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  • 1. Chan Chee Mang TP021569Table of Content:No: Content: Page Number:1.0 An Overview of Islamic Market 1-22.0 Muslim Consumer Behaviour 2-33.0 Halal and Haram Perceptions 3-12 3.1 Cosmetics and Personal Care Product 3.2 Branding and Halal Challenges 3.3 Supply Chain Management 3.4 Food and Beverages4.0 Muslim Fashion 13-15 4.1 Bikini versus Burqini 4.2 Muslim Women and Olympic Games5.0 Social, Entertainment and Media 15-21 5.1 Shopping Preferences 5.2 Islam Comics 5.3 Danish Muhammad Cartoons 5.4 Censorship6.0 Conclusion 217.0 References 21-258.0 Appendix Please refer to the CD 1.0 An Overview of Islamic MarketThe Muslim market is composed of approximately 21.01% or 1.43 billion of theentire worldpopulation (CIA, 2009). Muslims represent a majority in more than50 countries in Asia,Africa, and Europe and their religion-Islam, is considered thefastest growing among allreligions on Earth (Saeed et al., 2001). Those 1.43 billionMuslims live in economicallyfeasible numbers in most countries in the world. In USD,the global Muslim consumer marketis estimated at US$2.7 trillion today, and is forecastto reach a staggering $30 trillion by 2050(JWT, 2007).The largest Islamic body, the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC),iscomposed of the economies of 57 member states, 50 of which are majority Muslim.APIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 1
  • 2. Chan Chee Mang TP021569Theremaining members have large Muslim populations, although Muslims are not amajorityin them. The percentage of Muslims in Russia for example approximatelystands at 15%, yetRussia is a member state. India on the other hand, has aMuslimpopulation of 150 million butits membership into the OIC is blocked by some countriesdue to geopolitical reasons.Those57 countries have a combined gross domestic product (GDP) of nearlyUS$8 trillion before thebooming price of oil in 2008. The richest country on the basis of GDP percapita is UnitedArab Emirates. On the basis of per capita GDP, among all the Muslim states, Qatar is therichestcountrywith incomes that exceedingUS$62,299.The recent booming oil prices hassignificantlyincreased these number figures in all oil producing Muslim countries. In the year2008, Abu Dhabi, amember emirate in the United ArabEmirates has a per capita incomeofUS$75, 000, which is double that of most European countries, and almost double the UnitedStates figure.The Halal market, their products that are Shariah-compliant represents asignificantportion of these countries‟ economies. Moreover, other country that is not membersofthe OIC but have feasibleMuslim minorities also contribute to the global size of theHalalmarket, which is currently estimated at approximately US$670 billion (Nestorovic,2010).This market is estimated to grow at 15% annually making it the fastestgrowing market in theworld.(Sources: Please refer to Appendix 11) 2.0 Muslim consumer behaviourReligion is always believed to affect Muslim consumerbehaviour according to religious:affiliation, commitment, knowledge, orientation andcommitment (Muhamad and Mizerski,2010). (Ogilvy Noor, 2010) presents an alternative perspective which suggeststhattraditionally Muslim consumers have been classified according to a scale ofreligiousobservance. However, they conclude that their findings point towards otherfactorsbeing of more significance. In support of Ogilvy Noor‟s position, the authors suggestthatculture remains the rate-determining step. Islam is a divine standard, which isinterpretedby Muslims and therefore subject to the “fingerprints” of mortals – which imbibesit with culture. (Herskovits, 1948, 1955, p. 305) is of the view that culture “is the man-madepart ofthe environment”. This includes both material objectsand social institutions and thensuggests that it does not help withdeciding what conceptual units allow for cross-culturalcomparisons (Smith and Bond 1998).APIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 2
  • 3. Chan Chee Mang TP021569Above all this, we can conclude that the Muslim consumer behaviour is largely aculturalconstruct, which necessitates that marketers should understand Islam through thevariedlenses of Muslim consumers, imperfections and all. In doing so, it will inevitablypointtowards the grouping of Muslims into smaller homogenous segments. This alsoseparatessocial sciences marketing insight from Islamic scholastic Sharia‟-based postulations.For instance, it is suggested that the two positions, like wheels of a cart, needto work intandem – lest each is sub-optimised. Statement on “theobjectives of Islamic Marketing cannotbe separated from the objectives of the Sharia” (Arham, 2010, p. 154).(Sources: Please refer to Appendix 1) 3.0 Halal and Haram perceptionsIn the pure technicalsense, a Halal product is a product fit to consume for Muslims. This canbe food,cosmetics for example tooth paste or even relate to pharmaceuticals like cough syrup.A trustmark which is Halal logo can be placed on the Halal products for Muslims to know thattheproduct is Halal (Cheng, 2008). Recently, Halal status products also have extended tolifestyle like fashion, dress code and services like Islamic banking, hospitality, logistics, andso on (Alserhan, 2010b). Halal as a concept cannot be fully encapsulated within the constructof product, Halal reaches much further into the disciplines of management ofthecompany,organisational behavior, culture anthropology and sociology (Wilson andLiu,2010; Zakaria and Abdul-Talib, 2010). As argued by Lada et al. (2009), Alserhan(2010a),Ibrahim and Mokhtarudin (2010) and Wilson and Liu (2010), Halal needs a supplychainapproach. Halal should also take into consideration the spiritual needs of theMuslimconsumers (Alserhan, 2010b) and Islamic values (Zakaria and Abdul-Talib,2010).Zakaria and Abdul-Talib (2010) argue for a cultural perspective of marketorientationand created an Islamic market-oriented cultural model. Hofstede‟s (1991) oniondiagramprovides a useful framework to identify the different aspects of Islamic culture.Hofstedeand McCrae (2004) describe culture as the collective programming of the mind.Hestresses that culture is a collective attribute, not distinctly visible, but manifested inbehaviorsand common to some but not all people. The onion diagram from Hofstede(1991) describesculture as an onion with different layers consisting of: values, rituals, heroes and symbols.(Sources: Please refer to Appendix 2)APIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 3
