5th century) •Goguryeo 37 B.C. - AD 668), •Baekje (18 B.C. - AD 660), •Silla (57 B.C.- AD 935), •Gaya (42-562) Unified Silla and Balhae (8th century) Goryeo Dynasty (11th century) Joseon Dynasty (15th century)  Korean Empire Monarchy Ended: Sunjong (The Last Emperor: August 29, 1910
  5. 5. Tangun creation myth of Korea Traditional myths of ancient Korea tell that over 4,000 years ago Hwanung, the King of Heaven, descended near a Tan tree on Mt. Taebak in North Korea. Accompanying Hwanung were 3,000 followers, and he ruled over all of their needs. In a nearby cave lived a tiger and a bear who wished to become human. As part of the test he gave them mugwort and garlic to eat, requiring them to live in darkness for 100 days. After only a few days, the tiger could no longer stand it and ran out into the mountain forests. The bear, however, stayed in the den, finally emerging as a beautiful woman. She repeatedly prayed beneath the Tan tree for a child, and Hwanung momentarily transformed himself to marry her. They produced a wonderful child they called Tangun. Tangun invented the basics of civilization and created a dynasty that lasted for 1,500 years. This was followed by a period called Kija Choson that lasted 99 years. Tangun is still regarded as a great culture-hero and his memory is marked every 3rd of October on Foundation Day. Depictions of Tangun often show him with a tiger, which is regarded as a mountain god.
  6. 6.  Over the last 2,000 years the Korean peninsula has been wracked by eight major invasions and countless smaller wars and incursions.  Among the many invaders have been ancient Chinese kingdoms, Qidans (Khitans), Mongols, Japanese, and Manchus.  In the 20th century, Korea was colonized by Japan and in the Post-WWII era was caught in the middle of conflicts between the United States, the Soviet Union, and China over the expansion of Communism in the Cold War Era – an era which still lingers in the as yet unresolved division between North and South Korea.
  7. 7. KOREAN WAR On June 25, 1950, North Korea launched an unprovoked full- scale invasion of the South, triggering a three-year war which drew in U.S., Chinese, and other foreign forces. The entire peninsula was devastated by the conflict. A ceasefire was signed in July 1953.
  8. 8. Korean Culture, Traditions and Literature
  9. 9. CULTURE HANBOK  Traditional women's hanbok consists of jeogori, a blouse shirt or a jacket and chima, a wrap-around skirt, which is usually worn full.  The ensemble is often called chima jeogori.  Men's hanbok consists of jeogori and baji which means pants in Korea.  The baji were baggy pants in traditional men's hanbok.
  10. 10. HANGEUL (한글)  The Korean AlphabetThe Great King Yi Sejong
  11. 11. HANOK  Korean traditional house  The raw materials used in Hanok are soil, timber, and rocks  Windows and doors are made with Hanji (traditional Korean paper). Traditional Korean Musical Instruments
  12. 12. RELIGION in South Korea South Korea has various types of religion throughout the country. Over 40% of the whole population do not believe in any religion. The next two main religions within the country are Buddhism(25%) and Protestantism (Over 15%). Heywood, P, 2008, ‘Religions of South Korea’
  13. 13. Classical Poetry  Classical Korean literature has its roots in traditional folk beliefs and folk tales of the Korean peninsula.  There are four major traditional poetic forms: hyangga ("native songs"); pyolgok ("special songs"), or changga ("long poems"); sijo ("current melodies"); and kasa ("verses"). Other poetic forms that flourished briefly include the kyonggi- style, in the 14th and 15th centuries, and the akchang ("words for songs") in the 15th century. The most representative akchang is Yongbi och'on ka (1445–47; Songs of Flying Dragons), a cycle compiled in praise of the founding of the Yi dynasty. Korean poetry originally was meant to be sung, and its forms and styles reflect its melodic origins. The basis of its prosody is a line of alternating groups of three or four syllables, which is probably the most natural rhythm the language.
