Philippine negritos by rahmann


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Philippine negritos by rahmann

  1. 1. PhilippineQuarterlyofculturE and Socav 3 (1975204 -236IIIE PHILIPFINE NEGRIMS IN TIIECONTEXT OF RESEARCH ON FOOD l GATITDRERSDURING TIIIS CENTURY c i IRudolf Rahmann, SVD.INTRODUCTORY REMARKS INTRODUCTORY REMARKS L WilhelmSchmidtsapp€al study the food- to Thispaper a contributionto the historyof is gathercrs and the r€spons€of anthropologirts anthropology(ethnolory) in the Phitippines during this century. While working on it the II. The rc{iscovery of the African rygmies and vriter realizedanew that this subjectis not studiesgenerated ther€by only a vast field of investigation but alsoa most .ewarding one. This paper,thoughrather IIl. Negrito res€archin the Philippines long, is limited to the Negritosand certainly A. The early yealsof this century doesnolexhaust $bject matter.But it will, the l. The Bur€auof Non{hrktian Tribesand so the writer hopes, p.oyidea somewhat fuller David P. Barrows and alsomore clarifyingdescription makeand 2. William A. Reed a wider circle of anthropologists students and 3. The EeyerPapen of anthropologyawareof the variousaspects B. John M. carvan of the field research theor€tical and studies on l Biodata the Philippine Negritosaccomplished during this century. It may also help us to seewhat 2. GarYans Negdto Manuscript future Esearchabout them still needsto be a)MsA done. b)MsB As statedin the Dedication, issue the this of c)MsC Qr.otterlyis in honor of a great missionary- d) Other manuscriptforms anthiopologist,Father Morice Vanoverbergh 3. The contentsof carvan Negrito manue of the ScheutMissionary Society.At the same cript and Bomemanns evaluationofit time, however,I would like to dedicate to it a) Ih unfinishedstate the Society of the Divine Word which cele- b) The generalizationsther€in brated its first centenaryon Septembe.8, 1975.I am surethat Fr. Vanoverbeeh not will c) The r€lativeformlessness ofNegrito curture mind sharing the hono. aith the Society, especially sincehis wo.k as an anthropologist d) Carvans world view has from the very outset linked him closely 4- Azconasanalysis Garvan of with it. As will be detailedin the pages ofthis 5. Hocheggersbook edition of Galvans article,several membeN ofthe S.V.D. (Societas manuscript Verbi Divini. which is the Latin nane of the C. MoriceVanoverberyh, PaulSchebesta, Society)have participated,like our honorce, Robert Fox. Marcelino kaceda. and others in the work of studying the Philippine Negritos, and it is for that rcasonthat the writer wishesCONCLUDING RLMARKS to dedicate pape.alsoto the S.V.D.on the this occasion oftJIefilst centenary ofits existenc€. In his work, the late FatherWilhelm Schrnidt, the founder ol Aathropos, was generously encouEgedand prudently guided by Father
  2. 2. Rahmann THE PHILIPPINENEGRITOS / 205 r--:1 Janss€n, r,d the Founder of the S.V.D. FatherSchebesta our ptesentknowledge to of -_::: can be no doubt that the strong and the Philippine Negritos equal that of W. s-r:r.rl intercst given to the shorl-statured Schmidts.Mention should also be made of :i::i.s of the world in this centurysanthro- anotherS.V.D.anthropologist, likewiseof the :: .ifcal field researchand systematicstudies first post-Schmidtgenemtion, the late Father :.:<: largely back to the initiative of Father Martin Gusinde. who had a keenintercstin the i..1rir- Father Paul Schebesta, belonging to PhilippineNegritos although meritsareof a his :: :l15!post-Schmidt generationin the Anthro- moreperipheral nature. ::! Institute, called Schmidt the RuJerzur Other outstanding contributionsto our prc- >. =t,tenlorschung(Herald df Pygmy Research), sentday knowledge the Philippine of NegritosI . :::.e which delighted Schmidt(cf. Schebesta have beenmade three by moteS.V.D. members,5 ::i ). Father Peter Schumacherof the namelyFritz Bomemann, Hermann Hochegger,3 i :e Fathers,a Pygmyexplorer like Schebesta md Jesus Azcona.This writer is gratefulthat,I :::.:ates his work on the Kiw-Pygmies East in having been a studentof Schmidt and Sche- 1:::.r to Father Sclmidt, the "Standard- besta, belongs this fine group of anthro- he to; :,:.::r" (Bannertrueger,of Pygmy research pologists. >-:umacher1950:iii).This paperwill alsotry :emonstrate how ltrongly Schmidt in- Another personal rcmark may be allowed. This the studies the Philippin€ on Negritos. article was *ritten snidst va.ious other, and pardy -rJ he who attractedFather Vanoverbergh rath€r heavy,duties;not infrcquently fiagments of :ii field work and obtained from Pope Pius trme had to be used for it. This by necessityentails ,. ::ic financial meansfor an expedition to the someshortcomings in the paper. On the otier hand, ::ntos of no hem Luzon in 1925. h.rdly any other anthropologist urould, so it seems i to me, be in an equally good position to deal in a anoverberghsexpcdition to the Negritos ilstem Luzon was discussedby him and somewhat comprchensir€way with the subject matter as I am; and I felt that it shouldbe dealt :, rjdt when the two met, on the occasion of with at once.Iwish to add that I would almosrnever :.- :nidts world tour, in Manila in the year have b€€n able to writ€ tlis paper in a r€latively :ji The funJs for tl)rs rprdition were in short time without the faithful and constanthelp of ,J amounts provided by the hovincial of Lydia Colina, S€cretary of the Editorial Oflicr of . Society of the Dvine Word in the Philip- San Carlos hrblications. Miss Colina complet€ly spar€d the troubleof goingto the Libmry of the me : - ii and by hofessor Joseph Schrijnen -r ll!,rd), Ceneral Secretarv of the (inter- University of SanCarlos in order to get the literature needed.Shepati€ntly twed and i€typed my drafts, ,:: rnal)Commission EnquCted Linguistique. prepaFd the Bibliography as well asthe Appendic€s, . -i:!rerbctgh writes that: and did most of the pmof readins.So I arn de€ply. indebtedto her. Tlese gran!5.togetherwith the unsnimous :rpport of the officials of the Philippine Com- :ronwealth,have allowed me to mate a fairly I. W. Schmidts appeal to 6tudy the foodgather- jr.nsive studyof several theNegiitogoupswho of ers and the tesponse of anttuopologistg. :habit eastem Luzon."(See Vanoverbergh 1937:9 VanoverbeBh writes that he met Schmidtin In 1910,Father Wilhelm Schmidtpublished Vanilain November 1936.However, yea.was the his rather extensive work on the position of :lnainly 1935; Henninger see 1956:31. I, more- the Pygrny peoples in the history of the o!er, rememb€r FatherBomemtann myself thal and development man (Schmidt1910).In the oi tul. prior to FatherSchmidts rEtum,some order animatedlywrilten conclusionof the work urlotheconsidenble amount maillhat was of await- u|g him on his deskin St. cabri€ls. left for my (pp.304-309), madean appeal the anthro- he to I signmentat Fu Jen Uni€rsity in PekinS eady in pologists and ethnologistsas well as the August 1936). scientific institutes and govemments the of countries concemedfor the study of thes€ The value of the studies made by the late peoples. Moreover, he tecommendedthe