  • 4. Chan Chee Mang TP021569 3.1 Cosmetics and Personal Care ProductAt a time when many markets are reaching saturation point, Muslims are becoming muchmore concerned consumers, creating some of the fastest growing consumer segments in theworld. This represents a major growth opportunity for cosmetic and personal care companies.Halal products are very quickly entering the mainstream markets within Europe and theUnited States. In addition the „Halal‟ concept is becoming much more sophisticated in theMiddle East and some Asian countries. Muslim consumer Halal awareness has widened frombeing concerned with meat-based products a decade ago to a wide range of products today.Muslim consumers are seeking Halal integrity of processed foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals,insurance, travel, leather products, and even entertainment. This has also spread to a growingawareness about cosmetics andpersonal care products, where recentresearch has cited thatmore than 20%of Muslim consumers are concernedabout Halal issues with the products theyare using.Halal personal care products in the market today include hair shampoos, conditioners, bathand shower gels, cleansers, creams, lotions, talc and baby powders, toners, make up, perfumes,eau de colognes and oral care products. In contrast to personal care, cosmetic market growthis not uniform and slightly slower than personal care segments, as modesty has an importantinfluence on Muslim female consumers. However this varies according to the country andupbringing where some women wear a full length style robe and veil while others do not.Forbidden ingredientsThere are a number of ingredients which Muslims cannot consume in any form, whichinclude:APIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 4
  • 5. Chan Chee Mang TP021569. Pork or pork by-products.. Animals those are dead or dying prior to slaughter.. Blood and blood by-products.. Carnivorous animals.. Birds of prey.. Land animals without external ears.. Alcohol.. Animals killed in the name of anything other than Allah (God).(Source: Please refer to Appendix 10)Muslims living as a minority in a non- Islamic society have a number of problems identifyingwhat items are Halal and Haram (forbidden in Islam), without product certification. Forexample, gelatine, lardand tallow can be either Halal or non-Halal, depending upon the sourceand method of processing. Cross contamination is a major problem instores and particularlyrestaurants where pork is also served. Therefore from the Muslim consumer standpoint: Products must be produced without any forbidden ingredients. Products must be proved to be in the interests of the consumers‟ health and wellbeing. Products must be clean and hygienic, have supply chain integrity. Products must benefit those who produced them. Products must benefit the communitythey came from. Products and the materials that make up these products must be traceable from the origin, to have total confidenceSome raw materials of cosmetic products that are of concern to Muslim consumersAlbumenSometimes used as a coagulating agent and protein in productsand usually derived from eggwhitesAllantoinSometimes used in creams and lotions as a wound treating agentand derived from uric acidfrom cows and other mammals.AmbergrisUsed as warm fresh sea-like notes and fixative in some finefragrances and derived from theAPIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 5
  • 6. Chan Chee Mang TP021569intestines of whalesAmino acidsUsed as ascetic ingredients (protein builders in nature) in shampoosand sometimes derivedfrom animal sources.Arachidonic acidAn unsaturated fatty acid used in some skin creams and lotions as aneczema and rash sootherand derived from animal livers.CholesterolA steroid alcohol found in all animal fats and egg yolks sometimesused in eye creams andshampoos.CystineA sulphur containing amino acid used as a nutritional supplement,in emollients, hairtreatment, and anti-aging products, derived fromanimal sources.Ethanol Alcoholwhich is forbidden to be consumed in Islam. It is widelydebated whether alcohol should beallowed in personal care andcosmetic formulations.In a world that is becoming morespiritually conscious, awareness of Halalcosmetics is stilllow within the Muslimcommunity. Muslim consumers areincreasing in affluence andbeginning tofocus upon their religious obligations thatdemand for Halal cosmetics is set toincrease exponentially. Muslimconsumers would be expected to exhibitstrong loyalty totrusted Halal andToyyibaan certified products over noncompliantproducts basedonbehaviourin other Muslim markets. In addition toSyar‟iah compliance, Halal products willrequire brand building. However, how thiswill be done within an industry dependingonglamour as a brand attribute to anoverly modest set of consumers, stillremains to beseen.Halal issues involved with cosmeticsand personal care products are far frombeing totallyagreed upon and withoutskeptical criticisms. For example, thereare different schools ofthought aboutwhether Islamic teachings prohibitalcohol use on the body outsideoralconsumption. Not all Muslims are inagreement over this as many of theblogsandcomments at the end ofonline articles show.Advertising andmarketing methods are alsoleadingto criticisms as the billboard shown is ambiguous in what it isactually promoting to theconsumer.(Source: Please refer to Appendix 10)APIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 6
  • 7. Chan Chee Mang TP021569 The rise and rise ofnon-alcoholic perfumesFine fragrances have a long history withthe Arabs since ancient times and thisconnection canstill be seen with theagarwood trade and „attar‟ traders inEgypt, Tunisia, Syria, Jordan, GulfStates,and Lebanon. This „attar‟ trade hasbecome modernised in Indonesia,Malaysia, andSingapore with companiesoffering non-alcoholic „knock offs‟ of thebig name fine fragrances.Conventionalfine perfumes usually contain 70%-80%of high pharmaceutical grade ethanol asacarrier, with parfum de toilette or eau deparfum up to 90% ethanol. Ethanol actsas a carrierfor fine fragrances, has acooling effect on the skin, and assists theodour radiate from the skinthroughevapouration. However Muslim consumersfrown upon using alcohol on their skininline with their beliefs, and seekalternatives. Instead of using ethanol,non-alcoholic perfumesare water-based.Some even utilise apricot kernel, andjojoba oils to bring a morenaturalopulence to the fragrance.The