Benjamin West painting titled "American Commissioners of the Preliminary Peace Agreement with Great Britain" also sometimes referred to as "Treaty of Paris" (unfinished painting -- from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. The British commissioners refused to pose, and the picture was never finished.
What’s your question? AP US History Exam Review 1790-1914
1. What is speculation? In finance, speculation is a financial action that does not promise safety of the initial investment along with the return on the principal sum. Speculation typically involves the lending of money or the purchase of assets, equity or debt but in a manner that has not been given thorough analysis or is deemed to have low margin of safety or a significant risk of the loss of the principal investment. The term, "speculation," which is formally defined as above in Graham and Dodd's 1934 text, Security Analysis, contrasts with the term "investment," which is a financial operation that, upon thorough analysis, promises safety of principal and a satisfactory return.
1. What is speculation? Speculation can also cause prices to deviate from their intrinsic value if speculators trade on misinformation, or if they are just plain wrong. This creates a positive feedback loop in which prices rise dramatically above the underlying value or worth of the items. This is known as an economic bubble. Such a period of increasing speculative purchasing is typically followed by one of speculative selling in which the price falls significantly, in extreme cases this may lead to crashes.
2. How did almost all of Europe manage to get tangled up in WWI?(where did all the alliances/treaties come from?) M.A.I.N. BUT REALLY N.I.M.A Triple Alliance (1882) Then Anglo-Russian Entente (1907) then Triple Alliance (decline of Ottoman Empire, tension between empires of Russia and Austria-Hungary)
3. Discuss the Geneva convention and the points that were presented. The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties and three additional protocols that set the standards in international law for humanitarian treatment of the victims of war. The singular term Geneva Convention refers to the agreements of 1949, negotiated in the aftermath of World War II, updating the terms of the first three treaties and adding a fourth treaty.
Geneva Convention 1. In 1862, Henry Dunant published his book, Memoir of Solferino, on the horrors of war. His wartime experiences inspired Dunant to propose: a permanent relief agency for humanitarian aid in times of war, (RED CROSS a government treaty recognizing the neutrality of the agency and allowing it to provide aid in a war zone.(GENEVA CONVENTION)
1ST CONVENTION-1864 1ST-The ten articles of this first treaty were initially adopted on August 22, 1864 by twelve nations. Clara Barton was instrumental in campaigning for the ratification of the First Geneva Convention by the United States, which eventually ratified it in 1882
2ND CONVENTION-1906 The second treaty was first adopted in the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies at Sea, concluded on July 6, 1906 and specifically addressed members of the Armed Forces at sea.
3RD CONVENTION- The third treaty was first adopted in the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, concluded on July 27, 1929 and entered into effect on June 19, 1931.[
4TH CONVENTION-1949 The fourth treaty was inspired by the war criminals of the Nuremberg Trials and first adopted in 1949. It reaffirmed the prior three treaties and added many new terms, including the protection of civilians during wartime.
4TH CONVENTION-1949 The Geneva Conventions comprise rules that apply in times of armed conflict and seek to protect people who are not or are no longer taking part in hostilities, for example: wounded or sick fighters prisoners of war civilians medical and religious personnel
Geneva Convention Application The Geneva Conventions apply at times of war and armed conflict to governments who have ratified its terms. The details of applicability are spelled out in Common Articles 2 and 3. The topic of applicability has generated some controversy. When the Geneva Conventions apply, governments must surrender a certain degree of their national sovereignty to comply with international law. These laws may not be entirely harmonious with their national constitution or their cultural values. Despite the advantages offered by the Conventions to individuals, political pressures may cause the governments to be reluctant in accepting its responsibilities.
