Various Criteria used to define ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR Unusual or infrequent Socially unacceptable or in violation of social norms Fraught with misperceptions or misinterpretations of reality
Associated with states of severe personal distress Maladaptive or self-defeating Dangerous
Ancient societies attributed abnormal behavior to divine or supernatural forces. Exorcists were used to rid people who behaved abnormally. Greek Physicians Hippocrates and Galen believed that abnormal behavior reflected natural causes. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR
In the 19th Century, German Physician Wilhelm Griesinger argued that abnormal behavior was caused by diseases of the brain. Griesinger, along with another German Physician Emil Kraepin, was ininfluential in the development of the modern medical model Asylums or “madhouses” began to crop up throughout Europe in the late 15th century and early 16th century.
The Biological Perspective -biological perspective incorporate the medical model but refer more broadly to approaches that relate abnormal behavior to biological process and apply biologically based treatments. The Psychological Perspective
Sociocultural Perspective -theorists believe that abnormal behavior is rooted in social ills, such as poverty, discrimination, and social stressors, not in individuals Biopsychosocial Perspective - The leading interactionist model, the diathesis-stress model, posits that some people have predispositions (diathesis) for particular disorders, but whether these disorders actually develop depends upon the type and severity of the stressors they experience
CLASSIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR
A. Degenerative Disease - also called neurodegenerative disease, is a disease in which the function or structure of the affected tissues or organs will progressively deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits. 1. ORGANIC BRAIN DISORDERS
EXAMPLES OF DEGENERATIVE DISEASES: 1. Huntington Disease – Huntington's disease, chorea, or disorder (HD), is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and dementia. It typically becomes noticeable in middle age.
2. Multiple Sclerosis -is an inflammatory disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged, leading to demyelination and scarring as well as a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms.
3. Senile Dementia - also called Alzheimer disease, senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer's type, or simply Alzheimer's, is the most common form of dementia. This incurable, degenerative, and terminal disease
4. Parkinson’s Disease -is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. It results from the death of dopamine-containing cells in the substantinigra, a region of themidbrain; the cause of cell-death is unknown. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related, including shaking,rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait.
B. Cardiovascular Disorders - These are disorders related to the heart. C. Trauma Induced - These are all related to brain injury, hemorrhages and concussions. D. Drug and Alcohol related - Intoxication, drug and alcohol withdrawal symptoms.
Some of the major disorders in this category are: Depression, Phobias, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Bipolar-Affective Disorder, PTSD, Panic Disorders 2. MOOD and ANXIETY
DEPRESSION -is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behaviour, feelings and physical well-being
PANIC ATTACK - are periods of intense fear or apprehension that are of sudden onset and of relatively brief duration. Panic attacks usually begin abruptly, reach a peak within 10 minutes, and subside over the next several hours. It may lead to other anxiety disorders, such as agoraphobia (avoiding going out in public)
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER - Obsessions are persistent thoughts or fears that preoccupy your mind and are difficult to remove. In contrast, compulsions are specific actions that you do over and over, often to deal with an obsessions. BIPOLAR DISORDER - A person with bipolar disorder will go through episodes of mania (highs) and at other times experience episode s of depression (lows).
-formerly referred to as character disorders, are a class of personality types and behaviors. These behavioral patterns in personality disorders are typically associated with severe disturbances in the behavioral tendencies of an individual, usually involving several areas of the personality, and are nearly always associated with considerable personal and social disruption. 3. PERSONALITY DISORDER
THREE CLUSTERS OF PERSONALITY DISORDER. 1. ODD UNUSUAL BEHAVIOR includes:
- This is a collection of diseases that severely affect the brain and thinking processes. The most prevalent symptoms of these diseases are usually delusions and hallucinations. Major Psychotic Disorders:
HALLUCINATIONS - are false or distorted sensory experiences that appear to be real perceptions. These sensory impressions are generated by the mind rather than by an external stimuli, and may be seen, heard, felt, even smelled or tasted.
DELUSIONS - is defined as a false belief based on incorrect inference about external reality that is firmly sustained despite what almost everybody else believes and despite what constitutes inconvertible and obvious proof or evidence to the contrary.
Clinical Interview – the most widely used method of assessment Psychological Tests- are structured methods of assessment that are used to evaluate reasonably stable traits such as intelligence and personality. Neuropsychological assessment- help determine organic bases for impaired behavior and psychological functioning. Behavioral assessment- test responses are taken as samples of behavior rather than as signs underlying traits or dispositions Cognitive assessment- focuses on the measurement of thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes in order to help identify distorted thinking patterns. METHODS OF ASSESSMENT
Involves a systematic interaction between therapists and clients that incorporate psychological principles to help clients overcome abnormal behavior, solve problems in living, or develop as individuals.
Biological approaches include drug therapy, electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT), and psychosurgery.
HOSPITALIZATION and COMMUNITY-BASED CARE - The mental hospital provides a structured treatment environment for people in acute crisis and for those who are unable to adapt to community living. The mental hospital today aims to restore patients to community functioning and incorporates treatment approaches such as biological therapies, psychotherapies, structured living environment s, and drug and alcohol rehabilitation.