non-alcoholic fine fragranceindustry has grown from a smallspecialised market where a few tradersimported concentratesfrom France, whichthey diluted and bottled, for sale at nightmarkets and shopping centres toover aUS$800 million industry at retail leveltoday. It is still growing tremendously.Originallythe industry „copied‟ andimitated the popular fine fragrances ofthe world, but todaycompanies aredeveloping their own localised scents, ownbrandings and developing loyalcustomerfollowings. Non-alcoholic fine fragrancefits well with the colourful floweryfashionof Malaysia and persona of the modernMalay woman. Fragrance is seen asanimportant accessory where creativemarketing companies develop personalitybased linesmatched to the colours oftheir fashions through direct marketingchannels. This lucrativemarket niche hasnot been left to the locals. Astute Frenchcompanies have been seen enteringthismarket bringing with it a European flare.APIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 7
  • 8. Chan Chee Mang TP021569 3.2 Brandingand Halal ChallengesFigure 1: The Islamic brand paradigmIn conclusion, there are two positions: namely, any brand has the potential toengage withMuslim consumers and second, if a brand craves treatment and considerationas a living entity,in what has been termed the Pinocchio effect (Wilson and Liu, 2009) should it not instead beclassified conceptually as a Muslim within Islamic brand theory?The reason being that withincurrent literature descriptions of brandsthey are rendered as emotional complex organisms.Furthermore, a brand has no free will –like animals that are also considered Muslims asFigure 1.(Alserhan, 2010) defines an Islamic brand according to three constructs: country oforigin,target audience and whether it is halal. (Ogilvy Noor, 2010) states that Islamicbranding is abranding approach which is friendly or compliant with Sharia‟ principles.From within these, the authors observe that perceptions will always be subject tointerpretationand are likely to be contentious, when on the fringes. Furthermore, (Wilson and Liu, 2010, p.108) suggest that halal will always be an enigma: “What is deemed halalis ultimatelygoverned by the heavens and subsequently therefore can never remain inits entirety withinmaterialist branding frameworks”. As a synthesis of these positions,the authors argue thathalal and friendliness cannot remain constant – and soestablishing a ceteris paribus position,APIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 8
  • 9. Chan Chee Mang TP021569which allows for a literal and prescriptivedefinition of an Islamic brand, will remain elusive.Therefore, what exists is phenomenological Islamic brand paradigm, shown in Figure 1.Following the definitions of Alserhan (2010) and Ogilvy Noor (2010), it does nottranspirenecessarily that all Islamic brands are halal, or completely halal. The followingFigure 2 illustrates this point: 3.3 Supply ChainManagementAPIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 9
  • 10. Chan Chee Mang TP021569The core fundament of Halal supply chains is to avoid contact between Halaland Haram, theMuslim consumer requires a higher assurance of his Halal foodwhichis based on reducing therisk of contamination and the factor of perception of theMuslim consumer. Therefore, Halalsupply chains can be characterised as robustsupply chains that strive for a lower vulnerabilityfor Halal contamination.From the in-depth interviews it followed that the productcharacteristics (bulk orunitised shipments; ambient or chilled/frozen) have major implicationon the design ofHalal food supply chains. From the in-depth interviews it also followed thattheperception of the Muslim consumer is an important parameter for Halal supply chains.Thisis a complex matter due to the variety of Islamic cultures, Islamic schools ofthought, localFatwas and local customs.For Halal certified companies it is important to look beyond their production andingredients,and extend Halal to the entire supply chain in ensuring that theirtransportation, storage andhandling are in compliance with Shariah and meet therequirements of their target Muslimmarket.Further market research is needed to better understand and measure theperception of theMuslim consumer, as perception is a key success factor in an effectivesupply chainmanagement of Halal products. More market analysis research is also needed inorder to betterunderstand the principles in organising Halal supply chains for differentmarkets. Are theredifferences between the supply chain management requirement, forexample,between Muslimand non-Muslim countries. Finally, there is a need for aHalal supply chain model that is ableto describe and optimise Halal supply chains.This would help the Halal certified food industryto move towards a supply chainapproach to Halal. 3.4 Food and BeveragesThe halal paradigm on pre-consumption decision makingMuslim consumer behaviour and corporate practices point towards perspectives whichreframethe halal. The authors present the halal paradigm as demonstrating an areawhere cognitive,affective and conative decision-making patterns are affected by riskminimisation. These arerelated to the Muslim consumer cultural lens and Islam. Thehalal paradigm is a nub where theperceived importance of halal is brought into theMuslim consciousness. This is a dynamic andAPIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 10
  • 11. Chan Chee Mang TP021569cyclical process, whose final verdict is definite and perishable – due to hyper-sensitivity andenvironmental factors influencingMuslim perceptions of what is halal (Figure 3).At-Talazum is the halal heuristic hybrid-deconstruction approach. Collectiveindividualismdrives value-based judgements, derived from a ladderingprocess – as a result of a synthesisedhierarchy, and reflective of a self-defineddecision tree. At-Talazum is Arabic for joiningtogether, with inferences towardsfusing and moulding. It is used in an Islamic context todescribe the correctapproach for a Muslim to adopt.Think-feel-do is the halal value-chain approach. Every stage and component isscrutinisedrationally, according to their functional and materialistic elements,which necessitate textualjustification.Feel-think-do is the halal cultural artefact approach. The resulting feelings, emotionsandbehavioural traits of collective consumerism ratify the validity of anapproach.The heuristicdeconstruction stage is the rate-determining step, which is difficult toachieve over the shortterm, as it necessitates stakeholder engagement.Figure 3: Halal decision-making paradigm for Muslim consumer consumption(Source: Please refer to Appendix 2)In conclusion, Halal, Islam and Muslims will always cause brand academics andpractitionersproblems. But these problems are no different to those posed by otherAPIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 11
