When someone reports what he or another person said before, he can use both: He uses the same words than those pronounced in the moment of speaking: Direct Speech He asked: “Where are you going?” The teacher told me: “Open the window!”He uses a reporting verb and makes thenecessary changes on the sentence: Indirect SpeechHe asked where he was going.The teacher told me to open the window.
Reporting verbs are verbs like: say tell ask wonder add explain want to know refuse deny shout cryWhen we report a sentence, we need to make the necessarychanges in: a) Verb tenses. b) Pronouns. c) Time expressions.
a) Changes in verb tenses.As the verb in the reporting sentence is usually in the past tense, we need tochange the verb of the sentence it was previously said following these rules: Simple present Simple past He said that Tom is at home. Tom was at home. Present continuous Past continuous He said that We are dancing. they were dancing.
Simple past Past perfect He said that She drove home. she had driven home. Past continuous Past perfect continuous He said that You were sleeping. he had been sleeping. Present perfect Past perfect He said thatHe has just arrived home. he had just arrived home. Past perfect Past perfect He said thatShe had had lunch at two. she had had lunch at two.
Simple Future Conditional He said that I will live in Paris. he would live home. Conditional Conditional He said thatWe would visit you if... he would visit him if... Can Could He said thatYou can play the guitar. she could play the guitar. Must Had to He said that I must go out.. he had to go out.
b) Changes in pronouns. I he / she my / me his – her / him - herYou he / she your / you his – her / him - herHe he his / him his / himShe she her her It it its / it its / itWe they our / us their / themThey they their / them their / them
c) Other changes.this that yesterday the day beforenow then tomorrow the following dayhere there next the followingthere there last the previous REMARK!!! When the reporting verb is in present, no tense change is needed.
REPORTEDQUESTIONS.Reported questions do not have the same word order as direct questions have: - Do / Does / Did are not used. - They are introduced by the interrogative pronoun. - The subject precedes the verb. - If there is no interrogative - Question marks are not used. pronoun, they are introduced by if or whether. Where are you? He wanted to know where he was.Does he like cheese? He asked if he liked cheese.
REPORTED ORDERS, ADVICE OR SUGGESTIONS.Orders, advice and suggestions are often reported using the infinitive. Be careful! I told Mark to be careful.Dont play on the floor! He asked her not to play on the floor.You should stay in bed. Mum adviced him to stay in bed.Lets go to the cinema! He suggested to go to the cinema.