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  • This presentation will be an overview of all of the presentations that are being shown at the e-learning retreat.
  • The "Teaching is Everything" discussion will discuss traditional face-to-face versus e-learning teaching methods. This discussion will involve how to incorporate traditional classroom elements into the online environment. This presentation will include topics such as what students should expect when they move into the online environment, how their learning habits will change, and how the instructor plays a role in both class environments. The definition of learning is the gaining of knowledge and constructing an understanding of information (Woolfolk, 1995). Students expect to learn course concepts and course material in their classes through comprehending key concepts and how these concepts relate to their previous learning experiences and to the course subject (Stansfield, McLellan, & Connolly, 2004). Once students grasp these concepts, they can understand how the subject matter relates to real world experiences (Stansfield, McLellan, & Connolly, 2004). Instructors in the in-class environment are content-oriented (Salter, 2003). They focus on delivering course materials and lectures related to the course subject to their students. Students do not use the knowledge being presented to them by their instructor unless they are prompted to do so (Salter, 2003). Instructors prompt students to learn in this environment by providing tasks that engage students in learning (Salter, 2003). Students can communicate with their instructor by asking questions about the course material or discuss with their classmates about how the subject matter relates to real world experiences (Salter, 2003). Professors can present the course material to their students in a variety of ways. Instructors can show video clips that relate to the course material, present a PowerPoint lecture incorporating animation and images, and show their students' websites that present concepts related to the subject matter that the instructor is presenting (Salter, 2003). These interactive teaching methods increase involvement in collaborative learning for students (Salter, 2003). Students can work in teams on group projects (Salter, 2003). Students can work on their in-class projects if their instructor allots the time. Students comprehend the course material better when they work together and incorporate technology to present the course material to their class (Salter, 2003). Examples of group projects are PowerPoint presentations about the course material, collaborating on a wiki related to a course topic, and collaborating on a white paper. E-learning delivers the same course content as in-class but instead of being in a classroom, the instructor can present the class content online to his or her students (Yang & Cornelious, 2005). E-learning is a different learning experience than in-class learning because the students are not the same, communication with students and instructors is done through the Internet, and participation in the course by students has changed (Yang & Cornelious, 2005). These concepts are similar to the in-class environment but have been modified for the online environment. Students who take classes online want to have the flexibility to learn the course material at their own pace (Yang & Cornelious, 2005). Students who take these classes are working professionals who want to fit their education around their daily routine (Yang & Cornelious, 2005). These types of students need to be motivated by their instructor (Yang & Cornelious, 2005). An instructor can motivate these students to learn by having them become active learners (Yang & Cornelious, 2005). Students become active learners in the online environment by viewing their instructor’s lectures, and by communicating and asking questions in the discussion board forum to their classmates and their instructor (Yang & Cornelious, 2005). These students should be willing to be proactive and self-motivated by getting their assignments accomplished, asking their instructor for help, and by interacting with their classmates (Yang & Cornelious, 2005). Students can communicate in their online course by sending e-mails to their classmates or their instructor with questions about the courses assignments or if they need any extra help (Yang & Cornelious, 2005). Students can attend their instructor’s online office hours if they need any clarification on any assignments (Yang & Cornelious, 2005). Student participation in an online course can be determined if students get their assignments accomplished on time, and by communicating often with their instructor and classmates (Yang & Cornelious, 2005). Instructors take notice of how well and how much students get involved in their courses (Yang & Cornelious, 2005). Students are graded upon interaction, assignments, and communication (Yang & Cornelious, 2005). If a student is successful at all of these tasks then he or she should expect to do well in their online course. The role of the instructor in the online environment is the same as the instructor in the in-class environment. A professor can set tasks for their students to accomplish, gives topics for students to discuss among their classmates, and offers assistance to his or her students if they need any clarification on any of the assignments given (Stansfield, McLellan, & Connolly, 2004). The instructor promotes learning by encouraging students to communicate and become expressive about their ideas related to the course material (Stansfield, McLellan, & Connolly, 2004). Instructors can provide feedback to their students on how well they are doing in the course and what they need to work on (Stansfield, McLellan, & Connolly, 2004). In both cases, the course is centered on the students' learning and their potential to grasp the content being discussed in the course (Stansfield, McLellan, & Connolly, 2004).
