The History of Portugal,Portuguese Empire, and Colonial Brazil.
History of Portugal After the 16th century 1400-1800 the Dutch, English, and French took more of the share of spice and slave trades causing Portugal to loose status. The death of King Sebastian in 1578 and the dynastic crisis, followed by a period where Portugal The 15th-16th centauries marked (despite being Portugals accent to world power. autonomous) wasPortugal had built up possessions in under Spanish South America, Africa, Asia, and rule, also contributed Australia. heavily to its decline.
History of Portugal 1400-1800 Key Events• 1400-1578 Discovery of Eastern route to India. Discovery of Brazil.• 1578-1777 Period of transition. Empire went from its height to its decline. Tavora affair. 1755 Lisbon Earthquake. • 1777-1800 Queen Maria I reorganized economy but became mentally ill. Son Infante John of Braganaza began using title of Prince Regent in 1799.
Portuguese Empire • 1st Global empire in history. • Longest lived of modern European colonial empires.Age of Discovery 1415-1542• Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa in 1419.• In 1488 Bartolommeo Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope.• In 1498 Vasco da Gama reached India.• In 1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral discovered Brazil. From 1580-1640 Portugal was a junior partner to Spain in the union of the two crowns.
Portuguese EmpireImperial Decline 1663-1822• Attacks by Netherlands, Britain, France, and Portugals inability to defend overstretched trade network led to Empires decline.• Loss of colonies led to the end of personal union with Spain.
Colonial BrazilIn 1494 the Tordesillas Meridian wascreated. This was significant becauseit determined that part of South Americawould be settled by Portugal instead ofSpain.Colonization• 13 of the 15 original hereditary captaincies failed.• 1549-1553 Tome de Sousa, the first governor of Brazil, set up central government. He brought with him the Jesuits to convert the aborigines to Catholicism.• 1553-1557 Duarte da Costa faced many conflicts with the aborigines.• 1557-1573 Mem de Sa defeated aborigines and expelled French Calvinists. Brazil was divided into two states.• 1750 Treaty of Madrid shaped the modern day coastline.• In 1755 Brazilian Estados were unified into the Viceroyalty of Brazil.