  • 12. Chan Chee Mang TP021569consumersegments. However, what is acute to the relationship between marketers andMuslims isthe fact that many brand theories have been developed in isolation from, or at theirworstas part of, a foreign hegemony – which all parties are seeking to overturn (WilsonandLiu, 2010). Furthermore, the number of Muslims is growing and growing in proportiontoother segments (Alserhan, 2010; Ogilvy Noor, 2010).Whilst conceptually and culturally, brands and branding have always existed, brandtheory asdefined in business academic writing has largely hailed from the west, untilrecently. Just asthe Ancient Greeks and Romans, Arabs, Indians and Chinese havecollectively laid downmany of the fundamentals of mathematics; the authors argue thatmarketers are in a middlepassage of learning – which necessitates the samecross-fertilisation of concepts. Branding inparticular, due to its ethereal qualities, willpose even bigger problems when trying tounderstand what brands can do and how theymanage to do it.If Islamic brands are to take centre stage as a global force across segments andbeyond to non-Muslims, they cannot be neutered and sanitised when considering theiremotional brandanatomy and physiology. Therefore, thesetraits could be preserved when rendering a brandanalogous to a Muslim, rather thanIslam, aligns thinking with current schools of mainstreambrand thought, whichframe brands as being like humans. Muslim consumer behaviour andcorporate practices point towards perspectiveswhich reframe the halal. The challenge faced bymarketers from an academic, Islamicand ethical perspective is to identify, understand andrespond to this phenomenon. The halal paradigm is presented as demonstrating an area wherecognitive,affective and conative decision-making patterns are affected by risk minimisation.These are related to the Muslim consumer cultural lens and Islam. The halal paradigm isa nubwhere the perceived importance of halal is brought into the Muslim consciousness. This is adynamic and cyclical process, whose final verdict is finite and perishable which is duetohyper-sensitivity, hyper-interactivity and environmental factors influencingMuslimperceptions of what is halal.(Source: Please refer to Appendix 2 and 24 – Halal Food Law and Regulations) 4.0 Muslim Fashion 4.1 Bikini versus BurqiniAPIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 12
  • 13. Chan Chee Mang TP021569Since the late 1990s, high-profile terrorism associated with militant Islamic movements andeventsin the Middle East has turned international attention to Arab and Muslim cultures. Thisscrutiny hasbeen most intense for Muslims living in predominantly non-Muslim countries,like Australia.There, and especially after 11 September 2001, Muslims suffered a heighteneddegree of suspicionand interrogation. This surfaced, for example, in the treatment of someMuslim women who choseto wear the hijab, or variations thereof: the chador, niqab or burqaa visible markers of Muslimidentity. These women became walking targets for a range oflargely negative encounters, fromexpressions of pity to outright violence and aggression. Thisarticle considers a highly provocativeand deeply ironic response to such sentiments:theBurqiniTM, a swimsuit manufactured in Australiaand designed by a Lebanese-Muslimwoman, Aheda Zanetti.The name is a portmanteau of burqaand bikini. Unlike a regular bikinithough, this one does not compromise the modesty of its targetmarket: conservative Muslimwomen. It tests conventional representations of Australian beachculture, and suggests that,contrary to populist misconceptions, there is a place for Islamic culturalpractices withinAustralian beach culture. Importantly, its provenance in Sydney‟s southwest countersawidespread perception that some locales – specifically, those with a large Muslim population–are less open to popular Australian pursuits. In this way, the BurqiniTMhas helped to re-brand thetypical Australian beach (K. Suzie, 2010).(Source: Please refer to Appendix 3) 4.2 Muslim Women and Olympic GamesThe participation of women in the Olympic Games mirrors the development ofwomen‟ssports and women‟s roles in societyin general. The first athlete from an Islamic countryparticipated at the Olympic Games asearly as 1900, when the Iranian prince Freydoun KhanMalkom took part in thefencing competitions. In 1908 one Turk competed in gymnastics; in1912 twomen from Turkey and one from Egypt attended the games. The number ofathletesfrom Islamic countries attending the games increased gradually to 565 which is 11% of the5,263 male athletes in the year 1984.However, the chances that sportsmen from Islamiccountries had of competing inthe Olympics depended, at least to some degree, on the locationof the event. Therates of their participation decreased in the games in Melbourne, Tokyo,Mexico andMontreal, cities which required long and expensive travel.APIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 13
  • 14. Chan Chee Mang TP021569There are various reasons for the relatively low numbers of athletes from anIslamicbackground competing at the Olympics, among them the roots of modern sportinWestern cultures, the lack of sporting traditions and the dearth of sportinginfrastructure inIslamic countries, which is partly due to the economic situation. Inareas of the world wherethe majority of the population struggles to survive, there isno surplus of resources to be„invested‟ in sport.Whereas male athletes were more or less socially accepted in mostIslamiccountries, women participating in sports competitions were a contradiction in termsformost of their rulers and religious leaders, as well as for the largest part of thepopulation. Up to1980, only women from secular countries like Turkey, Indonesiaand pre-revolutionary Iran,were given the opportunity to compete in elite sports andthe Olympics. The first femaleOlympians from an Islamic country were two fencersfrom Turkey who participated in Berlinin 1936. The Turkish NOC also sent awoman to the next games in 1948. Uner Teoman, a100m runner, was the onlywoman in the Turkish Olympic team and the only woman