More Geneva Convention IN 1977 & 2005 other parts were added b/c war has changed so much in regard to technology of weapons
4. What were the Sons of Liberty striving to accomplish? The Sons of Liberty was a political group made up of American patriots that originated in the pre-independence North American British colonies. The group was formed to protect the rights of the colonists from the usurpations by the British government after 1766. They are best known for undertaking the Boston Tea Party in 1773, which led to the Intolerable Acts (an intense crackdown by the British government), and a counter-mobilization by the Patriots that led directly to the American Revolution in 1775.
5. What did the Treaty of Paris do for the U.S. and how did it affect the U.S. later? Also known as “Peace of Paris”. Officially ended the Revolutionary War with Great Britain and U.S. Signed by Ben Franklin, John Adams 8 John Jay (for U.S.) See next slide for “Who was John Jay?”
John Jay politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, a Founding Father of the United States, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–95). Jay served as the President of the Continental Congress from 1778 to 1779. During and after the American Revolution, Jay was a minister (ambassador) to Spain and France, helping to fashion United States foreign policy, and to secure favorable peace terms from Great Britain (with Jay's Treaty of 1794) and the First French Republic. Jay also co-wrote the Federalist Papers, along with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. As a leader of the new Federalist Party, Jay was the Governor of New York State from 1795 to 1801, and he became the state's leading opponent of slavery.
Jay suspected that France would try to keep the U.S. cooped up east of the Alleghenies and keep America weak. Instead, Jay, thinking that France would betray American ambition to satisfy those of Spain, secretly made separate overtures to London (against instructions from Congress) and came to terms quickly with the British, who were eager to entice one of their enemies from the alliance.
The Treaty of Paris of 1783 Britain formally recognized U.S. independence and granted generous boundaries, stretching majestically to the Mississippi River to the west, the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the South. The Yankees also retained a share in the priceless fisheries of Newfoundland. Americans couldn’t persecute Loyalists, though, and Congress could only recommend legislature that would return or pay for confiscated Loyalist land.
U.S. after Treaty of Paris Go to the hyperlink below to see many interactive maps of U.S. history http://www.learner.org/interactives/historymap/states_paris.html
6. What sparked the French/British Dispute that eventually led to war of 1812? The War of 181: fought between U.S. & Great Britain. WHY? desire for expansion into the Northwest Territory trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, humiliation of American honour.
War of 1812- fought in 3 theatres 1. At sea, warships and privateers of both sides attacked each other's merchant ships. The British blockaded the Atlantic coast of the U.S. and mounted large-scale raids in the later stages of the war.
3 Theatres of War of 1812 2. both land and naval battles were fought on the “frontier”, which ran along the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River.
3 Theatres of War of 1812 3. The South and the Gulf coast saw major land battles in which the American forces destroyed Britain's Indian allies and defeated the main British invasion force at New Orleans.
War of 1812, CONT’D Battle of New Orleans and the earlier successful defense of Baltimore (which inspired the lyrics of the U.S. national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner") produced a sense of euphoria over a "second war of independence" against Britain. It ushered in an "Era of Good Feelings" in which the partisan animosity that had once verged on treason practically vanished. Canada also emerged from the war with a heightened sense of national feeling and solidarity. Britain regarded the war as a sideshow to the Napoleonic Wars raging in Europe; it welcomed an era of peaceful relations and trade with the United States.
Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America & Great Britain The treaty largely restored relations between the two nations to status quo ante bellum. Because of the era's slow communications, it took weeks for news of the peace treaty to reach the United States, and the Battle of New Orleans was fought after it was signed. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qxB42cjHTGg GO TO THIS LINK TO LISTEN TO “BATTLE OF NEWORLEANS” SONG***
Cause of French/British dispute(relative to War of 1812) The Napoleonic Wars were a series of conflicts declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. The Napoleonic Wars ended following Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June 1815 and the Second Treaty of Paris.
Causes of French/British dispute, cont’d As a direct result of the Napoleonic wars, the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century, thus beginning Pax Britannica.
