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Molecules of life <ul><li>4 main molecules of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins...
Organic Compounds Building Blocks monomer Macromolecule polymer monosaccharide or simple sugar Polysaccharides or carbohyd...
carbohydrates <ul><li>Most abundant  organic  compound </li></ul><ul><li>Contains oxygen, hydrogen &  carbon </li></ul><ul...
3 basic types of carbohydrates <ul><li>Monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple sugars  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
Proteins <ul><li>Made of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxyg...
Lipids <ul><li>Large molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Nonpolar organic molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul>...
 
Lipids <ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unbranched carbon chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrophilic end & hyd...
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Complex macromolecule that stores information in cells heredity  </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids are...
Nucleotides consist of <ul><li>Phosphate groups </li></ul><ul><li>Pentose sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous bases </li><...
 
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Macromolecules

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Transcript of "Macromolecules"

  1. 1. Molecules of life <ul><li>4 main molecules of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Organic Compounds Building Blocks monomer Macromolecule polymer monosaccharide or simple sugar Polysaccharides or carbohydrate Fatty acids Fats and Lipids Amino Acids Proteins Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
  3. 3. carbohydrates <ul><li>Most abundant organic compound </li></ul><ul><li>Contains oxygen, hydrogen & carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1:2:1 ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both quick and storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support & structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants- cellulose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insects-chitin- exoskeleton </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 3 basic types of carbohydrates <ul><li>Monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 or 6 carbons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples- glucose & fructose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two sugars joined together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fructose + glucose= sucrose (table sugar) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many simple sugars joined together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starch- energy storage plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen- energy storage animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose- structural support plants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Proteins <ul><li>Made of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2 amino acids contain sulfur) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formed by chains of amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 different amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organic Compound </li></ul><ul><li>Essential to all life </li></ul><ul><li>Important uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Lipids <ul><li>Large molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Nonpolar organic molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good insulators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>energy storage (tightly compact) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oils and waxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steroids and hormones </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Lipids <ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unbranched carbon chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrophilic end & hydrophobic end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water loving </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non polar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water fearing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Complex macromolecule that stores information in cells heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids are polymers made of smaller subunits called nucleotides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA and DNA </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Nucleotides consist of <ul><li>Phosphate groups </li></ul><ul><li>Pentose sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous bases </li></ul>
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