  3. 3. 206 PHILIPPINE OF QUARTERLY CULTUREAND SOCIETYcrcationof an intemational commission re_ for Fuegiansaltogetherfour times: he concludedhis Insearch the "Pygmies." Schmidts on opinion, field work in 1924.Fath€rwilhelm Koppers,S.v D., would be a valuablecontribution joined him during his third visit (1921-1922) the tosuch studies the elucidationof the earliesthistory of the months ofJuly-Ausust 1955,Gusindemankind. But Schmidtsappealfound at that spent a few weeksin the Philippines. This Save himtime no echo whatsoever, he himself ad- as a chanceto havea look at the Negitos in "cenhalmitted hfteen yeals later (Schmidt 1925). and northem Luzon." He alsovisited FatherVano-Furthemore, the outbreakof World War I in verberghin the Mountain Provincewith whom he l9l4 madefield work Qf that kind practically had lons discussions (Gusinde1962:212).During aimpossible. After the war Schmidt took the short visit to Cebu, he undertook field trips to energelically hisown hands. into Panayand Mindanaoin the companyof Marcelinomatler Macedd. Pandy met sevenlNegrilogroups ln he in the intenor of the Provinc€of lloilo. A secondtnp took him tothe yamanua in northeastern Mindanao. The year 1925 saw the b€ginningof the field His plan to do field work among the Philippine work of Father Moric€ yaioverberyh, C.l C M., as Negdtos the following year unfortunately did not alreadymentioned,amongthe Negritosofnorthem materialize.It would have been very desirableto Luzon; of Father Peter Schum acher, among the haveGusind€s viewson the racialproblemsthat the PygmiesofRuanda(s/pa);and of FatherSchebestd Ne8ritosof the Philippines pose.In tlis connection among th€ Semang N€gritosofMalaya. During the refercnce may be madeto Sch€bestas opinion that following years,thesethree missionaries continued the eye is a mor€ reliableguide(in mattersof racial their {ield work. In particular,Schebesta devoted characteristics) than dead measurcmentdata his whole life to r€search among the Semang, the (Schebesta 1938. l:x). lt may be sald that both Pygmies of central Africa, the Negtitos of the Gusinde dnd Schebesta did hate a keen eye in Philippines well as to the subsequ€nt as preparation matlers of race (conceming the oft-mentioned of comprchensive scientific publications on these Papuan racialelement amongthe PhilippineNegdtos, populations. During the years I92628 Viktor seeRahma,l1n Maceda1955:820). may men_ and We khzelter did field work amongthe Bushmen (Kala- lion fuflher lhdl Cusinde bnefl) Save viewson his hari Des€rt, south Africa), which was continued the Aera". views lhat are largelystill valid today, during the yea.s l95l and 1953 by Father Martin in 1962:239-242. Cusinde(Rahmann1956:7 f.). How€ver,Gusinde s Gusinde did his last field work in the Schrader life work concentratedon the vanishing Indiatr Ran$ of eastem c€ New Guinea durlng the trib€sofTienade Fuego, calledFuegians, after tleir niddle ofthe year 1956.He felt that he had veri{ied habitat, the southemmost part of South Amedca. the a.sqrmption that the short-statured people living Even befot€ Vanoverbe$I did the field wotk in isohtion in those hi8hlands ll/erc Pygmies. He mentioned above,Gusindehad begun(in l9l8) to called them, after thek habitat, Ayom Pygmies organizehis field work amonSthe Fuegians. had He (Gusinde 1958; 1962:252).As early as the third been in Santiago Chile since 1912, and among de decadeof this c€ntury, the New Guineamissionary other duti$ he had at the time he held the position .Fraiz Kirschbaum,S.V.D., had dealt with these of a S€ction Chief of the Museo de Etnologa y Antrcpologia of the Chilean capital. Th€ Chilean rygmies in severalbrief publications;Lord Moyne grant_ also wrote about them (cf. Gusinde 1958:503; Covemmentand the Archbishopof Santiago rcgarding Kirschbaum alsoRahmann1956:9). s€e ed finarcial support (Gusinde1931, I:66f). ln th€ May I be pemitted to mention here tlat I met Preface to the first volume of his great wotk on the Fatler Gusrnde the Manila lntemational Arrport at Fuegians Gusindewrites (p.viii) that FatherSchmidt plan of when he arrived in the Philippines in the secondhalf had included the Fu€gians his farran8ing in of July 1955. I wasth€n on my way to Switzeiland promoting .esearch among$e ethnologicaliy oldesl primrtrve peoplewhenhe {Gus:inde, still a slu- was in order to work for some yean in the editoial offrct of AnthopolA the s€cond halfofS€ptemb€t dent (in St. GabrielsMissionSeminary,M,Mlin8, 1956, I had the pleasure meetingGusinde,then of near Vienna, where Schmidt was a memberof the alr€ady a septuagenarian,at th€ airport ofwashing- Faculty and edltor of AnthoPos). when Gusinde ton, D.C., upon his retum from his just-mentioned .Eportedto Schmidtat the end ofworld War I about field work in New Guinea. hisfield work. the latter encouraged unr€s€rved- him ly and gaye support. Gusinde stayed anong the
  4. 4. Rahmann THE PHILIPPINENEGRTTOS / 207- Tbe r-discovery of the Africa+ pygmies the expedition leader to have the dwarf well add studiesgenented theteby. guarded lest he find his death in the waters of .: iill be usefulto realizethat W. Schmidts the Nile. He furthermote inslmcts him to re- ..::,rrl interestin the "Pygmy peoples"was port immediately to his court, after his retum, : :Li:rply accidental. The scientific trends together with the dwarf. In his letter, he al- readywelcomesthe dwarf with the words: ..To :---:j durirg the first half of this century the Heavenly Darcet greetings-Salutations to- tr-:::! pan of the keen interest which him who makes the heart glad, to whom the-<tci--asrs. physical anthropologists first King Neferkara . . . sendshomage"(quotation Jd- b -a,i for somedecades thesesho - in from Ballif I 955: l5 ). PharaoirPhiopsmentionsi-a: ;.< ril.s. generallyconsid(edtemnants in his letter that at an earlier time, under KinBd ri] ::rkind. That intercst was arousedin Asosi, a dwarf had come to the coud of the I E._..n the Germar explorer, Georg pharaoh. This was, according to Gusinde,wholoer::::nir. re{iscovered the African had more specificsourcesat his disposal,aboutt!3o:-. I meeting some of them in a Negro one hundred yeals ea ier! around 2460 B.C.dr€ r: rie northern Congo. It is true that Gusinde comments on the mentionjng of AsosiE t.:.:-: ea.liertire FrenchAfrican gxplorer, by Phiops that the coming of a dwarf to theta :, C:raillu. claimedto haveseen Pygnies court of the pharaoh at Asosis time musr ! l5: triaa. near the C)!!owe river. However, have left a deep impriit in the minds.of the r;: :: Chaillus report wassomewhat roman- Egyptians. The Pygmies ofdancinglis a.t even -! : : i:rr. Europeanscholarshesitated to be- today astonishingand their joy in dancmg so r;: .:r: the authority of Schweinfurthdis- great that Eugen Fischer speaksof a dancing --.; ii doubts. Since thcn reports of ex- mania. He believesthis extraordinary vitality is ::.=:,. lrhose main intercst were! however. du€ to the dch intakc ,.f insect food by the pi =.i:Ic- about their meetingwith Py€mies Pygmies. Thiskind bffood contains the vitamin :t -.L... more and morc nunerous. Finally, in complcx T which producessuch effects (Fischer ::i, Schcbesta )began his systematicfield 1 9 5 5 : 3) . 