from anIslamic country atthese games. She was already eliminated in the heats. In the followingdecades Muslim women were tiny minorities at the Olympics – ifthey were present at all. In1952 and in 1968 no female athlete from an Islamiccountry participated in Olympic events. In1956 there were two, in 1960 five andin 1964 four female Olympians from Turkey andIndonesia. In addition, three femaletrack-and-field athletes and one gymnast from pre-revolutionaryIran competed atthe 1964 games.Period (Year) Muslim Women Participants in Olympic Sports1972 Besides,1 Turkish and 3 Indonesian athletes, two Moroccan womenattended the games for the first time. One of them was Fatima El Faquir, who gainedmany African and Arab records in running of 100m, 200m, 400m and hurdles andsubsequently made a career as a coach, administrator, manager and activist forwomen‟s sport. In addition, Syria sent a female 800m runner, but she did notfinish her race.1976 Two Indonesian and one Turkish women and four female fencersfrom Iran1980s The number of female Muslim Olympians increased only slowly at the followinggames: five competed in Moscow in 1980, including for the first time athletes fromAlgeria and Libya; and 13 participated in the 1984games, for the first time withwomen from Jordan (1) and Egypt (6).Three Egyptian women had already qualified for the Olympic Games as early as1960, butAPIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 14
  • 15. Chan Chee Mang TP021569 for unclear reasons they did not participate. In 1984, six female athletesrepresented Egypt in diving, swimming and synchronized swimming.The number of male athletes reached approximately 400 in the 1980s and hasstagnated since then; the number of female athletes was under 5% until 1988.1992-1996 The number or Islamic women participants increased continuously from 8% in 1992, to 11% in 19962000s 17% in 2000, 19 % in 2004 and 25 per cent which is 125 female athletes in 2008. In recent decades, an increasing number of NOCs have included women in theirOlympic teams. Whereas in 1988, 26% of the 160 NOCs, half of them NOCsfrom Islamic countriessent only male athletes to the Seoul Olympics, the number ofall-male teams dropped to 33 in Barcelona (1992), 28 in Atlanta (1996) and 9 inSydney (2000).(Source: Please refer to Appendix 5)Islamic feminism has been helpful in showing ways in which space can be createdandnegotiated for positive change. This knowledge, and the opportunity it createdfor women‟sparticipation in physical activity, was important in understanding thepositions of thoseMuslim women whose most essential layer of identity wasreligion and for whom the displayof this identity through adherence to modestdress codes was integral to sustaining that.However, choice should also be possible for those women who re-interpret Islam,adapt itsrules to modern life and combine their religion with Western attire and elitesports. This is anoption in most Islamic countries, as the case of female athletes fromcountries such asIndonesia, Morocco, Algeria, Jordan, the UAE and Turkey in the2008 Olympics hasdemonstrated.(Source: Please refer to Appendix 5) 5.0 Social, Entertainment and Media The Muslim market, which has been treated as a minor niche market until recent times, has emerged as a new major market as a result of the growingMuslim purchasing power and their integration into globalizing consumerism. Thenew market attracts non-Muslim western producers as well as Muslim consumerswho constitute approximately 20 percentAPIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 15
  • 16. Chan Chee Mang TP021569 of the world population (1.6 billion).Now aware of the significance of the new emerging market, multinationalcompanies in Europe and the USA have launched various marketing studiestargeting Muslim consumers ranging in fields from food to fashion to finance, and encroached the new emerging market. For example, Coca-Cola has produced anew advertisement with the concept of benevolence and tolerance during theIslamic holy month of Ramadan for Muslim consumers. Another internationalpowerhouse, McDonald‟s, has started to serve a new menu item (halal chickennugget) that fits into Islamic culinary regulations. In the area of technology, the„Ilkon‟ phone designed by Nokia has taken over the Muslim mobile phone marketas soon as it was released due to its Islam-oriented functions, such as guidingIslamic praying direction and time, Islamic calendar and an English version of theQuran. In addition, in the fashion industry, an Australian company produced aconservatively designed swimsuit that covers the whole body targeting Muslimwomen, while an American company produced an Islamic version of „Barbie‟ dollthat dons Muslim women‟s veiling, hijab.As presented in these various cases, new marketing strategies, generated bymultinational companies allure Muslimconsumers who want to consumeglobalized goods within their own religious values. One statistic shows that thecurrent Muslim market has already grown to a sizeable scale and it will be one ofthe fastest growing markets in the world, taking into consideration the annualMuslim population growth (2.9 percent) and their increasing purchasing power.Currently, the global annual halal food market is worth $580 billion. Islamicfinancial assets are worth $500-750 billion in total, and are expected to reach $1trillion by 2010. The global market for female Islamic clothing is estimated at$250 million. Bearing the significance of a new emerging Muslim market in mind, thepurpose of this study is to explore the impact of Muslim identity on the growingIslamic consumerism and its future. The target group of this study will be mainlyrestricted to Muslim youth, who are more conscious of global consumerism,including those who live in the Middle Eastern and the Western part of the world.The span of Muslim youth is wide, starting from those in their teens up to theirthirties, as the unmarried are still regarded as the youth from the Islamic culturalperspective. However, this study will focus more on those who are married in their 30s as they are the main consumers who have purchasing power due to work. (Source: Please refer to Appendix 8)APIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 16
