Content and LanguageIntegrated Learning:Methodological Orientationsfor a Better Practice(Core elements of CLIL) Dr. Javier Barbero Andrés Dr. Jesús Ángel González López Dpto. de Filología
Why CLIL? Social and historical requirements. Institutional requirements (a new University ahead…) Scientific requirements (English as a lingua franca)
DEFINITIONCLIL is a dual-focused teachingand learning approach in whichthe L1 and an additional languageor two are used for promotingboth content mastery andlanguage acquisition to pre-defined levels (Peeter Mehisto)
WHAT SHOULD WE DO IN CLASS? We only teach the language that thestudents need for the content of the lesson – and this may be PHRASES and words rather than complete grammar patterns. THE 4 Cs of CLIL = CONTENT + COMMUNICATION + COGNITION + CULTURE
REQUIREMENTS•Teachers need a good level of thelanguage.•Teacher training required.•Group working (students ANDteachers)•Methodology (especiallyassessment and testing) has to becoherent with CLIL teaching.
TYPES OF LANGUAGE•BICS(Basic Interpersonal CommunicationSkills)•CALP(Cognitive Academic LanguageProficiency)•Content Obligatory Language(related to subject)•Content-compatible language(related to both subject and everydayEnglish)
GRAMMAR AND CLIL(just a few examples…) Present Continuous (Chemistry / Physics) Present Simple (Music / Geography) Passive Voice (History / Science) Past Tenses (History)
LANGUAGE FOR A PURPOSE(FUNCTIONS AND TASKS REQUIRED…) Giving opinions. Describing processes. Agreeing and disagreeing. Punctuation conventions. Defining. Generalizing. Explaining, demonstrating, identifying… Hypothesizing, experiments… Timelines. Visual organizers.
GENRE AND CLIL CLIL genres are things like encyclopaedia entries, letters, poems, reports, scientific descriptions, oral presentations, newspaper articles, discursive essays, etc.A particular genre requires a register (formality + adaptation to subject) + a particular layout + coherence.
HELPING STUDENTS TO UNDERSTAND AND PRODUCE GENRE FEATURES What is the purpose of the text? Where does it come from? How is the subject / name of the entry presented? How are the subjects´s dates given (and where)? What information is given in the first paragraph? What order are the events in the entry presented in? What time adverbials are used? How and why are brackets (or whatever) used in…?
Visual organisers I Bar chart (shows frequency or quantity) Cycle (shows a typical sequence of events) Word map (shows how things and categories of things relate to each other) Line graph (shows how things are developing) Pie chart (shows relative proportions) Storyboards (show sequence of events) Venn diagrams (show similarities and differences)
Visual organisers II Tree diagrams (show hierarchical relationships) Quadrant (shows how things can be identified in two ways) T-chart (divides things into two categories) Carroll diagrams (grouping things in a kind of yes/no way) Table (categorizing and summarizing information) Cause and effect (process) diagrams (show how certain effects happen) Flow diagrams (show processes and the order in which they happen) Binary key (divides information into yes/no questions)
CLIL RESOURCES Encyclopedias, dictionaries, coursebooks, stories, content-specific books… Materials such as paper, cardboard, pens, glue and scissors, models, charts, displays, realia… Texts, illustrations, visual organizers, audio and video… IWB The key is to use a range of different resources to explain particular concepts. The internet, apps, CD, DVD, research…
THE TEACHER´S RESPONSABILITIES Enhancing cooperation. Pairwork, groupwork, scaffolding, support and feedback. Activating students´ prior knowledge. L1 is welcome if there´s a particular content which is not understood (communication blocking) Students need “wait time” as answers cannot be delivered instantly (they´re facing complex tasks)
PROBLEMS?1. Teachers’ level of L2. Language specialists or content specialists?2. Coherent system. Extensive exposure to L2.3. Material production4. Methodology: how do you teach students who lack language knowledge?5. Assessment : how do you assess students who don’t know enough about the language? Do you penalize them for language mistakes?6. Money: All of this costs a lot of money
THE HUNGARIAN SOLUTION 1.Teachers’ level of L2.Language specialists or content specialists? They demand two degrees. They offer ongoing training at University level. Teachers involved in CLIL programs receive a 15% bonus
THE HUNGARIAN SOLUTION2. Coherent system. Extensive exposure to L2 Primary Education: 5 hours a week in L2 classes + 3 CLIL subjects. The subjects vary according to the year (1st year: Music, Drawing, Physical Education; 8th year: History, Science and English Culture) Secondary Education: Preparatory year (for students not coming from a bilingual program): 20 hours a week to L2. The rest (10 hours): Preparatory CLIL Regular Secondary: 5 hours a week in L2, 3 subjects minimum of CLIL subjects Minimum Requirements for a school to use the term “Bilingual”: 30 % of CLIL subjects and a high number of CLIL teachers with double qualification. Classes split in two in CLIL classes.
THE HUNGARIAN SOLUTION 3. Material productionStill open, hard work for the teachers, but getting better every year…
THE HUNGARIAN SOLUTION 4. Methodology: how do you teach students who lack language knowledge? An extension of methodology used in language classes:- Communicative approach- Active participation of students- Variable size of groups- Student-centered activities- Emphasis on lexis
THE HUNGARIAN SOLUTION5. Assessment : how do you assess students who don’t know enough about the language? Do you penalize them for language mistakes?Still open. Priority of content over language. No demonization of L1 (the system is so complete that this doesn’t jeopardize the results).
THE HUNGARIAN SOLUTION 6. Money: All of this costs a lot of moneyIt is expensive. But the resultsare excellent (B2 after primary,C1 after secondary)Public and free, but segregated.
Our Project:Development ofGuides andResources for CLILat University -Bibliography and Reviews -Interviews with Secondary School CLIL Teachers in Cantabria -Methodological Decalogue -Lesson Plans
Qualitative Research.The Long Interview. The method can take us into the mental world of the individual: •to glimpse the categories and logic by which he or she sees the world. •to see the content and pattern of daily experience. •to step into the mind of another person, •to see and experience the world as they do themselves (Grant McCracken)
1. Priority: content on foreign language andMethodological communication guaranteed. orientation 2. Scaffolding. decalogue 3. Lexical corpus for every subject. 4. Repeating and consolidating, different formats are suggested. 5. ICT-based activities are recomendable. 6. Teacher as mediator and facilitator. 7. Flexible pair and group work. 8. Assessment is essential (content assessment over language assessment) 9. Varied assessment instruments (self- assessment and peer assessment techniques) 10. Planning is required to be flexible.
Six Language Skills (Dale,1. Activate prior Tanner) Van der Es and knowledge 2. Provide Lesson Input 3. Guide understanding 4. Encourage speaking 5. Encourage writing 6. Evaluate learning and give feedback