5 r:1 :mong the P,gmies of Ccntral Alrica Therole of dancers the Pygmies rre couns of at t::tstr 1 9 3 8 . : 3 0 f ; 3 6 f .) . l of thepharaohs prcvid€d title of a bookby Noel t}le ixebestachos€ all AincanPygmies nalne for the Ballif,l€aderof French a expedition thePygmies: to :.i::iuti seeSchebesra 1938,I:24-26. theBush- ln Lesdahsews Dieu,whichappeared 1954. de in Tire -.: hc sces Birmburoids ibid.355f. followingyear an Englishas well as a cerman .: :: iorrect to say that Scnweinfurth r€{is- translationappeared under the respective titles:- 1:::J lhe Afric:m Pygmies.Thousardsof Ihe Dorcet al Cod (see Refercncet), Die Taenzet :i,r r.lorc him, the ancientEgyptianhad a -r , lood knowlcdge ofthe dwartt in tropical Grcek-Roman antiquity had a raUter ex, -:: :i wllo wcrc lri!:lrl,v cherjshed cultic dancers tensive, although vague. knowledge of the- :- : aourtof the pilaraohs. lctterolpharaoh A African PygmieslPhoeniciallmerchantstraded: :;.s II of thc Sixth Dynrsty (2500-2300 amulets that represented Pygmiesto l,leditena-: cf. Sellman 1960:63) is of specialim- nean countries, especially to Cyprus. In the :irircc tbr our knowlcdge of the Atrican literary sourcesit is shown that the by tllen:_ ;nies. The letter is addressed the leader to laBely fabulous Pygmies had come to the ,r expeditionwllo was returnidgflom the attention of the Greeks itnd Romans. Even at .:r and wl)o had, tlrrouglr a specialmes- the time of Homer (ca.800 B.C.),Pygny tales . iljr roported to the pharaohiiom one of must have been already widespread in the . i)alting placcsthat he was bringingalong Greek-spealing world because the third song in - il the Tree and Glrost Couitry (tropical of the lliad (lll, 2-7) Homer explains the fight -:n.a) a dwarf who could dqncethe dMcesof of the Trojans against the Greek by referring -rJ. The pharaohis erthusiastic. cnjoins Hc to the craneswhich, flying from the cold and
  5. 5. 208 PHILIPPINEQUARTERLY OF CULTURE AND SOCIETYrain (from the north towardsthe south they 1950: 184.186; Schebesta l : 142-150. l94 Hos-still fly every autumn from northem Eurcpe ever.thehut ofthe formershows. Schumacher asto the swamps the Nile), threatenthe small of points out, influences of the farmeG andrace of Pygmieswith death and destruction. herdersin their teritories). Accordingto [rThere may be a factual element in Homers Roy (around1900:242; also238 ff.) the seetale. The big flocks of this largewadingbird, Pygmies of westem Africa arc occasionalwhichsuddenly appeared everyautumnin their troglodytes but the caves formed by over- archabitat,pFsumablyconsumed fruits from the hangingrocks, and I-e Roy iound it pleasantwhich the Pygmiesobtainedtheir livelihood, (p. 239) to spend a night in them whenand they, in tum attecked the birds, which lravelling. It can be deducedfrom I,e Roymust havebeenfor themalsoa source meat.of (238) that the Pygmies whom the five adven-with their weapons, Could it furthermorebe turousyouths in Herodotsreportsaw(supra),that the irritated cranes,which probablywere were troglodytes.A further commentwouldmuch morc numerous in the then thinly be difficult to make; the matter must be leftpopulatedworld, attacked on their part the at that.Pygmies largeformations?Whatever in may be Only one more question may be asked.the truth of the matter, the antique story Aristotlewritesthat the cranes flew in autumnabout the enmity betweenPygmies cranes and from Scythia to the swamps the Nile. May ofbecamea nligratory tale that got as far as we concludefrom this statement that onepartJapan. of the birds flew in to the Black Sea Cenainlynot all suchnarratives shouldbe regions (andnot to northem Europe)?considarcd belongingto the realrnof fairy as The Romanwriter, Pliny the Elder (23-79tales.A report of Herodot(5th century B.C.) A.D.). considemin his Ndtrrdlis Histotia thespeaksof five adventurous young men who Upper Nile r€gionthe home of the Pygmies.crcssed Lybian desertand sawsouth of it the Thereis alsoa reportin Greekantiquity aboutlittle men who were below medium stature. the existenceof Pygnies in lndia. It is byOf special intercsti$whatAristotle(+322B.C.) Ktesias, physician ofthe Persian King Artaxerxeswrites in his Historia Animalium (Yll, 12) II (405-358 B.C.). Peftaps Ktesias was in-whenhe speaks aboutthe migrationofbirds: fluencedby reportsaboutthe AfricanPygmies (although there must have been Negritosin In some cases they lthe birds] migrate from India in formertimes;cf. Fuchs1973:27l,). placesnear at hand; in othersthey may be said to In this srrveyonereportshouldnot be over- come from tha endsof the *orld, as in the careof th€ cranei fo. these birds migrate from tie stepp€s looked;it is that ofNonnosus, Byzantine a Jew of Scythiato the marshlands south ofEgypt where whorn EmperorJustinian entrusted aroundthe the Nile ha! it! source.And it is herc, by the way, year 533 A.D. with an ambassadorial mission that they ar€ said to fight with the Pygries; and the to the Ethiopians othernations. and Nonnosus story is not fabulous, but thereis in lealit a raceof reports that along the southem part of the dwadishrnen,and the hors€s little in proportion, are (westem)coastof the Red Sea,there existed and the men live in caves underground. whole peoples who looked like humanbeings The horses mostprobablyan unhistorical are but wer€ of very short stature.l,€ Roy, whopart in this report although the Hyksos,a gives details of Nonnosusrcpof, remarkspeoplefrom AsiaMinor, brogghtthe horseto (p. 13) that it could, in its entircty,beappliedEgypt around 1700 B.C. Thit those Pygmies to the Pygmies whom modem tnvelersrcdis-werc (as a mle) cave dwellers(troglodytes), covered.Two points ar€ of special intercstinand even undergroundones, can hatdly be Nonnosusrepoft. first is that he sawthese Thereconciledwith the fact that they lived in a dwads,and many of them,alongthe southemswampyregion.Nowadays typicaldwelling the (western) coastof the Red Sea.This seems toof the Pygmies eastemandcentralAfricais of provethat the teritory ofthe Pygmies str€tchedthe beehive hut (seerespectivelySchumacher at that time rather far to the northeast theof
  6. 6. Rahmann THE PHILIPPINENEGRITOS / ljocan continent, even to the s€a.The second Thelast scholarlyconcem about the Pygmiesher :,jint is that these Pygmieslived on sea shells beforemodem times,namely that ofAugustineNCI .rJ Ush washed ashore. This seems to be a and Albert the Great was, in a vaguesense, aofLe .