  • The "Tools for Communication" discussion will discuss synchronous versus asynchronous technologies. There are two different types of interaction in the online classroom. The two different types of interaction are synchronous interaction and asynchronous interaction (Berge, 2000). Synchronous interaction happens in real-time and is when the instructor and the students who are enrolled in the online class are all present at the same time in the course (Berge, 2000). The participants in the online course can be located anywhere in the world (Berge, 2000). Asynchronous interaction happens when there is computer mediated communication combined with textbooks, course materials, and assigned readings (Collins & Berge, 1996). Synchronous interaction occurs when students participate in audio conferencing, a chat room, and video conferencing (Carr‐Chellman & Duchastel, 2000). Asynchronous interaction transpires through electronic mail (e-mail) and interactive messages (IM) (Berge, 2000). Audio conferencing is used in online courses among small groups or individuals (Repman, Zinskie, & Carlson, 2005; Weller, Pegler, & Mason, 2005). This tool can be used in the online classroom for instructors to provide individualized support to their students by conversing with them (Weller, Pegler, & Mason, 2005). Audio conferencing activities such as communicating with group members and sharing experiences from other courses with classmates can happen in an online course (SBC Knowledge Network Explorer, 2004). Audio conferencing is a low-cost tool institutions can make available for instructors to use in their courses (Repman, Zinskie, & Carlson, 2005). This is beneficial for the university since instructors are enhancing their online courses by using this tool and making their courses more attractive for their students (Repman, Zinskie, & Carlson, 2005). A chat room is a text-based session were students can talk by written words to their instructors and classmates in real-time (Anderson, 1999). All participants in the course can view all of the conversations at the same time (Eastman & Swift, 2002). The instructor and the students who are involved in the chat room can respond to any written messages that have been posted in the chat room at their leisure (Kittleson, 2002). Chat rooms create an environment of immediate responses and facilitate both student and classmates and student and instructor interaction (Eastman & Swift, 2002; Ingram, Hathron, & Evans, 2000; Wang & Newlin, 2001). Students enjoy having the ability to talk with their instructor at any time and gain social relationships with their classmates with the use of this tool (Im & Lee, 2004; Kirk, 2000; Wang & Newlin, 2001). Video conferencing lets students converse with their instructor in real-time by the use of audio and video technology (Repman, Zinskie, & Carlson, 2005). The instructor and students can see, hear, and talk to one another when using this technology (Repman, Zinskie, & Carlson, 2005). When using this technology, students can work on group projects, have face-to-face interaction with their classmates, and students can present presentations among their course audience (Repman, Zinskie, & Carlson, 2005). This technology is the only tool that can fully duplicate the in-class environment in an online setting (Repman, Zinskie, & Carlson, 2005). E-mail is a written message that can be sent electronically no matter the time or location (Jung, Choi, Lim, & Leem, 2002). Written messages can be sent from an instructor to their students reminding them about course assignments that are due, from a student to their classmate, or from students to their instructor about any questions they might have about the course (Repman, Zinskie, & Carlson, 2005). Providing e-mail in an online course gives instructors the ability to deliver immediate feedback to their students (Eastman & Swift, 2002; Ng, 2001). Instant messages (IM) are a way for instantaneous responses from classmates or instructors to write back in an immediate fashion (Dunne, 2002). Instant messages can be used for online office hours for instant communication from student to instructor or vice versa, collaborating on a group project among team members, and for class discussions (Cohn, 2002; Farmer, 2003; Fetterman, 2002; Tyson & Cooper, n.d.). Having this tool available to students makes online courses more attractive because of the immediate feedback from their instructor (Repman, Zinskie, & Carlson, 2005).