  • 17. Chan Chee Mang TP021569 5.1 Shopping Preferences One of the noticeable facts in the recent Muslim market is the emergence of women and children as empowered consumers. Unlike the past when womensolely depended on their husbands‟ income, an increasing number of Muslimwomen currently work outside home and manage their own income. In addition,the transformation of the family structure from extended to nuclear also hasenhanced young women‟s consumption power. Liberating themselves from thesenior patriarchal figure, as well as the mother-in-law in the case of marriedwomen, young women are able to exert more power in the decision- makingprocess in what to consume both for themselves and their family.The structure of shopping malls and the ratio of gender inside of the shoppingmalls reflect the growing purchasing power among the women in the Middle East.For example, as Table 1 (Appendix 8) shows, more than four-fifths of the stores inside of theshopping malls are women-related.It includes cosmetics, clothes, shoes, bags,and jewelry stores. Before the emergence of the modernized shopping mall, it wascommon to see men shop on behalf of their wife throughout the Middle East. It isespecially true in the case of the conservative family. If the husband and his familyadhere to Islamic value with regard to men-women separation in the public space,he has to share the burden of the daily shopping with his wife.It is also evident that with the emergence of the shopping mall as an importanthub for social activities, women consumers have become more visible in thepublic places. It is mainly because shopping malls have emerged as an alternativeplace for women who have been more restricted in outdoor activities such assports and leisure. Therefore, women consumers visit shopping malls morefrequently than men and consequently global and modern consumerism draw outMuslim women who have stayed behind the wall. Women tend to socialize inpublic spaces such as cafeterias and restaurants in the shopping mall instead of athome, which is traditionally regarded as women‟s private spaces.In addition, women‟s increasing purchasing power has made a great influenceon children‟s consumption items. According to a newspaper, the children‟s markethas increased as a result of the growing purchasing power among Muslimwomen. (Please refer to Table 1 of Appendix 8) 5.2 Islam Comics Even though Muslim parents consume various globalised items as theircounterparts do, interestingly, however, the educated young Muslim parents aretrying to raise their children in Islamic atmosphere. In order to teach children‟religious identity in a globalizedAPIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 17
  • 18. Chan Chee Mang TP021569 multi-cultural environment, Muslim parents buyfor their children Islamic children‟s books, Islamic story books, board games,puzzles, Islamic version of Barbie doll, and various story books based on theQuran.One example of the Islamic comic book series is titled „The 99‟.Created by aKuwaiti entrepreneur, it challenges Judeo-Christianarchetypes promoted by suchwestern comic books as Spider-Man, Batman and X-Man. Symbolizing the 99 characters of Allah including generosity, strength, wisdom, foresight, andmercy, The 99 blends fiction with historical events in Islamic history anduniversally applicable Muslim values in order to target various Muslims in theworld. Based on the superhero adventure story layout, the comic book The 99ranks second to Superman and Spiderman in the Arab world. (Source: Please refer to Appendix 8) 5.3Danish Mohammad CartoonsThe Danish cartoon furor of early 2006 was only the most recent episode cited asevidence ofa “clash of civilizations.” Although the subject was extensively reportedby the global media,the media‟s framing of the debate as being between free speechand religious sensitivities wasinherently flawed and contributed to further confusionrather than clarification. Moreover, theframework established and perpetuated bythe media, that of a debate between freedom ofspeech and religious sensitivities,obscured the root cause of this conflict: the fact that both theMuslim world andthe Western world suffer from gross misconceptions of the other.Although themisconceptions held by the Muslim world are phenomena that are, in relativeterms,both more recent and more easily resolved, their counterparts in the Westernworld havebeen deeply embedded in the consciousness of Western society formore than a thousand years.Although in the West the Danish cartoon episode resulted in an instinctiverush to defend freespeech and in Muslim communities it resulted in an instinctiverush to defend the Muslimview of Muhammad as a peaceful “holy man,”both groups reacted without an awareness ofthe fact that they were drivenunconsciously by a lack of understanding of the essence of theproblem. Thiswas exacerbated by the international media, both in the East and West,whichframed the debate as one between free speech and religious sensitivity. Fanningtheflames on both sides were religious fundamentalists and politicians. In theEast, governmentsinterested in ostracizing Denmark before it assumed therotating presidency of the U.N.Security Council as well as Muslim fundamentalistseager to paint Western civilization as theenemy of Islamic values weremore than happy to instigate the masses. In the West, politiciansAPIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 18
  • 19. Chan Chee Mang TP021569aiming to bringto the fore the issue of integration of Muslim immigrant populations, as wellasChristian fundamentalists eager to paint Islam as the enemy of Western civilization,wereequally thrilled at the opportunity.Throughout the confrontation,the true issue was obscuredby the global media‟s framing of the ensuing debateas being between zealous defenders offree speech and more violent, but equallyzealous, calls for religious sensitivity. Criticisms onboth sides often becameunreasonable and lost sight of the central issues. The notion that thevery actof depicting Muhammad was what instigated the violent protests has beenclearlydisproven.