-rod example of the ability of foodgathercrs racial nature. This was the uppernost concemhe : adapt themselvesin their economic life to again, but now on a modem scientific basis,)al : _.3 cnvironment. after the rediscovery of the Pygmies by:r- Ir is of special inte.est that St. Augustine Schweinfurth; and this concem reflected the|rlt -+30) and St. Albert the creat (+ 1280)also prevailing scholarly atmosphereof the second -,1 some knowledgeol the existence half of the last century. It should, howeve., been of the)y l gmies.Augustine (The eity of Cod, XYL8 noted that in spite of the modem scientificn- ::jkons them amongthe human monstrosities approach, it look some time belore the racial ,r.i asks whether they are descendantsof peculiarities of the foodgathererswer€ more . rh and ultimarcly of ALlam. seen.A better understandingwas gainedld Alberr sees in :m. after some hesitation, beings only after some erToneousft that are to views had been ex- - placed (of cou6e, not in the senseof the pressed; this should be a consolation ano ar - rdem theory ofevolution) between man and the same time an incentive to humility ford. : b.ute animal.Apparently,n thesetwo great scholarsof our day-v :.istian thinkers faced the theologicalproblem The staiing point was the biogenetic law1 : iow the existence sucha racewould be of advocatedby Emst Haeckel(then accepteda :npatible with the universality redemption of but later rejected), according to which each Christ,the SecondAdam. Le Roy remarks human individual repeats in the development -;-rl (p. 12) that Augustire looks at the ol his body the development the human) of9 -:ition solelyfrom a dogmatic viewpoint. raceassuch (ontogenyrecapitulates phylogeny). From the beginning of the seventeenth Applying this soralled law, the Swissanatomist,t -.-tury until about the middle of the last J. Kollmann, advocateda specialevolutiona.ry -,:rurv. the Pygmiesare occasionallymen- theory. According to him the oldest racesof,s r:d in travel reports; but this had no effect mankind were dwarfish or. pygrnaean. was lt , . : r the scientific world. This changes sudden- lrom lhese shorl-slatured rvces thar the tallt .:rer the re-discovery the African Pygmies of racesslowly developed,and this in such a way -. Srhweinfurtlt. that each pres€ntday tall race was prcceded by a correlatedpygmy race; and Kollmann con- sidercd the pygmies of our time the last rem- F,rr the precedings€ctionof this article see ..:e.lallyGusinde1962:21l-224, Royca.1900: L€ nants of the o.iginal pygmy .aces (Schmidt :.:I l. andSchebestaI938:l-l4i furthermore Wotf l9l0r2). Father Schmidt was also of the -l: 445-514, Hennig1944:357-361, Fischer opinion that the Pyfrny peoples rcpresent an r:i l-37 and 1958:61l{14, andScheb€sra 1957: infant stageof the human race. ln bontrasr to : -: l:. Kollmamn, however, he assumed that therc was J,rhn GaFan, with whom a larse parr of this originally only one uniform Pygmy race (cf. ,i:r,lc will deal, devotesChaprer32 (seeAppendix ;rlrd)ofhis manusc.ipr the PhilippineNegiitos Schebesta 1938, I:217. Here as in the para- on rhe knowledge of the Egyptiarls and to the graphsimmediately following, I use some per- . r.*ledge as well as (fabulous) stories of other sonal notes which I compiled about twenty ..jrent peoplesabout Pygmy races,and, further- years ago). It may be added that Father -rR. to the existence reat or allaged of Pygniesin Schmidts view in this matter wasprobably(as ir lime. In his article of August 1934 (s€e in the cas€of Augustineand Albert the Great) i.:lirences) Garvansivesas the date of the above, -entjoned l€tt€r of the pharaoh ca_4400 B.C.; infl uencedby theologicalconsiderations. it was written "some 6334 yean ago." ln Opposed to Kollmanns (and W. Schmidts) liapter 32 of his manusc.ipt(Bomemanns mrcre views were those of anthropologists who saw :ilm edition), the dateis co.rect. the Pygily populations as the outcome of mcial degenemtion. Among Kollmanns foremost
  7. 7. / 2ro PHILIPPINEQUARTERLY OF CULTURE AND SOCIETY critics arc c. Schwalbe and E. Schmidt. The Philippine Negritos (Aeta) belong to the best-known advocateof the degeneration Negdtos. theory is the physical anthropologist and 2. The Negritosare a short-statured bybut Li pionee! in studieson human heredity,Eugen no meansdwarfish goup of mankind;some Fischer. is of the opinionthat humanization He characteristicsexhibit themasNegoid. could not have taken place in the virginal * 3. Basicto all Negritogroups a (pygmoid) is forest. Accordingto him, it took placein the racial complex (dark skin, curly hair, steppe,and hlst humanbeings the werehunters brachycephalism, short-stature, with somcun- i : of big game. Consequently, the lilb of the differentiatedcharacteristics), found amonglne African Pygmiesin thq vi.ginal forest is, in threegroups, although varyingcombinations. in the opinion of Fischer,of a secondary naturc, Thercby the similarity of the tacial rmagels and they developedtheir presenteconomy, accountedfor. -[he differencesresult from li namely,foodgathedng, only whenthey moved otherracialcomponents throughracialmixture. e- from thesteppe into the viryinalforest(Fischer 4. The Negritos not a homogeneous are race. F 1955:1-35). viewis opposed Schebesta This by Since prehistoric times, racial elementsof F (1957:24-32). holds that Bambuticulture He melaresoid, Veddoid, premongoloidand le is of a primary-primitive nature; i.e., it australoidorigin, together with the negroid I developed within the virginal forest. But he base, haveentercdinto the constitutionof the n admits that therc was a mutation towardsa Negrito race. at bodily pygmaean growth. Rudolf Martin, who 5. The Aeta exhibit morc geographically - in 1897 did field work among the inland limited groups(localandregional groups), each A tribes of Malaya(see Schebesta 1952:35), with its typical pattern whilst among the ageespartly with Kollmanns the low stature of the Semang views.He sees in Semang racial mixture strctches horizontally 7 Negritosof throughtheir entfe habitat in a moreuniform Malayaan originalelementthat waspreserved way. It by heredity, and consequently not a folm of 6. The Negritos not Pygmies are sincethey t: degeneration. Like Kollmann,he alsoassumes in their presentdayappearance differ from the that a ligh age must be ascdbed the low_ to Bambutiin most ofthe charactedstics. Negrito statureforms of the humanracebut he rejects and Bambuti arc two short-staturcd racesof the restof Kollmanns conclusions. the negoidform complex. Rudolf Poech (Vienna) distinguished from 7. Thereis, howevera possible geneticcon- the viewpoint of race five groupsof pygmy nection between the dwarfish more light peoples: the Southeast Asian Negdtos; skinned and brachycephalic Negrito element the centralAfrican Pygmies; Bushmen;rne the with peppercomhair and the brachycephalic Lapps; the Veddoid. He does not, how€ver, Bambuti component. assume their racialunity. Among the Negroid Schebestas morc explicitviewsseem con- to peopleshe numbers low-staturc also the (moun- cur with what A.L.Kroeber wrote aboutten I tain) peopleof New Guinea. (Thislast assump- yearearlier 1943:41): ( I tion may be said to have been confirmedby a It is . - . certain there a close that is similarity Gusindes field work mentionedabove. to As betweenthe East lndian [Southeast t Asiai]Negdtos the rest, I refer the reader to the extensive and the Negrillosor pygmy blacksof Cen tral Africa. ( summaryabout the wholeproblemin Martin- Most studentsaI€ inclinedto identify thesetwo far- I Saller 1959:79G792) flung groups as membersof the samerace.This of Schebesta made(1952:458479) thorough a makes the queslion of their origin and dis- study of the poblem of a racialaffinity be- persionstill morc mysterious. tween the Negritosof Southeast Asia and the Kroeber then goes on to say that "several I African Pygmies. The main points of his con- theorieshavebeen propounded explanations" in I (p. clusions 478f.) arc: but he did not consider profitableto discuss it l. Only the Andamanese, Semang and the tnem.