  • The "E-Learning Culture" discussion will discuss what an e-learning culture is and why this information is important for e-learning. Online learning provides individuals access to an education and a chance to gain a better lifestyle and this is known as the e-learning culture (Davies, 1998). Online learning has become popular at higher education institutions and this need must be fulfilled among university communities (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). Institutions need to meet this education changing demand of online learning for their university community, become competitive among other institutions, and structure the institution for the change in organization among instructors and students (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). The demand from e-learning among university communities arises from the culture of employment and work-driven students (Katz, 2001). Society is setting higher demands for their employees to gain a higher education and attain more skills (Davies, 1998). This demand is changing the student population at institutions since this type of learning is being requested from current students (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). Once students have grasped their foundation courses from traditional instruction they can access the online environment (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). These students need to be self-motivated to learn all of the material covered in online courses and once this is accomplished they will be on their way to more skill sets and more education (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). Since employers are demanding their employees to gain more skills and education institutions need to obtain an online environment that will fulfill this need (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). Institutions must offer their students the same benefits as in-class courses such as technical support and instructor support (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). To remain competitive among other institutions, universities must provide the newest e-learning technology, quality faculty, and a worthwhile education (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). Structuring an institution for e-learning involves changing how instructors teach and students learn (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). This change involves the institutions administration, faculty members, and stock holders to make this change happen (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). Their help can allow students access campus resources from afar, have the ability to access new technologies from a distance, and make education available from anywhere at any time (Lin & Conford, 2000). Students who take classes in the online environment must be self-motivated and be accountable for their own learning (Hawkes & Cambre, 2000). Those students who are independent learners will become successful in the online environment and learn the skills and gain the education that they need for their employer (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). These students will be provided by the institution with the opportunity to gain reliable qualifications as they would in an in-class environment (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). Instructors will need to learn how to teach in this new learning environment (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). Instructors will change roles from information providers to supporters (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). They will help students gain the skills and education they need to get their work accomplished (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). Instructors will need to be provided with by the institution the technology, tools, and training that they need to teach online students (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004). Instructors need to be supported by the institution the same as their students with technological needs (O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004).
  • Today’s discussion will discuss what to expect for challenges in the e-learning environment. For institutions to increase their student population they need to develop an approach to gain more students, and this strategy is by implementing e-learning at their organization (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). When implementing e-learning within an organization, there can be some challenges that arise during this process. First, there are concerns whether or not this type of learning is effective (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). Secondly, students wonder if their online courses provide a quality education in the distance learning environment (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). Next, the institution is concerned about if e-learning is cost-effective for the organization (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). Finally, the workload of faculty may have to be adjusted to adapt to this new learning environment (Bower, 2001). Students who take online courses expect that their classes use delivery tools to effectively provide learning (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). This can happen at institutions that provide their students with high quality technology (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). Students who utilize this technology learn better than students who are enrolled in traditional courses (Capper, 1990). Without the use of technology and interaction within the online course environment students feel isolated and may lose interest in the course material (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). This could happen when demands from their daily life interfere or if they receive negative feedback and a poor assignment grade (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). Institutions need to insure quality in their online programs so they can provide a superior education to their students in the online environment (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). Combining a superior quality education with student support makes students feel comfortable in the online environment (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). Learner support is essential in the online environment so students can succeed in their learning and achieve their potential (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). Institutions often wonder if e-learning is a cost effective option for their organization. The only way for e-learning to be cost effective for an organization is by the number of online students that enroll in online courses (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). The increase in online student population will depend upon who enroll in online courses and with the increase of students the amount of money the institution will earn (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). When an institution does not offer as many online courses, not as many students will enroll and consequently, the amount of money the institution will earn will be less (Potashnik & Capper, 1998). Faculty need to be encouraged to teach in the online environment (Bower, 2001). They may not be willing to teach in this learning environment since they know their workload may increase depending upon how many e-learning courses they teach (Bower, 2001). To resolve this issue, instructors will be provided with protected time to work on their course materials and curriculum (Bower, 2001).
