What’s Your Question? AP US History Review Session #2 1915-1980
101. How exactly does Communism work? It doesn’t. Seriously, the ideal below has never existed: Communism is a sociopolitical movement that aims for a classless and stateless society structured upon common ownership of the means of production, free access to articles of consumption, and the end of wage labor and private property in the means of production and real estate I went to China, it is not the above!
102. Why did the U.S. become so fervently anti-Russian? This occurred for a variety of reasons: First Red Scare Second Red Scare-McCarthyism Xenophobia Competition for world power
First Red Scare 1919-1920 marked by a widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism effects of radical political agitation in American society especially in the American labor movement It had its origins in the hyper-nationalism of World War I.
First Red Scare following the Bolshevik revolution in Russia, American authorities saw the threat of revolution in the actions of organized labor including such disparate cases as the Seattle General Strike and the Boston Police Strike and then in the bomb campaign directed by anarchist groups at political and business leaders.
First Red Scare 1919-1920 Fueled by: labor unrest anarchist bombings spurred on by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer's attempt to suppress radical organizations characterized by exaggerated rhetoric, illegal search and seizures, unwarranted arrests and detentions, and the deportation of several hundred suspected radicals and anarchists.
First Red Scare-why? Bolshevism threat of revolution became the general explanation f BUT MOSTLY challenges to the social order even such unrelated events as incidents of interracial violence were used Fear of radicalism was used to excuse such simple expressions of free speech as the display of certain flags and banners. ended in the middle of 1920, after Attorney General Palmer forecast a massive radical uprising on May Day and the day passed without incident.
OvermanCommitte The Committee's hearings into Bolshevik propaganda, conducted from February 11 to March 10, 1919, developed an alarming image of Bolshevism as an imminent threat to the U.S. government and American values. The Committee's final report appeared in June 1919.
Overman Committee Findings Archibald E. Stevenson, a New York attorney with ties to the Justice Department, probably as a "volunteer spy",testified on January 22, 1919, during the German phase of the subcommittee's work. He established that anti-war and anti-draft activism during World War I, which he described as pro-German activity, had now transformed itself into propaganda "developing sympathy for the Bolshevik movement. America's wartime enemy, though defeated, had exported an ideology that now ruled Russia and threatened America anew. "The Bolshevik movement is a branch of the revolutionary socialism of Germany. It had its origin in the philosophy of Marx and its leaders were Germans."
Sensationalism surrounding the Overman Findings The press reveled in the investigation and the final report, referring to the Russians as "assassins and madmen," "human scum," "crime mad," and "beasts."
2ND RED SCARE“McCarthyism” China falls to Communism Russia has A-Bomb Sensational news stories of spies (Alger Hiss & Julius, Ethel Rosenberg) Fall from power when accuses Army of infiltration
103. If the people were so upset with the Harding administration, how did Calvin Coolidge get elected so easily?
Why were people upset with Harding? General info: “return to normalcy”
Harding, cont’d largest presidential popular vote landslide in American history (60.36% to 34.19%) since first recorded in 1824. VP is Calvin Coolidge
Harding Departed from the Progressive Movement which had dominated Congress since Teddy Roosevelt Rewarded his friends, the “Ohio Gang” with powerful positions
Harding- Foreign Affairs Wasn’t part of League of Nations- signed a separate peace treaty to end WWI w/ Germany & Austria Promoted Naval disarmament at Washington Naval Conference of 1921-22 Urged U.S. to join proposed international court
Scandals Teapot Dome- (unknown until after his death) Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall leased Navy petroleum reserves at Teapot Dome and two other locations to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding.
Scandals Teapot Dome-Before the Watergate scandal, Teapot Dome was regarded as the "greatest and most sensational scandal in the history of American politics". The scandal also was a key factor in posthumously destroying the public reputation of Harding, who was extremely popular at the time of his death in office in 1923.