  8. 8. Rahmann THE PHILIPPINENEGRITOS / 2llthe Regarding th€ term N€grillosused above by Ardrew Langs vtork, fhe Mahiflg of Religion, (roeber. it is, of course,derived from the French which had appearedin 1898. In his work Langby ..{/tll"s (see the title of Le Roy work in rh€ surprised scholarsof England and other parts ?:ferenc€s)which has the same meaning as the of the world with his assertionthat belief in a :.rnish ,ejror. It has in the meantimebecomed) _:rrer gen€rally accepted terminology to hilCr god existed among the materially low speakir. r:out Southeast AsianNegdtosand African Pygnies tribes of Southeast Australia and (besides rr Barnbuti). Schebesta (1938:21?f.) rejects the other peoples) among the Andamanese (cf.he ::lTn Negrillos. Schmidt 1926:134 ff.). Since the publicationls. of Langs book, the question of the belief in concems Wilhelm Schmidt, hrs m:un the existence of a high god or (still morem i::rest in the hgmies did not involve racial sharply formulated) a Suprcme Being among :-:itions they were for him only the starting the primitive peoples has agitated the minds :ir:1!-but the culture of these peoples.In of anthropologistsand scholarsspecializingin_.f :::ircular, his attention was drawn to their the various fields of studiesin religion. AgainstJ : .... i ln the cistenceof a h igh goJ or Supreme this background it is understandablethat itld :..:rg. The data, largely the result of the became Schmidts resolve to collect all the -i- re-mentioned field work, whicirhe amassed available data about the high-god belief and ihis belief among the "Urvoelker" (primor- the religious cults of those peopleswhich werc -the) : .. peoples)of the two Americas.of Asia, thouClt1t be to rcpresentativesof earliest.h i,llralia and Africa are dealt with in volumes mankind; they arc now frequently called food- l.: oi his twelve-volumework Der tlrsprurg gatherers(or wildbooters; seeKem 1960).) : tiatteli.lee(Schmidt 1926-1935). Volume Laterin hislife Schmidt collected cores- also then .916) is an historical-critical positive and ponding data about the herdsmen civilzations. r-,.r ()1 the various theories about the origin Thesedata arc contained volumes in 7-ll of his .:ligion. Ursptufg Cottesidee. d.r Volume12,posthumously The last chapter of that volume :,..i with the cultural-historical method in published F. Bomemann, by contains synthesis the ofVolumes 7-11. !-:r:ropology. Volume 6 contains the final . -:)csis. The PhilippineNegritos are dealt Whatever the shortcomings of Schmidt in . : o n p p . 2 8 G 3 l 7 i n V o l u m e2 ( 1 9 3 1 ) .A t certain respects may be, it cannot be denied -- -: lime Schmidt had rather that he has iunassedan impressivearnount of scanty material .i: :ls disposal,ashe admits in his introductory material about the existenceof the belief in a -:-rrks. Volume 5 (1934)hasan Appendixof high god or Supreme being among preliterate i::w pages (800-804) on the Philippine peoples. It is hard to see how Urose anthro- ::nloS. pologstswho cannot find anything but "super- l--lcre is strong evidence that this specific natural powers" or "supematurals" among of Schmidt was aroused through these peoples can do justice to the facts. The ,-.:rli from without. At the beginningofthis acceptance the frequency of the belief in a of :,-:un the former Mission bishop in West personalgod (whatever the details about him) r:::al1 and then Superior Ceneraloi the does not, of course!mean that it is found :rrgation of the Holy Ghost, Alexandrc [,e among all "Urvoelker" or prclitemte ethnic : :,. publislredhis Les ltgmdes Nigtilles c! groups in general.lf Schmidt erred (and which -:..lre et Ndgritosde I Asid. Schmldt re- scholar does not? ), the anthropologrstswho : *:d this work in the first volume of simply reject or ignore Schmidt (and perhaps .*.po{ (l90ot in the very firsl book review never read him) err likewise. It may be appro- -:rcaring in the new pedodical (pp.389-392). priate to quote herc Schebesta who, although - :..rreviewScllmiJlgives special prominence very close to Schmidt, was certainly always Lc Roys description of the Pygmiesbelief alert to the necessityoi being objective and - high god (un Dieu peNonelet souve.ain). critical. He states that Schmidt, in his attack . ,onnection with this he refershis rcaders to against mechanical evolutionism, may have
  9. 9. w 2t2 PHILIPPINEQUARTERLY OF CULTURE AND SOCIETY pushedthe high-god belief too vehemently to Th€re is no need of m€ntioning Scheb€sta this in the fore but that he (Schmidt)wasperfectly right with his thesisof the existence a high- of It was through Bomemannsefforts that the god belief among the oldest peoples Garvan manuscript was rcscued from the near (Akuoelker).He addsthat Schmidts into which it had fallen.To him we also Ursprung frlst, and tluly keen, analysis of Gaffans der Cottesidee awarm-hearted is apolory;how- manuscriptas well as most of what we know about ever not an apolory for Christianity,but for Gaivan himself. Bom€mann collected these data primodial man (Urmensch)whom Schmidt soon after World War II in Washington, D.C.. they did not consider a merc animalbut asfully as weremainly obtainedfrom the papeBof the former human (Schebesta 1954:689). Burcau of Insular Affairs (Bomemann 1955:907, What Father Schmidt (and probably most fooinole 9). The photographicportrait ofGa an, firsl published by Bomemannand reproducedin ofthe European anthropologists) not know did this article,wasalsofound amongthesepapers. when he madehis appealin l9l0 to study the Garvansmanuscript is now availablein book Pygmy peoplesof the earth wasthe fact that form. thanks to the efforts of Father Hermain rather intensive field work was alreadybeing Hochegger. S.V.D., who undertook the task at the done on the Negritos the Philippines. oi Even- sug€eslionof Schebesta, professorduring his his tually presumably after WorldWa. I Schmidt seminary days in Si. Gabriels at Moedling, near leamedthat therc existedin Manilaa bundle (Konuolit) of rnantscripts the Negritos. The critical investigationinto the morc recent on He Negrilo res€aich by my junior Spanishconfrere, wrote several times to the Bureauof Science Father Azcona,is a hishly €rudite contribution to but his requeslswere taken care of, as he the subj€ct matt€r. This is all the more admirable statesironicallyin a footnote,by givinghim no since the author has never been in the Philippines answer (Schmidt I :280). 