  • The "Justify E-Learning" discussion will discuss the benefits of e-learning, the cost of e-learning, how learners will improve with the use of e-learning, the quality of e-learning, and what services are needed for e-learning. E-learning is a way that instructors, staff members, and administration can deliver information online to participants who are enrolled in online classes and live all over the world (Shoniregun & Gray, 2003). Currently institutions offer two types of courses which are in-class and online (Shoniregun & Gray, 2003). The goal of institutions is to not have there be a separation of traditional learning and online learning (Shoniregun & Gray, 2003). To make this happen, institutions need to justify their need for e-learning in their organization (Shoniregun & Gray, 2003). Institutions can benefit from e-learning if technology and materials purchased or created for this online setting are easy to maintain (Shoniregun & Gray, 2003). Institutions can purchase off-the-shelf programs that train staff members how to use the e-learning technology (Shoniregun & Gray, 2003). Having the organization use this option makes it less costly to implement e-learning in the future at the institution that building one de novo (Shoniregun & Gray, 2003). Staff members and faculty can develop online course materials in-house for their courses to keep costs down and this let’s these individuals have full control over what they create (Shoniregun & Gray, 2003). When an institution considers implementing an online program at their organization they need to decide how much it will cost to run this program in the future (Shoniregun & Gray, 2003). The institution needs to set benchmarks for how much money they are willing to put down to pay for each e-learning project (Shoniregun & Gray, 2003). The institution needs to be aware that for each technology and software they use for e-learning, each staff member and online faculty member who is involved in e-learning needs to be paid and needs to be a part of this equation (Shoniregun & Gray, 2003). Students who enroll in online courses expect support from their instructor (Govindasamy, 2001). Students anticipate having conversations with their instructor in the online environment (Govindasamy, 2001). From these conversations, students will learn from the assignment feedback that their instructor gives to them so they can improve on the next assignment (Govindasamy, 2001). Instructors will provide their students with course materials, websites, and video clips that relate to the course subject to learn from in the online environment (Govindasamy, 2001). Once students grasp this material, they can improve their learning and become a successful online learner (Govindasamy, 2001). Before an institution can implement e-learning they need to supply a quality learning management system for their online participants (Govindasamy, 2001). The more tools that are provided with the learning management system the more likely the university will choose that learning management system (Govindasamy, 2001). This means that instructors can utilize these tools to create their content for their online courses (Govindasamy, 2001). Students in the online environment want their online courses to have quality content (Govindasamy, 2001). Instructors can create content that is beneficial for students learning (Govindasamy, 2001). Students are asked by their instructor to complete assessments, communicate with their classmates, and participate in their online courses (Govindasamy, 2001). When students accomplish these tasks, they will notice they are benefiting from learning the course material because they were provided with quality learning by their instructor (Govindasamy, 2001). Students need to be provided with technical services, educational advising, and support services in the online environment (Anderson, 2008). Faculty need to be provided with technical support, online course design support, and online course training to utilize these skills in their online courses (Anderson, 2008). Thus, both faculty and students anticipate receiving this sort of help from the institution (Anderson, 2008). Students expect to get information from their online program about what textbook, supplies, and technical equipment they need for their online courses (Anderson, 2008). When they receive this information they know what to expect to utilize in their online course (Anderson, 2008). Their academic advisor will give students an overview about what to expect in their online course so they know how to prepare to succeed in their course (Anderson, 2008). Students will utilize support services such as tutoring and technical assistance to succeed in their online courses (Anderson, 2008). Students use tutoring support as a way to check their assignments for grammar, ask for extra help on their assignments, or to get clarification on subject matter (Anderson, 2008). Students will need help with their software and hardware requirements in the online realm (Anderson, 2008). Students will use these materials to access their courses and communicate with their instructor and classmates (Anderson, 2008). Technical staff should be provided by the institution to help with these needs (Anderson, 2008). Faculty will need technical assistance when they are developing their online courses (Anderson, 2008). They will need help from Information Technology staff members to assist them when building their curriculum (Anderson, 2008). These same staff members will train online faculty in the learning management system being provided by the university to become adjusted for teaching in this online environment (Anderson, 2008). Faculty will have questions about tools that are available to them in their online courses; information technology staff can help them utilize these tools to make their online courses more interactive for their students (Anderson, 2008).
  • During this panel session, administration, faculty, and staff get a chance to ask any questions they might have about e-learning. All of the presenters who were involved in this e-learning retreat will answer any questions that the participants might have. Attendees should bring use this opportunity to take notes to reference this information in the future.
  • Here are the references used in this presentation.
  • Here are the references used in this presentation.
  • Here are the references used in this presentation.
  • Here are the references used in this presentation.
  • Here are the references used in this presentation.