  14. 14. Idu Medieval Korean Modern Korean Translation 願往生歌 원왕생가 왕생을 기원하는 노래 Ode to Eternal Life(translation by Mark Peterson, 2006) 月下伊低赤 달하 이제 달이여 이제 Oh Moon! 西方念丁去賜里遣 서방까정 가시리고 서방(西方) 넘어 가시려는고 As you go to the west this night, 無量壽佛前乃 무량수불전에 무량수불전(無量壽佛前)에 I pray thee, go before the eternal Buddha, 惱叱古音多可支白遣賜立 닛곰다가 살ㅂ고사서 일러서 사뢰옵소서 And tell him that there is one here 誓音深史隱尊衣希仰支 다짐 깊으샨 존에 울워러 다짐 깊으신 아미타불을 우러러 Who adores Him of the deep oaths, 兩手集刀花乎白良 두손 모도호살바 두 손을 모두어 And chants daily with hands together, saying 願往生願往生 원왕 생 원왕 생 왕생(往生)을 원하며 Oh grant me eternal life, 慕人有如白遣賜立 그럴 사람 있다 살ㅂ고사서 그리워하는 사람 있다 사뢰소서 Oh grant me eternal life, 阿耶 此身遣也置古 아으 이몸 기쳐두고 아아 이 몸을 남겨 놓고 But alas, can any of the 48 vows be kept 四十八大願成遣賜去 사십팔대원 일고살까 사십 팔 대원(大願) 이루실까 While still trapped in this mortal frame? A typical hyangga is "the Ode for Life Eternal", or perhaps, "the Ode for Nirvana". The poem is a song that calls upon the moon to convey the supplicant's prayer to the Western paradise, the home of Amita (or Amitabha - the Buddha of the Western paradise). The poem's authorship is somewhat unclear; it was either written by a monk named Gwangdeok or, onesource says, the monk's wife.
  15. 15. Middle Korea Modern Korean Translation 내 벗이 몇인가하 ᄒᆞ 니 수석과 송죽이라 내 벗이 몇인가하니 수석과 송죽이라 You ask how many friends I have? Water and stone, bamboo and pine. 동산의 ᄃᆞᆯ 오 르니 긔더옥 반갑고야 동산에 달오르니 그 더욱 반갑도다 The moon rising over the eastern hill is a joyful comrade. 두어라 이다ᄉᆞᆺ 밧긔 또더ᄒᆞ 야 머엇ᄒᆞ 리 두어라, 이 다섯 밖에 또 더해야 무엇하리 Besides these five companions, what other pleasure should I ask Sijo, unlike some other East Asian poetic forms, frequently employs metaphors, puns, allusions and similar word play. Most poets follow these guidelines very closely although there are longer examples. An exemplar is this poem by Yun Seondo (1587–1671) :
  16. 16. Other forms of Classic Literature P’ansori  This “one-man opera” (p’ansori) featured a single storyteller who would unroll a grass mat as a performance space and holding a folding fan would entertain audiences with long stories, the musical parts accompanied by an assistant playing an hour-glass drum (changgol).  Gagok (long lyrical song) is a genre of Korean traditional vocal music accompanied by a small ensemble of Korean traditional musical instruments. It uses sijo, Korean traditional poetry, as lyrics, allowing us a glimpse into the spirit of the Koreans long ago and their appreciation of the arts.
  17. 17. Yi Kwangsu (1892-1950)  wrote the first modern Korean Novel “The Heartless”  The story itself is about a love triangle between the schoolteacher Yi Hyŏngshik and two women: Yŏngch’ae who became a Kisaeng and Sŏnhyŏng a daughter of a minister. He eventually marries Sŏnhyŏng, since her father had arranged and expected this from him by allowing him to teach English to his daughter, and also with the hopes that they could both go to the US for studies. The story is quasi-historical with its setting being just before the formal annexation of Korea.
  18. 18. Honggildongjeon (Classic) Honggildongjeon (Tales of Hong Gil-dong, the first novel published in Hangeul) is a work of social criticism that scathingly attacked the inequities of Joseon with its discriminatory treatment of illegitimate offspring and its differences based on wealth.