Scandals Justice Dept.- VERY CORRUPT Bootlegging, narcotics, bribes for pardons, etc. Jess Smith- an aide to the Atty General committed suicide b/c of corruption investigations Historian M. R. Werner referred to the Justice Department under Harding and Daugherty as "the den of a ward politician and the White House a night club."
1924 election Republican- Coolidge Democratic-doesn’t matter Progressive-La Follette Calvin Jr.-blister then death, so very subdued campaign. Also b/c C.C. so nonconfrontational
1924 Election despite the split in the Republican party, very similar to those of 1920. Coolidge and Dawes won every state outside the South except for Wisconsin, La Follette's home state. Coolidge had a popular vote majority of 2.5 million over his opponents' combined total.
Coolidge administration Roaring 20s Sec. of Commerce- Hoover Hated gov’t regulation Lassiez faire economics Biggest issue was helping farmers- "Farmers never have made much money," said Coolidge, the Vermont farmer's son, "I do not believe we can do much about it."
Coolidge Foreign Affairs- Didn’t think L. of Nations supported U.S. interests Kellogg-Briand Pact- most well known initiative "renounce war, as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another."
Robert La Follette member of the U.S. House of Representatives, Gov. of Wisconsin, U.S. Senator from Wisconsin (1906 to 1925). He ran for President of the United States as the nominee of his own Progressive Party in 1924, carrying Wisconsin and 17% of the national popular vote.
“Fighting Bob” proponent of progressivism vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations. In 1957, a Senate Committee selected La Follette as one of the five greatest U.S. Senators, along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, and Robert Taft. A 1982 survey asking historians to rank the "ten greatest Senators in the nation's history" based on "accomplishments in office" and "long range impact on American history," placed La Follette first, tied with Henry Clay.
How was economic reform through gov’t beneficial? A central feature of the U.S. economy is the economic freedom afforded to the private sector by allowing the private sector to make the majority of economic decisions in determining the direction and scale of what the U.S. economy produces. This is enhanced by relatively low levels of regulation and government involvement,aswell as a court system that generally protects property rights and enforces contracts.
Tariffs have played different roles in trade policy and the nation's economic history. Tariffs were the largest source of federal revenue from the 1790s to the eve of World War I, until it was surpassed by income taxes.
History of Tariffs A tariff is a tax levied on imports or exports. The word is derived from the Arabic word taʿrīf, meaning 'fees to be paid. Tariffs are usually associated with protectionism, a government's policy of controlling trade between nations to support the interests of its own citizens. For economic reasons, tariffs are usually imposed on imported goods. . When shipments of goods arrive at a border crossing or port, customs officers inspect the contents and charge a tax according to the tariff formula. Since the goods cannot continue on their way until the duty is paid, it is the easiest duty to collect, and the cost of collection is small. Traders seeking to evade tariffs are known as smugglers.
187. Why was there such a controversy over Wilson’s proposal of a League of Nations? In short, b/c it required the U.S. to not have complete control over itself. Membership would require that the U.S. take action according to the League’s decisions
League of Nations Despite Wilson's efforts to establish and promote the League, (Nobel Peace Prize)1919 United States did not join the League b/c of opposition in the U.S. Senate, (Henry Cabot Lodge and William E. Bora) also b/c Wilson's refusal to compromise
Treaty of Versailles The Republican Party, led by Henry Cabot Lodge controlled the United States Senate after the election of 1918, but the Senators were divided into multiple positions on the Versailles question. Never passed it- a different act was passed under Harding
Henry Cabot Lodge Was the conservative faction of the Republican Party. staunch supporter of the gold standard, vehemently opposing the Populists and the silverites, who were led by the left-wing Democrat William Jennings Bryan.