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  • Sowalsky jel7002 8

    1. 1. E-Learning Retreat Presentations By: Jessica Sowalsky
    2. 2. Schedule of Events 9:00 AM – 10:00 AM: Teaching is Everything with Dr. Jean Cohen (Room 207) • This presentation will discuss traditional face-to-face versus e-learning teaching methods. 10:00 AM – 11:00 AM: Tools for Communication with Dr. Carl Nehm (Room 208) • This presentation will discuss synchronous versus asynchronous technologies. 11:00 – 12:00 PM: E-Learning Culture with Dr. Brett Corbat (Room 205) • This presentation will discuss what an e-learning culture is and why this information is important for e- learning. 12:00 PM – 1:00 PM: Lunch (College of Communication Student Lounge) (Room 201) • Lunch will be a buffet of salads, sandwiches, and desserts. 1:00 PM – 2:00 PM: E-Learning Challenges with Dr. Ashley Mealey (Room 204) • This presentation will discuss what to expect for challenges in the e-learning environment. 2:00 PM – 3:00 PM: Justify E-Learning with Dr. Tim Lynch (Room 206) • This presentation will discuss the benefits of e-learning, the cost of e-learning, how learners will improve with the use of e-learning, the quality of e-learning, and what services are needed for e-learning. 3:00 PM – 4:00 PM: Question and Answer Session with Dr. Andrea Miller (Room 101) • During this session, administration, faculty, and staff get a chance to ask any questions they might have about e-learning. All of these presentations will be presented in a group discussion format.
    3. 3. Teaching is Everything with Dr. Jean Cohen O Learning O Face-to-Face Instruction O E-Learning O Role of the Instructor (Salter, 2003; Stansfield, McLellan, & Connolly, 2004; Woolfolk, 1995; Yang & Cornelious, 2005)
    4. 4. Tools for Communication with Dr. Carl Nehm O Audio Conferencing O Chat Room O Video Conferencing O Electronic Mail (E-mail) O Instant Messages (IM) (Anderson, 1999; Berge, 2000; Carr‐Chellman & Duchastel, 2000; Cohn, 2002; Collins & Berge, 1996; Dunne, 2002; Eastman & Swift, 2002; Farmer, 2003; Fetterman, 2002; Jung, Choi, Lim, & Leem, 2002; Im & Lee, 2004; Ingram, Hathron, & Evans, 2000; Kirk, 2000; Kittleson, 2002; Ng, 2001; Repman, Zinskie, & Carlson, 2005; SBC Knowledge Network Explorer, 2004; Tyson & Cooper, n.d.; Wang & Newlin, 2001; Weller, Pegler, & Mason, 2005)
    5. 5. E-Learning Culture with Dr. Brett Corbat O E-Learning Demand O Remain Competitive Among Other Institutions O Structure the Institution for Change (Davies, 1998; Hawkes & Cambre, 2000; Katz, 2001; (Lin & Conford, 2000; O’Neill, Singh, & O’Donoghue, 2004)
    6. 6. E-Learning Challenges with Dr. Ashley Mealey O Is E-Learning Effective? O Ensure Quality O Cost Effectiveness O Faculty Workload (Bower, 2001; Capper, 1990; Potashnik & Capper, 1998)
    7. 7. Justify E-Learning with Dr. Tim Lynch O Benefits of E-Learning O The Cost of E-Learning O Learners Will Improve with the Use of E-Learning O Quality of E-Learning O Services Needed for E-Learning (Anderson, 2008; Govindasamy, 2001; Shoniregun & Gray, 2003)
    8. 8. Question and Answer Session with Dr. Andrea Miller O Does anyone have any questions they would like to ask about e-learning?
    9. 9. References Anderson, K. (1999). Internet-based model of distance education. Human Resource Development International, 2, 259-272. doi: 10.1080/13678869900000026 Anderson, T. (2008). The theory and practice of online learning. Athabasca University Press. Berge, Z. L. (2000). Components of the online classroom. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2000, 23-28. doi: 10.1002/tl.843 Bower, B. L. (2001). Distance education: Facing the faculty challenge. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 4(2). Capper, J. (1990) "Review of Research on Use of Interactive Videodisc for Training." Report prepared under contract with the Institute for Defense Analysis, Alexandria, VA.
