76% of heroin-dependent subjects receiving Ibogaine treatment in studies taking place between 1962-1993 showed no withdrawal symptoms (Apler, et al., 1999).Ibogaine currently being used in twelve countries across six continents (excluding US) in treating addiction (Donnelly, 2011).
Patients receiving three psychedelic doses of ketamine showed a 50% sobriety rate after a one year follow-up compared to a 25% recovery rate for those using naltrexone (most popular option) (Krupitsy et al., 2007).
Psychedelic treatment outcomes
A Review of the Literature
Do psychedelics contribute to successful treatment outcomes in chemically- dependent subjects?
“Mind-Manifesting” Bringing repressed information from within the mind forward as amplification of emotion virtual reality containing symbolism unique to the experiencer. (Osmond, 1957). Distorts sensory observation/ bypasses ego & related defenses diving straight into the contents of one’s unconscious mind (Mabit, 2007). New awareness gained-integrated into conscious life for improved functioning (Grinspoon & Doblin, 2001). Psychedelics have existed for tens of thousands of years. Shamanism as indigenous psychotherapy/Divination = Diagnosis (Metzner, 1998). Psychedelics as catalysts not symptom relievers (Grinspoon & Doblin, 2001).
How does Ibogaine work? Anti-addictive properties (Alper, Lotsof, Geerte, Frenken, Luciano, & Bastiaans, 1999). Amelioration/Elimination of withdrawal (Alper et al., 1999). Used in drug/alcohol treatment facilities abroad (Ibogaine Federation, 2011). Not a substitution drug 9 fatalities in 20 years compare to methadone at 10,000 within a two year timespan (Donnelly, 2011).
How does ketamine work? Ketamine therapy resulted in significantly higher rates of abstinence among heroin-dependent as compared to placebo and naltrexone (Krupitsky, Burakov, Dunaevsky, Romanova, Slavina, and Grinenko, 2002, 2007). Faster acting than anti-depressants in treating depressive symptoms in recovering patients (Krupitsky et al., 2007). More ketamine doses = higher recovery rates (Krupitsky et al., 2007). Not a substitution drug but potentially addictive. Quick, safe, cost-effective (Krupitsky et al., 2007).
What is LSD? MDMA? Social research, Anecdotal evidence: 40 y.o. male 4 years alcoholism, experiences breakthrough under the influence of LSD involvingChristian symbolism (Grinspoon & Doblin, 2001). Psychedelic experience serves to make manifest the symbols/contents of an individuals mind, hallucinations not random. MDMA used to dissolve ego-defenses in psychotherapy, Switzerland (Grinspoon & Doblin, 2001). MDMA con: potentially addictive
Cross-cultural study showed subjects who have had peak psychedelic experiences have no better coping abilities or resiliency than those who had not (Recreational not treatment) (Lerner & Lyvers, 2006). Anthropological study notes East believes psychedelic experience real as West believes it merely to be a hallucination (Metzner, 1998). Guide experiences treatment with client in East/Indigenous cultures whereas guide in West typically does not (Metzner, 1998). Integration of East & West in psychedelic treatment (Metzner, 1998).
Yes psychedelics can contribute to successful treatment outcomes depending on “set” (intentions, expectations, & motivations) of user and “setting” (environment surrounding user at time of drug experience including person(s) involved. How do we better control for “set” and “setting”? Set - better psych assessments, bibliotherapy. Setting - more relaxed, less clinical environment.
Psychedelic merely acts as vehicle to make repressed contents of mindvisible. A bringer of awareness, messenger drug. It is up to the individual tomake the choice post-psychedelic experience to integrate this newawareness into their conscious life.How do we empower people? How do we honor the individual process? Psychedelic experience deeply personal. Psychedelic allows one to bypass ego/conscious patterns of thought and behavior and dive straight into the contents of the unconscious mind leading to expanded awareness (Mabit, 2007). How do you measure something like this? A new set of principles for exploring inner-landscape? Controlled experimentation gives way to consciousness exploration ?…
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