  19. 19. KOREA TODAY
  20. 20. President: Park Geun-hye (2013) Prime Minister: Chung Hong Won (2013) Government: Republic Land area: 37,421 sq mi (96,920 sq km) Population (2012 est.): 48,860,500 Capital and largest city (2009 est.) Seoul, 9.778 million Other large cities: Pusan, 3.439 million; Inchon, 2.572; Taegu, 2.458 million; Taejon 1.497 million. Monetary unit: won
  21. 21. ECONOMY  South Korea is one of the world's wealthiest nations, and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the G-20 major economies.  South Korea has a market economy that ranks 15th in the world by nominal GDP and 12th by purchasing power parity (PPP).
  22. 22. LANDMARKS
  23. 23. Haeinsa Temple, Hapcheon (합천 해인사) Haeinsa is one of the three Jewel Temples in Korea. The world's oldest intact Buddhist canon, the Tripitaka Koreana, is carefully housed in the 1,200-year-old Haeinsa Temple.
  24. 24. Hwaseong Fortress Hwaseong Fortress was built in the late 18th century by King Yeongjo of the Joseon Dynasty in Suwon, South Korea. It was built to honor and house the remains of his father, Prince Sado who was killed by being locked alive inside a rice chest by his father, King Yeongjo because the prince had failed to obey his fathers command to commit suicide.
  25. 25. Gyeongbokgung(경복궁), also known Gyeongbok Palace It is a royal palace located in northern Seoul, South Korea. First constructed in 1395, later burned and abandoned for almost three centuries, and then reconstructed in 1867, it was the main and largest palace of the Five Grand Palaces built by the Joseon Dynasty.
  26. 26. Changdeokgung Palace One of South Korea’s “Five Grand Palaces” built by the kings of the Joseon Dynasty sits within a large park in Jongnu-gu, Seoul. It is often referred to as Changdeok Palace as well as the East Palace due to its location.
  27. 27. Changgyeonggung Palace Changgyeonggung Palace is a royal residence located in the heart of Seoul that was built for King Taejong. In 1418, King Sejong built a royal residence for his father, King Taejong.
  28. 28. Jeju Island, also known as the "Island of the Gods," is a popular vacation spot for Koreans and foreigners. It remains the top honeymoon destination for Korean newlyweds, and is also regarded as one of the top honeymoon destinations in the world.
  29. 29. Chocolate Museum (초콜릿 박물관) The Chocolate Museum in Seogwipo, Jeju is the second largest chocolate museum in the world (the largest being the Cologne Chocolate Museum in Germany) Teddy Bear Museum
  30. 30. Lotte World is a major recreation complex in Seoul, South Korea. It consists of the world's largest indoor theme park (a Guinness World Record) which is open all year.
  31. 31. Namsan locks of love, Seoul, South Korea At Seoul’s Mt Namsan, thousands of love padlocks can be seen hanging on the fences around the base level of N Seoul Tower. Locks of love is a custom in some cultures where love birds would lock their padlocks at public areas and throw away the key to symbolise that their love will be locked forever.
  32. 32. Seoraksan National Park (NaeSeorak) (설악산국립공원 - 내설악) Also referred to as Seolsan and Seolbongsan, the mountain was named Seorak ('Seol' meaning 'snow' and 'Ak' meaning 'big mountain') because the snow would not melt for a long time keeping the rocks in a permanent state of white.
  33. 33. Ganghwa Dolmen Site [UNESCO World Heritage] (강화 부근리 지석묘 [유네스코 세계문화유산]) Dolmens’ are stone graves/tombs which date back to the pre- historic era. Dolmens are largely concentrated in Northeast Asia with Korea alone being home to a total of around 30,000 dolmens.
  35. 35. The Korean Wave The Korean Wave is a neologism referring to the increase in the popularity of South Korean culture since the late 1990s. The term was originally coined in mid-1999 by Beijing journalists who were surprised by China's growing appetite for South Korean cultural exports. They subsequently referred to this new phenomenon as "Hánliú" (韓流), which literally means "flow of Korea".