Cont’d Pax Britannica was the period of relative peace in Europe (1815–1914) when the British Empire controlled most of the key maritime trade routes and enjoyed unchallenged sea power. It refers to a period of British imperialism after the 1815 Battle of Waterloo, which led to a period of overseas British expansionism. Britain dominated overseas markets and managed to dominate Chinese markets after the Opium Wars.
7. Explain the Monroe Doctrine & how it evolved throughout progressive administrations. December 2, 1823 It stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention (however, the wording referred to the entire Western Hemisphere, which actually includes much of Europe and Africa).
Monroe Doctrine, cont’d when it was issuedLatin American countries were on the verge of becoming independent from the Spanish Empire. The United States, reflecting concerns raised by Great Britain, ultimately hoped to avoid having any European power take over Spain's colonies.
Monroe Doctrine Reaction by L.A. countries was positive, but Virtually worthless (compared to might of Triple Alliance) Great Britain was the POWERHOUSE, maintained M.D. b/c used S. American markets
Monroe Doctrine I1836, U. S. objected to Britain's alliance with the newly created Republic of Texas on the principle of the Monroe Doctrine. December 2, 1845, U.S. President James Polk announced to Congress that the principle of the Monroe Doctrine should be strictly enforced and that the United States should aggressively expand into the West, often termed as Manifest Destiny. In 1842, U.S. President John Tyler applied the Monroe Doctrine to Hawaii, told Britain not to interfere there, and began the process of annexing Hawaii to the United States. In 1852, some politicians used the principle of the Monroe Doctrine to argue for forcefully removing the Spanish from Cuba. In 1898, following the Spanish-American War, the United States obtained Puerto Rico and the Philippines from Spain and began an occupation of Cuba that lasted until 1902.
Monroe Doctrine, cont’d The doctrine's authors (John Quincy Adams) saw it as a proclamation by the United States of moral opposition to colonialism, but it has subsequently been re-interpreted and applied in a variety of instances. President Theodore Roosevelt asserted the right of the United States to intervene to stabilize the economic affairs of small nations in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts. This interpretation, intended to forestall intervention by European powers that had lent money to those countries, has been termed the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine, cont’d In 1863, French forces under Napoleon III invaded and conquered Mexico, giving the country to Austrian-born Emperor Maximilian. Americans proclaimed this as a violation of "The Doctrine," but were unable to intervene because of the American Civil War. After the civil war came to an end, the U.S. brought troops down to the Rio Grande in hopes of pressuring the French government to end its occupation. (Mexican nationalists eventually captured the Emperor and executed him, reasserting Mexico's independence.)
Monroe Doctrine, cont’d Venezuela Crisis of 1895- Venezuela sought to involve the US in a territorial dispute with Britain over GuayanaEsequiba, and hired former US ambassador William L. Scruggs to argue that British behaviour over the issue violated the Monroe Doctrine. President Grover Cleveland through his Secretary of State, Richard Olney cited the Doctrine in 1895, threatening strong action against the United Kingdom if the British failed to arbitrate their dispute with Venezuela.
Monroe Doctrine, cont’d British Prime Minister took strong exception to the American language. The United States objected to a British proposal for a joint meeting to clarify the scope of the Monroe Doctrine. Some saythat by failing to pursue the issue further the British “tacitly conceded the U. S. definition of the Monroe Doctrine and its hegemony in the hemisphere.
Monroe Doctrine, cont’d "Big Brother“Policy The "Big Brother" policy was an extension of the Monroe Doctrine formulated by James G. Blaine in the 1880s that aimed to rally Latin American nations behind US leadership and to open their markets to US traders
Monroe Doctrine, cont’d In 1928, the Clark Memorandum was released, concluding that the United States need not invoke the Monroe Doctrine as a defense of its interventions in Latin America. The Memorandum argued that the United States had a self-evident right of self-defense, and that this was all that was needed to justify certain actions. The policy was announced to the public in 1930.