(Source: Please refer to Appendix 21) 5.4CensorshipA censorship chronicle incorporating information from the AmericanAssociation for theAdvancementof Science Human Rights Action Network (AAASHRAN),AmnestyInternational (AI),Article 19 (A19), the BBCMonitoring Service Summary ofWorldBroadcasts (SWB), theCommittee to Protect Journalists(CPJ), the Canadian CommitteetoProtect Journalists (CCPJ), theInter-American Press Association(IAPA), the InternationalFederation of Journalists(IFJ/FIP), the International PressInstitute (IPI), Human RightsWatch(HRW), the MediaInstitute of Southern Africa(MISA), Network for the DefenceofIndependent Media in Africa(NDIMA), International PEN(PEN), Open MediaResearchInstitute (OMRI), ReportersSans Frontihes (RSF), theWorld Association ofCommunityBroadcasters (AMARC) andother sources. Examples of Censorship Cases from Muslim StateIn IranA court sentenced 28teenagers to punishment rangingfrom lashes to imprisonmentforthrowing a party andpossessing illegal compact discsand video cassettes on 28August. Thedaily Kayhanreported that the teenagerswere arrested by anti-vicesquad police who brokeupthe party in response to complaintsby neighbours. Kayhanreported that, as well as illegaltapes and discs, 41 vulgarvideotapes were found at thehouse. (Reuters)Security forcesentered thehome of the German culturalattached on 28 August, during adinner at whichseveral prominentIranian writers were present,among them HushangGolshiri,MohammadaliSepanloo, Reza Baraheniand Simin Behbahani. Thesecurity men forced thegueststo stay at the dinner table for anumber of hours, duringwhich time they were filmed.TheAPIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 19
  • 20. Chan Chee Mang TP021569cultural attached was lateroffered an official apology butthe film was not surrendered.It isthought that the filmmight be used as footage forthe television programs.In IraqAround 30 journalists wereprevented from entering Erbilin Iraqi Kurdistan on 15Septemberby officials fromthe Democratic Party ofKurdistan (PDK), which issupported by Iraq. Theofficialstold the reporters: Wehave no instructions to let youthrough. The journalistswereaccompanied throughout theirtrip to the region by officialsfrom the IraqiInformationMinistry. (RSF)In JordanUsamah al-Rantisi of thedaily al-Ahali was arrested on22 August and held for 15days. He ischarged withinciting sedition under thePress and Publications Law asa result of a 21 Augustarticleheadlined These Events arenot from Outside, which disputedgovernment claims thatAugusts bread riots werefomented by Iraq. If convictedhe faces a prison sentence ofbetween six months and threeyears. (CPJ)The well-known writer Ahmed Awaidi al-Abaddiand Jihad al-Momani, editorof the weekly Shihan, werecharged with harming nationalunity on 8 October. Thecharge arises from an interviewwhich appeared in thepaper in June, inwhich al-Abaddi said that Palestinianrefugees in Jordan should berelocated to areas underthecontrol of the PalestinianNational Authority. AnotherShihan journalist, NahedHattar, wasalso charged inearly October with harmingnational unity, inciting thepublic and insultingthe kingin connection with articles hewrote arguing for unificationbetween Jordan andSyria.(CPJ)(Source: Please refer to Appendix 18) 6.0 ConclusionAPIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 20
  • 21. Chan Chee Mang TP021569The increased awareness among the Muslims toward their ownreligious identity has beeninfluential in redefining consumption patterns amongMuslims. Instead of followingtheglobalised consumption patterns as it is,Muslims, especially the youth, are creating a newway of consumption in anIslamic way while embracing western culture.Various examples arepresented in the main text, including the emergence ofIslamic swimsuits, Barbie dolls, andIlkon phones. By consuming productswhich are reinterpreted and represented in Islamic way,Muslims feelshared identity among themselves at the same time demarcating theirdistinguishedidentity toward others. Unlike the former generation who followed thewesternstyle of consumerism, the currentMuslims, especially among the educatedand affluentfeel proud of being Muslim and reinvent Islam as stylish and chic asfashion. These newconsumption patterns which have emerged among the Muslims suggests a future marketingdirection for international marketers. If global marketer is aware of the significance of thenewly emergingMuslim market trend and able to read the Muslim‟s needs, it wouldguaranteea more profitable success. 7.0 References“Get the Alfa girls in the Middle East”, Maeilkyongje newspaper (released on 13 March 2008)“Global Youth: Middle East”,http://www.debaird.net/blendededunet/2008/09/global-youth-middle-east.html(accessed on 23 April 2012) “Halal Perspective: Understanding Muslim Consumer”,http://dinarstandard.com/marketing/HalalMarket051605.htm (accessed on 23 April 2012)“Islamic Hotel Branding & Muslim Hospitality”, in Muslim Consumer(http://hmakaz.wordpress.com),http://hmakaz.wordpress.com/2008/08/26/islamic-hotel-branding-muslim-hospitality/ (accessed on 20 April 2012) “Muslims in Europe: Economic Worries Top Concerns about Religious and Cultural Identity:Few Signs of Backlash from Western Europeans” (released on 06 July 2006),http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID=254 (accessed on 20 April 2012)“Rewriting the Ad rules for Muslim-Americans”,The New York Times (released on April 282007), http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/28/business/28muslim.html(accessed on 20 April2012)“The 99″-A world class brand with Muslim values” (released on 28 May2008),http://www.dinarstandard.com/mlm/99Comic051908.htm (accessed on 23 April 2012)APIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 21
  • 22. Chan Chee Mang TP021569“Understanding the Islamic Consumers”, Roy Haddad (released on July, 2008),http://mediame.com/news/interview_opinion/roy_haddad_understanding_the_islamic_consumers (accessed on 23 April 2012)Ada§ E. B., 2006, The making of entrepreneurial Islam and the Islamic spirit of capitalismJournal for Cultural Research 1 0 113-37Ahmed L., 1992, Women and gender in Islam Yale University, New Haven CTAkou H. M., 2007, Building a new world fashion: Islamic dress in the twenty-first centuryFashion Theory 1 1 403-22Akta§ C., 1991, Tanzimattan gunumuze kihk, kiyatet ve iktidar, Politics and clothing sincethe Ottoman Constitutional Period, Nehir, istanbulAktas. C., 1995, Mahremiyetin tukenisi, The end of modesty, Nehir, IstanbulAl-Hamarneh A. and Steiner C., 2004, Islamic tourism: rethinking the strategies ofdevelopment in the Arab world after September 11 Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africaand the Middle East 24 1 73-82Allievi S. and Neilsen J., 2003, Muslim networks and transnational communities in and acrossEurope Leiden, Boston MAASKON 2008a Movie: Hakli zenginlik-Sanctified wealth (http://www.askon.org.tr/mov.asp)(accessed on 22 April 2012)ASKON 2008b Home page (http://www.askon.org.tr) (accessed on 22 April 2012)Atasoy Y., 2003, Explaining local-global nexus: Muslim politics in Turkey in Atasoy Y andCarroll