The problem with inclusion….. General education teachers are expected to teach studentswith intellectual disabilities (ID) in regular education classroom However general educators, who have vast knowledge regarding curriculum and subject matter, have not received special education and differentiating instruction training And special educators, who have training regarding special education students, are not given the opportunity to educate and support general education teachers in an inclusive setting.
How come the problem is coming to the forefront now?Haven’t students with disabilities been included in school programs for many years?
History Prior to the 1970s, the fate of manyindividuals with disabilities was likely to include residency in a state institution for persons with mental retardation or mental illness (Broderick, Mehta-Parekh, & Reid). .
History (cont.) Many of these restrictive settings provided only minimal food, clothing, and shelter.Too often, persons with disabilities were merely accommodated rather than assessed, educated,and rehabilitated (Broderick et al.).
A step in the right direction….. = Public Law 94-142: 1975 (Education of All Handicapped Children Act)
I n 1 9 7 5 , C o n g re s s p a s s e d P u b l i c L aw 9 4 - 1 4 2 *now known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In order to receive federal funds for education, states had to develop and implement policies that assured all children with disabilities received a free appropriate public education (FAPE) (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2004)
(IDEA, 2004)1) Early intervention programs have supported over 200,000 eligible infants , toddlers, and their families2) Nearly 6 million children receive special education services to meet their individual educational needs.3) More children are in their neighborhood schools, rather than in centrally located schools or institutions4) The majority of children with disabilities are now being educated in regular classrooms with their non-disabled peers.5) High school graduation rates have increased by 14 % from 1984 to 1997.6) Today, post-school employment rates for youth served under IDEA are twice those of older adults with similar disabilities who did not have the benefit of IDEA.7) Post-secondary enrollments among individuals with disabilities receiving IDEA services have tripled since 1978.
….supporting inclusive least restrictiveenvironments with co-teaching classrooms You should know….Inclusion= is when students with disabilities have theright to be members of classroom communities withnondisabled peers, whether or not they can meet thetraditional expectations of those classrooms (VirginiaDepartment of Education, 2010)Co-teaching= an instructional delivery option wheretwo or more licensed professionals, typically generaleducation and special education teachers, jointly planand deliver instruction in a shared space with a diversegroup of students (VDOE,2010)
What does co-teaching look like? These classrooms are very unique and the next two slides demonstrate options for teachers..........
Co-teaching Styles 1.One teach, one 2. Station teaching 3. Parallel teaching observe This is when instruction is divided over 3 centers. The students, are This is when two teachers, each with half the class group, present also divided into three groups This is when one teacher leads the the same material for the primary and rotate from station to station. large-group instruction while purpose of fostering instructional Two stations are being taught by the other gathers academic, differentiation and increasing a teacher and one station behavioral, or social data student participation consists of independent workNote. From “Coteaching: An illustration of the complexity of collaboration in special education,” by Friend, Cook, Hurley-Chamberlain, & Shamberger, 2010, Journal of educational and psychological consultation, 20, p. 12.
Co-teaching styles 6. One teach, 4. Alternative 5. Teaming, one assist: teaching This is when in which This is when in which one This is when both one teacher leads teacher works with most students while the other works teachers lead instruction while the with a small group for large-group other circulates remediation, enrichment, among the students assessment, etc. instruction. offering individual assistance.Note. From “Coteaching: An illustration of the complexity of collaboration in special education,” by Friend, Cook, Hurley-Chamberlain, & Shamberger, 2010, Journal of educational and psychological consultation, 20, p. 12.
Co-teaching has cultural benefits When children only spend time with other children who are thesame, then they are never exposed to children who are different. Segregating children is a disserviceBy intermixing children of all abilities, children are challenged to develop a sense of acceptance and not prejudice. (Friend, Cook, Hurley-Chamberlain, & Shamberger et al.,2010).
Co-teaching fulfills political regulations According to the Individuals Education with Disabilities Act (IDEA) all children are entitled to a free and appropriate education (FAPE). (IDEA, 2004) ~Therefore ~ The solution of co-teaching supports political goals. All students will benefit from co-teaching and inclusive educational settings, because co-teaching practices encourage collaboration among teachers and create challenging learning environments for all students.
The educational opportunities for children withdisabilities have increased. Special education services and teachers have entered the school buildings. However, the segregation of students with disabilities needs to be amended and public schools need to embrace a more inclusive school system. The changefrom a dual educational system, general versus special education, to a united system where inclusion is the focus, takes time; but, co-teaching is a way teachers can collaborate and make inclusion a success.
ReferencesBroderick, A., Mehta-Parekh, H., & Reid, K. (2005). Differentiating instruction for disabled students in inclusive classrooms. Theory Into Practice, 44(3), 194–202.Friend, M., Cook, L., Hurley-Chamberlain, D., Shamberger, C. (2010). Coteaching: An illustration of the complexity of collaboration in special education. Journal of educational and psychological consultation, 20, 9– 27.Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004). Building the legacy: IDEA 2004. Retrieved from http://idea.ed.govVirginia Department of Education (2010). Stepping stones for success: collaboration. Retrieved from http://www.doe.virginia.gov/teaching/ career_resources/stepping_stones2