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Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
Metafiction in American Comic Strips
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Metafiction in American Comic Strips

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“Living in the Funnies: Metafiction in American Comic Strips”, to be published in the Journal of Popular Culture, 2014. gonzalezja@unican.es

“Living in the Funnies: Metafiction in American Comic Strips”, to be published in the Journal of Popular Culture, 2014. gonzalezja@unican.es

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Metafiction vs. post-modernism
    • “ Self-conscious” or “narcissistic” mode: Don Quixote, Tristam Shandy, Las Meninas
    • Double reference to
      • Reality outside the text
      • The text itself as an artifact
    • In comic strips: very early examples
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 3. Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 4. Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 5. Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 6. Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 7. Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 8. Metafiction: Definition and types
    • Robert Alter: “a novel that systematically flaunts its own condition of artifice and that by so doing probes into the problematic relationship between real-seeming artifice and reality”
    • David Lodge: “Metafiction is fiction about fiction: novels and stories that call attention to their fictional status and their own compositional procedures”
    • Double referentiality: to reality and the text
    • Degrees, rather than types
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 9. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • “ Mosaic of citations” that constitute a text
    • Horizontal references: Intercomics
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 10. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • “ Mosaic of citations” that constitute a text
    • Horizontal references: Intercomics
    • Vertical, intermedial references:
      • Painting
      • Literature
      • Film
      • Design
      • Music
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 11. Hopper’s Nighthawks Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 12. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • “ Mosaic of citations” that constitute a text
    • Horizontal references: Intercomics
    • Vertical, intermedial references:
      • Painting
      • Literature
      • Film
      • Design
      • Music
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 13. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • “ Mosaic of citations” that constitute a text
    • Horizontal references: Intercomics
    • Vertical, intermedial references:
      • Painting
      • Literature
      • Film
      • Design
      • Music
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 14. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • “ Mosaic of citations” that constitute a text
    • Horizontal references: Intercomics
    • Vertical, intermedial references:
      • Painting
      • Literature
      • Film
      • Design
      • Music
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 15. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • “ Mosaic of citations” that constitute a text
    • Horizontal references: Intercomics
    • Vertical, intermedial references:
      • Painting
      • Literature
      • Film
      • Design
      • Music
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 16. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Genette’s Transtextuality : “all that which puts one text in relation, whether manifest of secret, with other texts”. 5 types:
      • Intertextuality
      • Paratextuality
      • Metatextuality
      • Hypertextuality
      • Architextuality
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 17. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Intertextuality : “the effective co-presence of two texts ” in the form of quotation (explicit), plagiarism or allusion (implicit).
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 18. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Intertextuality : “the effective co-presence of two texts ” in the form of quotation (explicit), plagiarism or allusion (implicit).
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 19. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Paratextuality : the relation between the text and its “paratext ” (titles, prefaces, dedications…).
      • Book editions
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 20. Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 21. Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 22. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Metatextuality : when a text “makes comments” about another one ( Metatextuality for direct, explicit “ comments ”
    • and hypertextuality for indirect references)
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 23. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Metatextuality
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 24. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Metatextuality
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 25. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Hypertextuality : the relationship between one text (the hypertext) to an anterior text (hypotext), which the former transforms or modifies.
    • In hypertextuality , the reference as opposed to intertextuality ,
    • to the hypotext is worked into where the two works simply
    • the plot (or the gag) of co-exist
    • the hypertext,
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 26. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Hypertextuality . References to
    • Literature
    • Painting
    • Music
    • Film
    • Comics
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 27. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Hypertextuality . References to
    • Literature
    • Painting
    • Music
    • Film
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 28. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Hypertextuality . References to
    • Literature
    • Painting
    • Music
    • Film
    • Comics
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 29. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Hypertextuality . References to
    • Literature
    • Painting
    • Music
    • Film
    • Comics
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 30. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Hypertextuality . References to
    • Literature
    • Painting
    • Music
    • Film
    • Comics
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 31. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Hypertextuality . References to
    • Literature
    • Painting
    • Music
    • Film
    • Comics
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 32. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Hypertextuality . References to
    • Literature
    • Painting
    • Music
    • Film
    • Comics
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 33. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Hypertextuality . References to
    • Literature
    • Painting
    • Music
    • Film
    • Comics
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 34. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Architextuality : this refers to the generic taxonomies suggested or evoked by a text. We can use this category for “cross-overs” (comic characters appearing in other strips), which make an obvious reference to the fact that they all belong to the same genre and are published together
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 35. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Architextuality : “cross-overs”
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 36. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Architextuality : “cross-overs”
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 37. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Architextuality : April Fools’ Day
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 38. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Architextuality : Peanuts Envy
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 39. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Architextuality : Peanuts… Envy?
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 40. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Architextuality : Peanuts
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 41. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Architextuality Breaking Discourse Levels
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 42. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Architextuality Breaking Discourse Levels
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 43. First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality
    • Architextuality : Breaking Discourse Levels