193 Perhaps Schmidts and has. consequently, no field experience had with letterswerc passed to Beyer, on who apparent- t}le N€gritos.For the past two years,in answer a to ly was not very good in correspondence (cf. requestmade to me, I had beenthinking of writing this prcs€ntarticl€ but variousother dutiesmadeit Rahmann Ang 1968:3). and dimcult to carry out that purpose earlier.Azconas extensivestudy, actually his doctoral dissertation, For the part of this paper that now follows, I has geady facilitated my task and I an profiting draw very largelyupon two important publications fully from hisprcsentation and insights. which, because they are written in Crerman, may tr€ In passing, would like to mention that I have I prcfered an approach somewhat different frcm that lessaccessible to a largernumberoJ anthropologists. Thesepublicationsare Bomemannsarticle (1955) of Azcona,vE., to "direct attention to the salient on the Gawanmaterials toSether with his microfilm contributions to the advancein ideas and know- edition ther€of, as well as Azconas critical ledge." This was the approachadoptedby Anenio examination of the more r€cent NeSrito reearch Manuel on the occasion of tJle symposium held in with special regardto Garvan(Azcona l9?5). honorofH. Otley Beyeron the occasion ofhis 82nd juncturc it should be pointed out that birthday at the University of the Philippines (Manuel At this Azcona implicitly limits the term Nesrito to the 1967:23. dark-skinn€d short-6taturedpopulationof the Philip- pines. Only so can the title of th€ study (the Philippinesis mentionedinthe title) be corr€ctly not understood. However, sucha nanowins down ofthe term Negritorunscounterto the currently accepted terminolog/, and an explanationby Azconawould have b€en desimble. Referencemay be made to III. Negito reseatchin tlre Philippines Kroeber (1943:40 f.) who, however,also includes IIl. A. l. The Bureau Non{hdstian Tribes of the short-staturcd people of New4uinea fslprd, and DavidP. Barrows amongthe NeSrito6 (to8etherwith the Aeta, Semang and Andamanese). Recendy Geoffrey Benjamin caled the S€mang "Malayan Negritos" (see I mtissionset uP1901 the U.S.of Non{hristian InOOctober "The Bureau PhilippineCom- Benjamins Inhoduction (p. vi) to Schebesta 1973). i Tribesfor the Philippineldands." ln view of
  10. 10. Rahmann THE PHILIPPINENECRITOS / 2131 this r, Sreat progressthat the new scienceof (marked "Paper Nr. l2l") of Questionnaire .-::ropology had made in the United States which I obtaineda copy from Professor Beyer.t dre !: ^rrJs the end of the last century it was,so a little over twenty yea6 ago and which is t lleak. but natural that Ame.icananthro- entitled "Preguntas para el estudioetnologico ! lrsts wanted to get as complete possible as de las tribus." lt is PublicationNo. I of the .r : .,rurc of the ethnic situationof the Philip- Bureau of Non{hristian Tdbes, and datedJata ;--: rrcbipelago. David P. Barrows, the Chief Manila 1901.Thisdate shows that thepromised!hey c- :l]. Burcau just mentioned, did not let the detailed yllabus as not long in coming. s w.r07, E:i! grow under his feet. In December the of Tlle.e are no lessthan 390 questions, num- not i:.:. year. l90l, he p;bfished a "Circular of be.edconsecutively, separately each but for of ts: rrmation" which contained "lnstructions the 3l sectionsin which they are arranged. ::: olunteer Workers" (Barrows l90l). It That the questionnaire wordedin Spanish was :.. be assumed that these volunteerswere iseasil, underslandable: in lhe beginning it was i::tr;hed to "The Museum of Ethnology, of this century still the better-known language .irrill History and Commerce" (sec title pagc of the prospective recipients. choiceol the Tlle! his : :.reCircularand pp. l5-16). It hardly needs language also shows that an all-aroundpar- -.rr{ that these instructionswere not con- ticipation of the Filipinos in the large-scale -:J lo field work among the Negritos. ethnographic How- endeavor desired expect- was and : -.. tl)ey are the first ethnic groupsof which ed. ;.:rows givesa brief surveyand characterization On Augustl, 1912,Beyer wrote a Preface : .l i.: seealsop. l0 f.). Hc is alsoawarethat to the Prcguntas. statestherein that they He :.1. existcnceof these little pcople in tlte were containedin "a mimeographed circular,sr!h ?.lippines is given an added interestby the of which 1000 copies werc sent out to allrng ::ij.nce elsewhere similarpygmies"(p. 4). of ptesidentes municipalities other officials ol and ::: thcn mentions the Semang the Malay of throughoutthe provinces." further remarks He :.rrnsula, mistakinglycallingthem Sakai,and that it was DeanC. Worcester who prepared : : .{ndamanesefor whom h€ usesthe name, the original list of questions.Of specialim-Lirng - i obsolete, "Mincopies." portanceis Beyersstatementthat "Over five hundredmanuscripts were rcceived answer tn About the Salai s€eSchebesta 1952:69-72.This to thc questionsthat {]lay word hasthe meaninS "follower,retainer, of asked"and that ,most of rependent (p. associate" 7l). The word is usedfor these manuscdpts are still on file in the .:rlanddwellers theMalaypeninsula with the of (but Recordsof the Division of Ethnology." The r.lusion of th€ Semang). Malaywouldconsider A recipients the questionnaire of were,asstated rI an insult to be called Salai- In an earlier in BeyersPreface, besides presidentes the ol:nd iublication (1928) Schebesta calls the Sakai"a the municipalities,other interestedpersonsluel tlrange. enigmatical, and primitiv€ race" (see - suchas officersof the armedforces,students, Schebesta l9?3, 2nd edition:13). The nane Vincopies, whichcame into usetowards €ndof teachers, Barrows"Instructions Volun- etc. for the the last cenfury,s€ems stemfrom a misund€r- to teer Field Workers"in his Circrrarwasmeant standing(Schebesta l7). 1952: for an even wider rangeof persons, including inspectors the Insular of Conslabulary, supenn- ln the secondpart of his Circular,Barrows tendents of the Department of Public In- Jves for investigators fewgropportunities" "of struction, officials of the provincial govem- nther inclusive "suggestions observations". ments, and other "persons who through fot Hefurthermore announces for investigatoN residence investments that or havebecome familiar *ho are able "to make an exhau$tive study of with the conditions thercprevailing."I leceived 3ny tlibe, a detailed syllabusis undet pre- from Beyer, togetherwith the pregtntas, orlem- paration"and that this "will be sentassoonas of the original answe$ by Camilo Abrico,an p.inted"(p. 9). dated June 13, 1902. h is a point-to-pointof This syllabusmust b€ identical with the answer about the "Mountarn People near
  11. 11. 214 PHILIPPINE OF QUARTERLY CULTURE AND SOCIETYValderrama"(Antique, Panay), the second and anthropology and language, Reed deals withentry in the Beyer( Holleman)Collectionon them in Appendix A and Appendix B res-the Negritos(seeAppendix I of this paper), pectively.Here,the questioninevitablyarises to what as In Appendix A, Anthropomo.phic Measure-happened thoseanswers this leads to to and us ments (pp. 75-77), Reed gives the measure-the matterof the BeyerCollection; however, ments on 77 individualson standingheight,before we deal with it, WilliarnReedmust be spanof arms.l."ngthof nosc,breadthof nose,givendue attention. nasal index, and length of ear. lt is rather obvious that in making these simple measure- IIl. A. 2. William Reed A. ments. Reed followed the instructions of William Reedwas one of the earliest mem- Barrows(cf. Barrows 1901:10).ln general, it be$ of the Bureau oi Non{hdstian Tribes may be said that Reedwas awareof the defects (cf. Azcona:209). the strength the field On of of his study. ln his Prefacehe states(p. 9) that work he pursuedduring the months of May the short time at his disposal for the in- and June 1903 (Reed l905r9), he wrote a vestigation is his "only excuse for the meager monograph the Negritos Zambales on of which treatment given some lines of study-as, for was published underthe auspices the Bureau of example, physical antluopology aad language." upon the recommendation Albert Emstof In Appendix B, Vocabularies (pp. 79-83), Jenks, Chief