Monroe Doctrine, cont’d In 1954, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles invoked the Monroe Doctrine at the Tenth Pan-American Conference, denouncing the intervention of Soviet Communism in Guatemala
Monroe Doctrine during the Cold War The Cold War Monroe Doctrine was applied to Latin America by the framers of U.S. foreign policy. When the Cuban Revolution established a socialist government with ties to the Soviet Union, after trying to establish fruitful relations with the U.S., it was argued that the spirit of the Monroe Doctrine should be again invoked, this time to prevent the further spreading of Soviet-backed Communism in Latin America. During the Cold War, the United States thus often provided intelligence and military aid to Latin and South American governments that claimed or appeared to be threatened by Communist subversion.
Monroe Doctrine, cont’d This, in turn, led to some domestic controversy within the United States, especially among some members of the left who argued that the Communist threat and Soviet influence in Latin America was greatly exaggerated
Monroe Doctrine, cont’d In the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, President John F. Kennedy cited the Monroe Doctrine as a basis for America's "eyeball-to-eyeball" confrontation with the Soviet Union that had embarked on a provocative campaign to install ballistic missiles on Cuban soil.
Monroe Doctrine, cont’d 1980s, as part of the Iran-Contra affair. Became known that CIA had been covertly training "Contra" guerrilla soldiers in Honduras in an attempt to destabilize and overthrow the Sandinista revolutionary government of Nicaragua and its President, Daniel Ortega., CIA Director argued that avoiding U.S. intervention in Nicaragua would be "totally to abandon the Monroe doctrine". In a case brought before the International Court of Justice by Nicaragua, however, the court ruled that the United States had exercised "unlawful use of force." (The U.S. ignored the verdict.)
Way too much Monroe Doctrine The Carter and Reagan administrations embroiled themselves in the Salvadoran Civil War, again citing the Monroe Doctrine as justification. The conflict was marked by large scale human rights abuses and the 1980 assassination of Archbishop Óscar Romero by right-wing death squads. The Monroe Doctrine was also cited during the U.S. intervention in Guatemala and the invasion of Grenada. Critics of the Reagan administration's support for Britain in the Falklands War charge that the U.S. ignored the Monroe Doctrine in that instance.
9. What was the Crittenden Plan? Just know: an unsuccessful proposal to resolve the U.S. secession crisis of 1860–1861 by addressing the concerns that led the states in the Deep South of the United States to contemplate secession from the United States
Crittenden Plan Both the House of Representatives and the Senate rejected it in 1861. It was widely perceived as making heavy concessions to the South, but perhaps the most significant aspect of it was Abraham Lincoln's immediate rejection, because he was elected on a platform that opposed the expansion of slavery. The South's reaction to his rejection paved the way for the American Civil War.
Crittenden Plan Features: permanent existence of slavery in the slave states; gave in to demands about fugitive slaves and slavery in D. C. But the heart of the compromise was the permanent reestablishment of the Missouri Compromise line: slavery would be prohibited north of the 36° 30′ parallel and guaranteed south of it. The compromise, furthermore, included a clause that it could not be repealed or amended.
10. Lincoln Douglas Debates between Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for Senate in Illinois, and the incumbent Senator Stephen Douglas, the Democratic Party candidate. At the time, U.S. senators were elected by state legislatures; thus Lincoln and Douglas were trying for their respective parties to win control of the Illinois legislature. The debates previewed the issues that Lincoln would face in the aftermath of his victory in the 1860 presidential election. The main issue discussed in all seven debates was slavery.
Lincoln Douglas Debates, cont’d After losing the election for Senator in Illinois, Lincoln edited the texts of all the debates and had them published in a book The widespread coverage of the original debates and the subsequent popularity of the book led eventually to Lincoln's nomination for President of the United States by the 1860 Republican National Convention in Chicago.
11. Kansas-Nebraska Act 1. created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries. The initial purpose of the Kansas–Nebraska Act was to create opportunities for a Mideastern Transcontinental Railroad. It became problematic when popular sovereignty was written into the proposal. (The act was designed by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois.)