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 44. Second degree: Metacomics
    • A second, deeper degree of metafiction are self-conscious comics which somehow break the “realistic contract” established between the author and the reader and call explicitly the reader’s attention to the artificiality of the text: metacomics. 2 types (Linda Hutcheon) :
      • “ diegetic narcissism”: comics whose metafictional references remain in the realm of the diegesis , the story being told by the author. Narrative metacomics .
      • “ linguistic narcissism”:the “metafictional break” (or short-circuit) happens in the realm of the discourse , the way the story is told. These fictions “demonstrate primarily an awareness of their linguistic constitution” and show the “building blocks—the very language whose referents serve to construct that imaginary world”. Linguistic metacomics .
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 45. Narrative Metacomics
    • Comics which tell the
    • story of comic artists
    • and their creations: very
    • frequent in graphic
    • novels.
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 46. Narrative Metacomics
    • Comic artists in comic
    • strips
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 47. Narrative Metacomics
    • Comic artists in comic
    • strips
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 48. Narrative Metacomics
    • Comic artists in comic strips
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 49. Narrative Metacomics
    • Characters as comic readers
    • As newspaper editors
    • Or even as comic strip “owners”
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 50. Narrative Metacomics
    • Comics-within-the-comics: Mise-en-abyme
      • Graphic novels: Tales of the Black Freighter
      • Comics-inside-novels:“The Escapist”
      • in Michael Chabon’s novel The Amazing
      • Adventures of Kavalier and Klay
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 51. Narrative metacomics
    • Comic strip-within-the-comic strip: Fearless Fosdick within Li’l Abner
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 52. Narrative metacomics
    • Comic strip-within-the-comic strip:
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 53. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels (Genette’s Metalepsis )
    • Characters conscious of their fictional nature
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 54. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels
    • Characters conscious of their fictional nature
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 55. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels
    • Characters conscious of their fictional nature
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 56. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels
    • Author’s intrusions
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 57. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels
    • Characters complain
    • to the author
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 58. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels
    • Characters complain to the author
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 59. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels
    • Character in search of his author
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 60. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels
    • Characters address the reader
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 61. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels
    • Characters become authors and alter their fictional world with authorial tools
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 62. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels
    • Characters become authors and alter their fictional world with authorial tools
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 63. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels
    • Characters become authors
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 64. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels
    • Readers become authors
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 65. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels
    • Combination of several devices (“Metafictional overkill”, Patricia Waugh):
      • Character addresses the reader
      • The character acknowledges his fictional status
      • Characters become authors
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 66. Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels
    • Combination of several devices (“Metafictional overkill”, Patricia Waugh):
      • Character addresses the reader
      • Character becomes author
      • Reader becomes character
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 67. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • Panels and panel borders
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 68. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • Panels and panel borders
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 69. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • Panels and panel borders
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 70. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • Balloons
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 71. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • Balloons
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 72. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • Reading order (right to left)
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 73. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • Onomatopeias:
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 74. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • Icons:
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 75. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • Pacing
    • Straight Lines
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 76. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • Use of close-ups and
    • other soap opera
    • conventions
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 77. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • “ Living in a newspaper”: Dates
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 78. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • “ Living in a newspaper”: Post-production
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 79. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • “ Man, I hate living in the funnies”: Post-production
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 80. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • Post-production
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 81. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • Combination of character and balloons: “Silent Garfield”
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 82. Readers become authors: Webcomics
    • Garfield minus Garfield:
    • Pearls minus Pig:
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 83. Readers become authors: Webcomics
    • The Garfield Randomizer
    • The Digital Calvin and Hobbes
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 84. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks” Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 85. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • “ Metafictional Overkill”
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 86. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • “ Metafictional Overkill”
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 87. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • “ Metafictional Overkill”
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 88. Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”
    • “ Metafictional Overkill”
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 89. Functions
    • Reflection
    • Self-Parody
    • Experimentation
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 90. Functions
    • Reflection
    • Self-Parody
    • Experimentation
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 91. Functions
    • Reflection
    • Self-Parody
    • Experimentation
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 92. Functions
    • Metafictional realism?
      • Metafiction sometimes creates an intimate connection between the reader and the real author, who breaks the conventions and barriers to “whisper” to the reader and offer his true self
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 93. Functions
    • Extroverted metafiction , when metafictional devices not only show the artificiality of fiction, but they also make comments about the artificiality of life: “Maybe in real life we are all comic strip characters”
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González
  • 94.
    • Thank you!
    Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González

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