of the EthnologicalSufley. It Reed states in the introductory part (p. 79) appearcd in 1905 in Volume tl of d1e thal the Negritosof Zambales "seem to have Ethnological fl)eyPublicat S iot1s. lesl entirely their own l-gtguageand to have If 6ne consideB little time whichReed the adopted that of the Chdstianized Zambal." could spcndin gathering information his and Beforemi iiig this statement,Reed refersto the still rather unsatisfactory state of know- his previous remarks the language on situation ledge aboutthe foodgatherers gcncral, in Reeds in Zambales: theserem.rrksare lbund on p. 28f. work must be rated as a remarkable achieve- There. Reed expresscs his opinion that the ment.As far asthePhilippine Negritos con- are Sambalimposed their Ianguage the Negritos, on cemed, wasthe richest it coherent outcome of and that they did so "thorougi y". Oneol the the research work organized sponsored and by evidences a former closecontact between of the Bureau Non-Christian of Tribes. the Negritos and the Sambal, as Reed seesit, ( Azcona 1975:209) a briefparagraph has on lies "in the fact that the Neg tos of southem Reed.After statingthat the results Reeds of Zambales who llave never personally come in field work are mainly descripLions the of contact with the Zambal but only with the material culture, goes to saythatphysical he on Tagalog also speak Sambal with some slight anthropologyand language not covered are at v a r i a t i o n s... " all ("ueberhaupt nicht behandelt") that and The (Malay)Sambal "much the smallest are of just as little attentionis givento the spiritual Christiai therecocrized nationaliti€s." habitat, Their culture. Finally, so Azconaremarks, there are th€ Province Zambales, "somewhat the of is off no references ("Hinweise") sociallife and to main tracks of communication," and they came social structure (political organization, kinship, underthe Spanish "considerably thanthe rule later otherChristianpeoples. miShtbeexpected, As they andlegalsystems.). thereforelag somewhat behind in their Seneral About this criticism of Azconail must be advancement" (Kroeber 1943 :59). said that it is largclyunwafiantable. althoughlit must be admittedthat Reeds treatment ol Even now. what Reedhas to say about the the various aspectsof the culture of these ., rssumed exislencc of a egrilo language in Negritosis not asthoroughasmight havebeen Zambalesand the neighboring areasmay be of desirable. llre casc llrr Negrit,rs In of spiritu;i/ interest. He himself secms rather inclined to culture, Azcona himself refers pp. 6l-64 in to assumethat res€archinto an eventual original Rceds monograph.As concems physical lanSuage these Negritoswottld not leadvery of
  12. 12. Rahmann fiE / PHILIPPINENEGRITOS 2t5 t -- Rccd (p. writes 29): when peaceably scatteredthrough their mountains .rth eachhead of a family is a small autrocratand rules[i rcs- Clos€study and specjal investigation the into his farnily and thos€ofhis sonswho elect to rcmain :::rinics of this region,carriedalsointo Bataan with him. Whenhe dies the oldestson becomes the :::: across mountain the into Pampanga Tarlac, and head of the lextendedl family. Usually,however,a -:v throw more light oo this very interesting and Sroup of familiesliving in one locrlty rccognizes --:onant subjectand may revealtracesof an: lsIt, one man as a capitdn. He niay be chosenby the ::rnal Negritodialect. Prominent nalives Zam- of presidentof dre nearest pueblo or by the Negdtos :..ri. whomI have questioned, who arefamiliar and quick to rccognizein this wayllller thenselves, who arc - : r rhcsubject, affirm Uratthe Negritos knowonly superior abiliry or geater wealth. The capit6n:iure- : . Jialectof Zarnbal.Iidecd those not lacking are s€ttl€sdisputes betweenfamilies.r.i ol - r believe a blood relationship in between ther.11. lt :Jilos and the Zambal, lhis beliefcannotbe but:: JCIS May it also be briefly mentioned that the ihat q.ed then gives a comparative vocabulary prcliminaries of a marriage and of the wedding - in- ,-: 30-ll3)of onc hundredentries(with some ceremonies of the Negritos of Zambales des- :: rijions) tbr Zambal of Bolinao.Zambalof cribed by Reed (pp. 56-60) have their parallels,. io, -:: Znnbal-Aeta, Z.unbalof SantaFe, Aeta of among other Philippine Negritos. :-rra. Aeta of BataanProvince,Dumtgat of Reeds desc ption of the &ligi-on of ther-5 ), 3 -q !-.".an Province. The choiceol Reeds words Negritos of Zarlbales (under the heading. ) r,: not his own. Thesewords were taken as "Superstitions")/appears to be somewhat in- i i r i s t a t e o n p . 8 3 , f r o m M o n t a n o1 8 8 5 , n d s a a-dlqlate in spilc of its relative lenliir :: :t manuscripts c. J. cooke and E. J. by (pp. 65-67). However,in his vivid description: rl." i -:-,ns in "The Ethnological Suney" /inl;.lr. of their hunting activities (pp. 44-48), he gives: to -_ jv case,Reedgavc consideringthe hme he proof (p. 48) of the existence what could of -i:::rt lbr his field work amongthe Negritos of bc called a "primitial" sacrifice or "first offer- :f. Z-:bales. a good degree attention to their of inc" (cf. Kern 1960:97; Koppers 1952:183). -:i +age situationr Tllr pmyer accompanyint the ceremony is zcona is furthemore, as already stated, of clearly aprayer of thanksgiving.Reed thereforc: rhe : - opinion that in Reedsmonosaph, any seems to give a partly wrong interyretation : . |rDcrs to sociallifc and socialstruclureire whcnhe saysthat the purpose the ceremony of:! ii. -,ing. Ancnt this statementit may be said is to "fe€d and appease"the spirits (p.48; -- ,i Reed entitles Chapter VI (pp. 55-67): cf.p. 65). - ,:neral Social Life," and in previouschapters May it be said in conclusion that the use of llrc . icals with suchmattersas t!.oup action in Reedsmonograph is made somewhat difficultr:I I .-rring (p. 47), as well as with gamesand lor two reasons.The first is that the logical (pp. 49-51) which arc part of social araangement the report is rather poor. The of ::. Reed might, asalready rematked, not have sccond,that tlle text proper of only 6l pages tully familiar with that kind of civilization contains 62 full-page illustrations on glossy : $hich his Negritosbasically still belonged, papcr. Thus. one has to scarcha little for the :-r .ven so he bearswitnessof the existcnce text pages. Furthemore, Reedsmonogaph : Ihc local kinshipgroup amongthe Negritos is bound into one volume with Otto Scheer€rs :: dre then (still) more rcmote areasof Zam- lhe Nabaloi Dialect, uld Edward y. Miller,s :rlcs. lt seemsto be advisable quote Reed to lhe BatahsoJ Idldwdtt. Thesehandicapsmake a. 70) about thispoint at length: the use of Reedswork in some measutetime- tle. consuming. concems Plates, As the quite a few lll ThoseNegritos still living in a wild statehave rery simplegovemment. flrey simplygather around of them may be uscful for future racial studies lhe mostpowe ul man.whomthey recognize a as on the Philippine Negritos. Reed was accom-ilo sort of chief and whom they follow into raidson panied in his field work by a photographer,rnal rhe plainsor neiShborhg trib€sof Neerit6: But (p. Mr. J. Diarnond 9)..ry