Lodge Imperialist- wanted to annex Phillippines Wanted U.S. to enter WWI Wilson’s 14 criticized as weak Hated Wilson and wanted to find an issue the Republicans could win with in 1920
League of Nations dispute key objection: Article X provision of the League of Nations charter that required all signatory nations to make efforts to repel aggression of any kind. Lodge perceived an open-ended commitment to deploy soldiers into conflict regardless of it being relevant to the national security interests of the United States.
Lodge Lodge appealed to the patriotism of American citizens by objecting to what he saw as the weakening of national sovereignty: "I have loved but one flag and I can not share that devotion and give affection to the mongrel banner invented for a league."
Causes of Cold War There were deep-rooted ideological, economic and political differences between the United States and the Soviet Union before the Second World War. These differences were intensified as a result of their mutual suspicions immediately after the Second World War.
Causes of the Cold War-UNDERLYING 1. Ideaological- two opposing forms of gov’t- Republic/free elections vs. Communist/fixed elections Little common ground for compromise
Causes of the Cold War 2. Economic-The United States wanted to encourage free trade throughout the world. The Soviet Union wanted to shield off her own sphere from international commerce.
Causes of the Cold War 3. Power Rivalry- After the Second World War, with the decline of Europe, power was largely shared between the Soviet Union and the United States. As one wanted 'to dominate the other, conflicts were inevitable.
Causes of the Cold War-immediate events Extension of Russian influence in Europe- -gradually influenced in Europe, obtained new boundary line with Poland and E. Germany. Close of war began consolidating power & controlling elections.
Causes of the Cold War-immediate events Extension of Russian influence in Europe- CONT’D -Although the non-communists could still gain some votes, most of the votes went to the communists so coalition govt’sformed immediately after the war were largely dominated by the communists. Two of the key ministries - Defense and Military (Police) - were always under communist control.
Causes of the Cold War-immediate events Extension of Russian influence in Europe- CONT’D -Stalin was not satisfied with communist control of eastern Europe. -In the meantime, he encouraged the communists to take an active part in the immediate post-war elections in western Europe. -In late 1946, the French and Italian Communists were becoming the most powerful parties in France and Italy.
Causes of the Cold War-immediate events 2. The reactions of the U.S. 3. Poor relations between the U.S. and Soviet Union http://www.funfront.net/hist/europe/coldwar.htm#CAUSES%20OF%20THE%20COLD%20WAR Go here for more specific
Sedition Act of 1918 The Sedition Act of 1918 –Wilson-It forbade the use of "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the United States government, its flag, or its armed forces or that caused others to view the American government or its institutions with contempt.
Sedition Act of 1918 Though the legislation enacted in 1918 is commonly called the Sedition Act, it was actually a set of amendments to the Espionage Act
Esipnoge Act of 1917 It originally prohibited any attempt to interfere with military operations, to support U.S. enemies during wartime, to promote insubordination in the military, or to interfere with military recruitment..
Espionage Act of 1917 In 1919, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled in Schenck v. United States that the act did not violate the freedom of speech of those convicted under its provisions. “fire in a crowded theatre” The constitutionality of the law, its relationship to free speech, and the meaning of the law's language have been contested in court ever since
Alien & Sedition Acts The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists in the 5th United States Congress during an undeclared naval war with France, later known as the Quasi-War. They were signed into law by President John Adams. Proponents claimed the acts were designed to protect the United States from enemy aliens, and to prevent seditious attacks from weakening the government.
sedition any action, especially in speech or writing, promoting such discontent or rebellion. incitement of discontent or rebellion against a government.
14 Points The Fourteen Points was a speech delivered by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. The speech was delivered 10 months before the Armistice with Germany and became the basis for the terms of the German surrender, as negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The Treaty of Versailles had little to do with the Fourteen Points and was never ratified by the U.S. Senate.