W eds Global shaping and its alternatives Kumarian Press Aurora, Ontario 57- 80Barnier B., 2007, High fashion in Turkey: a headscarf tycoon and a lingerie king ABC News(http://i. abcnews.com/Busi ness/ storv?id=3883012&Daee=1) (accessed on 22 April 2012)Baudrillard,1993, Symbolic exchange and death Sage, LondonBayat, 2003, “From Amr Diab to Amr Khaled: Faith and fun; can one have it all?”,http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/print/2003/639/fe1.htm. (accessed on 2 May 2012)Baydemir M., 2007, Gümrük duvari tekstilimizin önündeki en büyük engel, Customs barriersare the biggest obstacle for our textiles, Milli Gazete 8 February (http://www.milligazete.com.tr/index. php?action=show&type=news&id=53943) (accessed on 22 April 2012)BBC News, 2006, Dutch government backs burqa ban (http:// news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/europe/61 59046. stm) (accessed on 22 April 2012)Begg B., Pickles J. and Smith A., 2003, Cutting it: European integration, trade regimes, andthe reconfiguration of East- Central European apparel production Environment and PlanningA 35 2191-207APIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 22
  • 23. Chan Chee Mang TP021569Bilici M., 1999, islamm bronzla§an yiizu: Caprice Hotel ornek olayi, The suntanning face ofIslam: The case of Caprice Hotel, in Gole N ed Islamm yeni kamusal yuzleri, The new publicfaces of Islam, Metis, Istanbul 216-36Boubekeur Amel, 2005, “Cool and Competitive: Muslim Culture in the West”, ISIMReview16, 2005 Autumn, http://www.isim.nl/files/Review_16/Review16-12.pdf. 2005.(accessed on 20 April 2012)Brenner N. and Theodore N., 2002, Cities and the geographies of actually existingneoliberalism Antipode 34 349-79Bugra A., 1998, Class, culture and state: an analysis of interest representation by two Turkishbusiness associations International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 30 521-39Bugra A., 2003, The place of the economy in Turkish society The South Atlantic Quarterly102 453-70Çakir C., 2007, Cin misin, Çin misin?, What comes out of the box of neoliberal economics? Ajinn or China?, Milli Gazete 18 March (http://www.mi 1 1 igazete.com.tr/?action=show&type=writersnews&id=1 1510) (accessed on 22 April 2012)Ceylan I. F., 1992, Amacimiz tesetturii sevdirmek, Our goal is to make tesettur loved, MilliGazete 10 October (http:// www.milligazete.com.tr/index. php?action=show&type=news&id=53943) (accessed on 22 April 2012)Çiftgi H., 1993, Tesettür, moda ve defile, Veiling, fashion and the catwalk, Milli GazeteCrewe L., 2003, Geographies of retailing and consumption: markets in motion Progress inHuman Geography 27 352-62Dean M., 1999, Govermentality: power and rule in modern society Sage, LondonDogan O., 2006, Islami sosyete nasil yasjyor? [How does Islamic high society live?] Vatan 26September (http:// www.kenthaber.com/Arsiv/Haberler/2006/Eylul/26/ HaberJ 6853O.aspx)(accessed on 22 April 2012)Ehrkamp P. and Leitner H., 2006, Transnationalism and migrants imaginings of citizenshipEnvironment and Planning, A 38 1615-32El Guindi F., 1999, Veil: modesty, privacy and resistance Berg, OxfordEygi M., 2005, Müslüman Sosyete, Muslim high society, Milli Gazete 9 December(http://www.milligazete.com.tr/ index. php?action=show&type=writersnews&id=1 928)(accessed on 22 April 2012)Eygi M., 2008, An odd veiling-fashion show, Milli Gazete 25 April (http://www.milligazete.com.tr/index.php?action=show&type= writersnews&id=1 81 57) (accessed on 22April 2012)APIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 23
  • 24. Chan Chee Mang TP021569Fanon F., 1967, A dying colonialism Grove Press, New YorkFerguson and Gupta A., 2002, Spatializing states: towards an ethnography of neoliberalgovernmental it American Ethnologist 29 981 -1002Gill S., 2003, Power and resistance in the new world order Ralgrave, New YorkGökanksel B. and Mitchell K., 2005, Veiling, secularism and the neoliberal subject: nationalnarratives and supranational desires in Turkey and France Global Networks 5 147-65Gökanksel B., 2005, Islams, neoliberalism and transnationalism: the making of subject-citizens and tesettur fashions in Istanbul (paper presented in Muslim Fashions/FashionableMuslims Workshop, University of Amsterdam and the International Institute for the Study ofIslam in the Modern World, Amsterdam, 15-16 April 2005)Göle N., 1996, The forbidden modern: civilization and veiling University of Michigan Press,Ann Arbor MlGöle N., 1999, Islamm yeni kamusal yuzleri [The new public faces of Islam] Metis, IstanbulGordon C., 1991, Governmental rationality in Burchell G, Gordon C and Miller P eds TheFoucault effect: studies in governmentality University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1-52Gunster S.,, 2004 Capitalizing on culture: critical theory for cultural studies University ofToronto Press, TorontoHakan A., 2008, Dinsel maskaralik, Religious ridicule, Hurriyet 23 Nisan(http://www.kenthaber.com/Arsiv/Haberler/2008/ Nisan/23/Haher 373435.asnx>) (accessedon 22 April 2012)Harvey D., 2003, The new imperialism, Oxford University Press, OxfordHausler U., 2001, Muslim dress-codes in German state schools European Journal of Migrationand Law 3 457-74Jackson P., 2002, Commercial cultures: transcending the cultural and economic Progress inHuman Geography 26 3-18Jackson P., Crang P. and Dwyer C., ed 2004, Transnational spaces Routledee, LondonKahf M., 1999, Western representations of the Muslim woman University of Texas Press,Austin TXKandiyoti D., ed 1991, Women, Islam and the state Temple University Press, Philadelphia PAKaraosmanoglu F. K., 2002, Moda ve zihniyet, Fashion and mentality, iz, istanbulKeyman E. F. and Icduygu A., 2003, Globalization, civil society and citizenship in Turkey:actors, boundaries and discourses Citizenship Studies 7 219-34APIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 24
  • 25. Chan Chee Mang TP021569Kilicbay B. and Binark M., 2002, Consumer culture, Islam and the politics of lifestyle:fashion for veiling in contemporary Turkey European Journal of Communication 1 7 495-51 1Kinkkanat M., 2004, Rukiis demokrasi, Schlumpy democracy, Radikal 30 June(http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php? haberno=1 20826) (accessed on 22 April 2012)Larner W., 2003, Neoliberalism?, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 21 509-12llyasoglu A., 1994, Ortulu kimlik [Veiled identity] Metis Kadin Ara§tirmalan Dizisi, istanbul 8.0 AppendixesAPIIT UCTI (Individual Assignment- BM022-3.5-3-GLMKT) 25