Kansas-Nebraska Act The act established that settlers could vote to decide whether to allow slavery, in the name of popular sovereignty or rule of the people. (Douglas hoped that would ease relations between the North and the South, because the South could expand slavery to new territories but the North still had the right to abolish slavery in its states.) Instead, opponents denounced the law as a concession to the slave power of the South. The new Republican Party, which was created in opposition to the act, aimed to stop the expansion of slavery and soon emerged as the dominant force throughout the North.
Kansas-Nebraska Act Results divided the nation and pointed it toward civil war. nullified the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the Compromise of 1850. split both the Democratic and Whig parties and gave rise to the Republican Party, which split the United States into two major political camps, North (Republican) and South (Democratic).
Bleeding Kansas Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas or the Border War- a series of violent events, involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri roughly between 1854 and 1858. Would Kansas would enter the Union as a free state or slave state????? proxy war between Northerners and Southerners over the issue of slavery in the United States. the events it encompasses directly presaged the American Civil War.
What is the evolution of political parties?REPUBLICANS Founded in northern states in 1854 by anti-slavery activists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party quickly became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party.
REPUBLICANS The Republicans' initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest. 1856 slogan "free labor, free land, free men.“ Realignment of parties w/ 3rd Party System
1ST Party System 1792-1824 It featured two national parties competing for control of the presidency, Congress, and the states: the Federalist Party was created by Alexander Hamilton and was dominant to 1800. The rival Republican Party (Democratic-Republican Party) was created by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, and was dominant after 1800.
2nd Party System 1828-1854 rapidly rising levels of voter interest beginning in 1828, as demonstrated by election day turnout, rallies, partisan newspapers, and a high degree of personal loyalty to party.
2nd party system, cont’d The major parties:Democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, assembled by Henry Clay from the National Republicans and other opponents of Jackson. Minor parties: Anti-Masonic Party, which was an important innovator from 1827–34; the abolitionist Liberty Party in 1840; and the anti-slavery Free Soil Party in 1848 and 1852. The Second Party System reflected and shaped the political, social, economic and cultural currents of the Jacksonian Era, until succeeded by the Third Party System.
3rd Party System 1854-mid 1890s profound developments in issues of nationalism, modernization, and race. This period is defined by its contrast with the eras of the Second Party System and the Fourth Party System.
3rd Party Cont’d It was dominated by the new Republican Party, which claimed success in saving the Union, abolishing slavery and enfranchising the freedmen Also adopting many Whiggish modernization programs such as national banks, railroads, high tariffs, homesteads and aid to land grant colleges. Most elections from 1874 through 1892 were extremely close, the opposition Democrats won only the 1856, 1884 and 1892 presidential elections, though from 1874 to 1892 the party often controlled the United States House of Representatives. The northern and western states were largely Republican, save for closely balanced New York and Indiana. After 1874, the Democrats took control of the "Solid South.”
4TH Party System 1896-1932 dominated by the Republican party, excepting the 1912 split in which Democrats held the White House for eight years
4thParty System featured a transformation from the issues of the Third Party System, which had focused on the American Civil War, Reconstruction, race and monetary issues. The era began in the severe depression of 1893 and the extraordinarily intense election of 1896. It included the Progressive Era, World War I, and the start of the Great Depression. The Great Depression caused a realignment that produced the Fifth Party System, dominated by the Democratic New Deal Coalition until the 1960s.
100. How did the expansion of the frontier change Americans’ values and change in society? War of 1812 Mexican American War, Gadsden Purchase Shaped environment Increase nationalism Increase in immigrants (urbanization, nativism, etc.)
Frontier effects. Cont’d Industrial Revolution (cotton gin=cement of slavery as basis of southern economy) Cotton Kingdom out west? Inventions=cash crops, more food grown in North, North sells to south (increase in sectionalism)