14 Points Summary There should be an end to all secret diplomacy amongst countries. Freedom of the seas in peace and war The reduction of trade barriers among nations The general reduction of armaments The adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of the inhabitants as well as of the colonial powers The evacuation of Russian territory and a welcome for its government to the society of nations The restoration of Belgian territories in Germany The evacuation of all French territory, including Alsace-Lorraine The readjustment of Italian boundaries along clearly recognizable lines of nationality Independence for various national groups in Austria-Hungary The restoration of the Balkan nations and free access to the sea for Serbia Protection for minorities in Turkey and the free passage of the ships of all nations through the Dardanelles Independence for Poland, including access to the sea A league of nations to protect "mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small nations alike."
14 Points The Fourteen Points in the speech were based on the research of the Inquiry, a team of about 150 advisors led by foreign-policy advisor Edward M. House into the topics likely to arise in the anticipated peace conference. Wilson's speech on January 8, 1918, took many of the principles of progressivism that had produced domestic reform in the U.S. and translated them into foreign policy (free trade, open agreements, democracy and self-determination). The Fourteen Points speech was the only explicit statement of war aims by any of the nations fighting in World War I.
Who were the main presidents and what were their economic policies that aided the advent of the Industrial Revolution? 1812 Lowell Factory- Maidson, Monroe 1850-60 Bessemer Steel**Buchanan, Lincoln, Johnson, Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Then chemical industries, petro refining & dist,.electrical industries & (in 20th) automobiles
What were the restrictions placed upon the Germans Legal restrictions- Occupation of the Rhineland- Military restrictions- Territorial changes- Shandong problem- Reparations-
What were the restrictions placed upon the Germans Legal restrictions- Article 227 charges former German Emperor, Wilhelm II with supreme offense against international morality. He is to be tried as a war criminal. Articles 228–230 tried many other Germans as war criminals. Article 231 (the "War Guilt Clause") lays sole responsibility for the war on Germany and her allies, which is to be accountable for all damage to civilian populations of the Allies.
What were the restrictions placed upon the Germans Occupation of the Rhineland As a guarantee of compliance by Germany, Part XIV of the Treaty provided that the Rhineland would be occupied by Allied troops for a period of fifteen years.
What were the restrictions placed upon the Germans Military restrictions Part V of the treaty begins with the preamble, "In order to render possible the initiation of a general limitation of the armaments of all nations, Germany undertakes strictly to observe the military, naval and air clauses which follow." German armed forces will number no more than 100,000 troops, and conscription will be abolished. Enlisted men will be retained for at least 12 years; officers to be retained for at least 25 years. German naval forces will be limited to 15,000 men, 6 battleships (no more than 10,000 tons displacement each), 6 cruisers (no more than 6,000 tons displacement each), 12 destroyers (no more than 800 tons displacement each) and 12 torpedo boats (no more than 200 tons displacement each). No submarines are to be included. The import and export of weapons is prohibited. Poison gas, armed aircraft, tanks and armoured cars are prohibited. Blockades on ships are prohibited. Restrictions on the manufacture of machine guns (e.g. the Maxim machine gun) and rifles (e.g. Gewehr 98 rifles).
What were the restrictions placed upon the Germans Territorial changes Changed borders which resulted in loss of land
What were the restrictions placed upon the Germans Territorial changes Changed borders which resulted in loss of land Shandong problem Article 156 of the treaty transferred German concessions in Shandong, China, to Japan rather than returning sovereign authority to China. Chinese outrage over this provision led to demonstrations and a cultural movement known as the May Fourth Movement and influenced China not to sign the treaty. China declared the end of its war against Germany in September 1919 and signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921.
What were the restrictions placed upon the Germans Reparations Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles assigned blame for the war to Germany; much of the rest of the Treaty set out the reparations that Germany would pay to the Allies. (*war-guilt clauses) The total sum of war reparations demanded from Germany—around 226 billion Reichsmarks—was decided by an Inter-Allied Reparations Commission. In 1921, it was reduced to 132 billion Reichsmarks at that time then $31.4 billion (US$ 442 billion in 2011), or £6.6 billion (UK£ 217 billion in 2011).