    10. 10. References Carr‐Chellman, A., & Duchastel, P. (2000). The ideal online course. British Journal of Educational Technology, 31, 229-241. doi: 10.1111/1467-8535.00154 Cohn, E. R. (2002). Instant messaging in higher education: A new faculty development challenge. In proceedings of the 2002 Teaching Online in Higher Education Online Conference. Collins, M., & Berge, Z. (1996). Facilitating interaction in computer mediated online courses. Davies, D. (1998). The virtual university: A learning university. Journal of Workplace Learning, 10(4), 175-213. Dunne, D. (2002). What is instant messaging? Eastman, J. K. & Swift, C. O. (2002). Enhancing collaborative learning: Discussion boards and chat rooms as project communication tools. Business Communication Quarterly, 65, 29-41. doi: 10.1177/108056990206500304
    11. 11. References Farmer, R. (2003). Instant messaging–collaborative tool or educator’s nightmare. In The North American Web-based Learning Conference (NAWeb 2003). Fetterman, D. M. (2002). Web surveys to digital movies: Technological tools of the trade. Educational Researcher, 31, 29-38. doi: 10.3102/0013189X031006029 Govindasamy, T. (2001). Successful implementation of e-learning: Pedagogical considerations. The Internet and Higher Education, 4(3), 287-299. Hawkes, M., & Cambre, M. (2000). The cost factor: When is interactive distance technology justifiable. THE Journal, 28(1), 26-32. Jung, I., Choi, S., Lim, C., & Leem, J. (2002). Effects of different types of interaction on learning achievement, satisfaction and participation in web-based instruction. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 39, 153-162. doi: 10.1080/14703290252934603 Katz, R. (2001). Campus champs tackle heavies. Times Higher Education Supplement.
    12. 12. References Lin, A., & Conford, T. (2000, December). Framing implementation management. In Proceedings of the twenty first international conference on Information systems (pp. 197-205). Association for Information Systems. Im, Y., & Lee, O. (2004). Pedagogical implications of online discussion for preservice teacher training. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36(2), 155-170. Ingram, A. L., Hathorn, L. G., & Evans, A. (2000). Beyond chat on the Internet. Computers and Education, 35 21-35. Kirk, R. (2000). A study of the use of a private chat room to increase reflective thinking in pre-service teachers. College Student Journal, 34(1), 115-122. Kittleson, M. J. (2002). Chat room protocol. American Journal of Health Behavior, 26, 229-230. Ng, K. C. (2001). Using e-mail to foster collaboration in distance education. Open Learning, 16, 191-200. doi: 10.1080/02680510120050343
    13. 13. References O’Neill, K., Singh, G., & O’Donoghue, J. (2004). Implementing elearning programmes for higher education: A review of the literature. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 3(1), 313-323. Potashnik, M., & Capper, J. (1998). Distance education: Growth and diversity. Finance and Development, 35, 42-45. Repman, J., Zinskie, C., & Carlson, R. D. (2005). Effective use of CMC tools in interactive online learning. Computers in the Schools, 22, 57-69.doi: 10.1300/J025v22n01_06 Salter, G. (2003). Comparing online and traditional teaching – a different approach. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 20, 137-145. doi: 10.1108/10650740310491306 SBC Knowledge Network Explorer. (2004). Videoconferencing for learning. Retrieved August 7, 2013, from Shoniregun, C. A., & Gray, S. J. (2003). Is e-learning really the future or a risk?. Ubiquity. doi: 10.1145/777947.777948 Stansfield, M., McLellan, E., & Connolly, T. (2004). Enhancing student performance in online learning and traditional face-to-face class delivery. Journal of Information Technology Education, 3, 173-188.
    14. 14. References Tyson, J. & Cooper, A. (n.d.). How instant messaging works. Retrieved August 7, 2013 from, messaging.htm Wang, A. Y., & Newlin, M. H. (2001). Online Lectures: Benefits for the Virtual Classroom. THE Journal, 29(1), 17-18. Weller, M., Pegler, C., & Mason, R. (2005). Use of innovative technologies on an e-learning course. The Internet and Higher Education, 8(1), 61-71. Woolfolk, A. (1995). Educational Psychology. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Yang, Y., & Cornelious, L. F. (2005). Preparing instructors for quality online instruction. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 8(1).