Present Perfect: Use 3When do we use the present perfect?Actions that were repeated in past & could repeatagain.Ex: I have sent him three emails so far today. Am Iannoying?Ex: He has eaten at that restaurant many times.
Present PerfectWhich time words are used?Since (with a starting point in the past)Since last week; Since I was sixteen.For (with a length of time)For two days. For a long time.
Present PerfectWhich adverbs are frequently used?Ever (Only for questions or negative statements)NeverAlreadyYet (Only for questions; negative statements)
Present PerfectUse Ever/Never for experienceEver (Only for questions or negative statements)Have you ever met a celebrity? No, I have notever met a celebrity.NeverI have never met a celebrity. What is somethingyou’ve never done?
Present PerfectUse Yet/Already for complete/incompleteYet (Only for questions or negative statements)Have you finished your dinner yet? No, I am notdone yet.Already (Positive statements or surprisedquestion)I’ve already read that book. Wow! Have youalready finished 400 pages?
Present PerfectProgressiveWhen do we use the present perfectprogressive?Actions that started in past and are in progress nowEx 1: I have been driving since I was sixteen.Ex 2: He has been sleeping for twenty hours! Is heill?
PP or PPP?Habitual or long term activities thatcontinue now use either PP or PPP.Ex 1: I have been driving since I was sixteen.Ex 2: I have driven since I was sixteen.
PP or PPP?An activity that is still in progressuses the present perfect progressivewith duration words.Ex: He has been sleeping for twenty hours!
Past PerfectWhen do we use the past perfect?To contrast two events or activities in the past.To make the order of different past events moreclear.
Past PerfectWhat time words are used with thepast perfect?
Past PerfectWhat time words are used with thepast perfect?BeforeAfterByBy the time
Past PerfectWhat time words are used with thepast perfect?Before + simple past clause, past perfect clauseAfter + past perfect clause, simple past clauseBy + year or time phraseBy the time + simple past clause, past perfect clause
Past PerfectBefore and after can used witheither simple past or past perfect.Ex: I hadn’t done the homework yet before I wentto class.Ex: I didn’t do my homework before I went toclass.Ex: After I had seen the movie, I wrote asummary.Ex: After I saw the movie, I wrote a summary.
Past PerfectWe ALWAYS use the past perfectwith by and by the time.By 1890, the University of Denver had alreadyopened.I had already finished my work by the time hearrived.