  13. 13. I 2t6 PHILIPPINEQUARTERLY OF CULTURE AND SOCIETY III. A, 3. The Beyer Papers Two eventsintervenedto stop Beyerfrom goingahead with his plansr onewasan "imti- We now coms to the matter of the Bey€rPapers. cipatedgovemment on ethnographic ban work It is a difficult matter. and one cannot write about in 1914,"accompanied theabolition the by of it withoul the fe of making mistakes.Father existing machinery (ethnologicaldivision of JosephBaumgartner givenme considerable has help the Burcau of Science, elimination of for this part of the articl€; however. any mistakes re- employees and closingof the museum). The main mine. I do hope that this whole article,but especially this sectionot it will, in spile oi all short- other was Beyers appointment the newly to comings,be a contribution to the history of Philip- createdchair of Anthropologyand Etltnology pine ethnotogy. lt is my tunher hope that other, at the University the Philippines. of in pariicular younger Philippine r.nthropologists, By 1917, with tlre routine work ofteaching will takeup the mattr ed shedfurthcr light on it. and administering departmentfairly well his settled, Beyer was able to resumewherc he The first question that a-riseswas already had left off in 1914. As he remarks(preface, introduced above, viz.: f)id the Barrows papetr ilrtd.) "the impetusof ttre freshstad in Lgl? become part of the Beyer Papers? There seems wassuchtllat during l9l8 and 1919no less to be little doubt about the matter. As Beyer than forty-five volumes of text and plates was to explain in his introduction to Set 20 werecompleted boundupJand a number and ol the Philippine Ethnographic Serles (Manuel of other volumespartially prepared(Manuel 1958:48),henceforthPES, "There wastumed 1958:47f.). Eventually therewouldbe a total over to me at this time [i.e., ca. 19l7] by the of "about 150 volumes"(Manuel1967r24). Director of Science,to dispose of in whatever According Azcona. 2l l, footnoteI l, the to p. manner I deemed best, all of the former re- completed Series consists 165volumes. of cords. papers, and corespondence of the old In his 1967 symposiumaddress, Manuel Bureau of Nonthristian Tribes, The Ethno- briefly speaksabout another collection of logical Survey, Division of Ethnology, and papers which Beyercompileddudnghis active Philippine Museum. The massof these papers years. "Philippine Customrry Law. comprising was considerable and tlleir condition deplo- I I volumes, which he editedtogether with Dr. rable...". F. D. Holleman "a Dutch scholarof inter- Beyer himself had started collecting ethno- nationalrepute" (ManuelrlrZunoft 1967:26). graphicmaterial in 19l l. At first his intercst According to Azcona, Holleman came to was foclrsed on the lfugao, but his searchfor Manila 1930for tlrree in months;his work was such matedal gave him a growing "insight into subsidized the American by Cor-rncil Learned of the wealth of important and unpublished data Societies(Azcona l975:213. Accordingto (mostly buried in Govemment and Church rc- Beyer,Hollemanseems havebeenin Manila to cords) relating to the neighbodng groups; and 1931. quoteBeyer We from Manuel (1958:48 at the same time my interest was greatly f. ): broadened through a clearer understandingof the extensive inter-relationship and diverse ln l93l . . . the new period of intensivework on mmifications of the different cultures." As my ethnographicseries was made necessary the by Beyer began to cast his net in ever wider customary law investigation-witil Dr. Holleman- sweeps,an immens€ mass of papers began to which .esultedin the addition of a new ten{olum€ accumulate. The task of siftihg and ordering seton PhilippineCustomary to my ethnographic Law seriesdwing that year. In order to adequately get them also became morc pressitrg.ln response at and compile the customarylaw material,it was to this need "a more or lessdehnite and work- necessary proceedwith the working and binding to able schemefor collecting information, classify- of my ethnogaphic seriesat an unusuaily rapid ing and copying it, and finally having it bound rate.The rcsult,ofcourse, wasthe addition ofmany up in usable form, was developedand put into completed volumesor pap€Nto my varioussets.. . . execution"by Beyer.
  14. 14. Rahmann THE PHILIPPINENEGRITOS / 217:l :.- -: drcngoeson to saythat due to lack of poratedin the Negritovolume. Among these:iF :: rrd the shifting of his ilterest to papersis an introduction, written by Beyer,:k . .i i!g]. he had to suspendany special and a nine-page excerpt from Montanosdes-rie -. :r !he ethnograpllic seriesuntilnear the of (J. cription theNegritos Bataan Montano, of - . q3l. trlanuel addsthat due to Beyers Rdpport dA1.le Ministre structioll dI Publique .1 .; ..nrentinPhilippinearcltaeology later in sur une l,ission aux IIes Philippineset e11rte :-- ::J .thnographicserieshad to suffer. Ilalaisle(Archives missions des scientifiques et -- r:riarial accumulated from year to year litt6raires . . Paris1885); Montano1886; . cf. -:,rrcd in raw form, uncopiedand un- viii). : :-riLm to the "Philippine Customary . :: nrr! be pointed out that its relation- -.: : r. PESis not entirelyclear.Holleman -, :,ctcd to solcctpertir)ent materiallrom - u0 pJplr und I, urJngc ir by regions. ,- ...:i oi llis labors, wllich lasted, already as . :-r. J b rc threemonths,arevols.3 to 9 ( .jll.ctiorr. Vols. I and 2 were compiled - : .: hinrsolf, with conlributionsliom his . -:r rnd l)apc.swrittcn by his students. I r s . l 0 a n d l l . w h i c h a c c o r d i n got h :)uit hrve formed part of the col- :.itained. I ilm not able lo ascertaii. :. i:nilf speaksof l0 volumeslrrpl.r.]. : ) fl)flltarllrand Azconaknow of only 9 . l l f u n u e li r Z a n o r a 1 9 6 7 : 2 6A z c o n a i ._ I I Ilrc pilrt of Hollemanin the com- .ork sho!rld not be overestimated). r.;i|l. Ji!r,.iun$r in nlyopinioD - . -,..r in ordcr to know thc settingin wllich : .-tnt{) papersappear.The part dealing I I I . B . J o h nM . C a r v a n . : - jlrritos is found in vol. 9 of lvlat, for -- : .-, sake. I shall call the Beyer-Holleman ( L Biodata. Borncmirnn 1955:901f.), who -iion (hcnccforth/tllc). The materialfor rnadea painstaking searchfor the biodataon L,rnrc was drawn liom thc PE.S, 17: set Gdrvan, states that wc poss€ss only a few .. -- -..Ir. The lattcr consists a total of of vcritled data. Grrvan was born on November lurncs but vol. 4 consistsentirely of 19, 1875. No reliabledocumentaryevidence :-: . Vcona docs not say anything about cxistsabout thc placc of his birth. Bomemann r 1!irich,accordingto Manuels list con- is iJlclined to assumethat Carvan avoidedmen- :-:i iorc originalreports-Papers 9l-100). tioning his birthplacebccause did not want he , rn! way, to this material also belongs to draw attention to thc lact tltat he was not r- --: 107 "Life of the MountainPeoplcnear bom in the Unitcd States. The (U.S.A.) -i. Ir*n of Ceiinog. lloilo," rby Norberto "Official Rostcr ot the Civil Service of the !<: :ucvo. Feb. 1924, 18pp. Possiblythis Philippines"mentions for 1904 as birthplace r -.:: rs a later addition to 1l-S that was not "Oregor"j tie Rosterfor l9O5 omirs the entry -. -:^1. at the time the BHC wascompliod. whilst that foi 1907 mentions "lreland." ri..inr listsin his Biblioefaphy total of43 r Ac(urJing to Bcyur.Crrvan w:rsborn in poor :::-- -1 isre Appendix I of this article)which, circumstancesin a suburb of Dublin- llr an _ .::t in the form of extracts,werc rncor- application datedMay 18, l903,tothe (U.S.A.)