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  • 1. Identifying and managing the periodontal pathogens that affect cardiovascular disease for health care professionals.
  • 2. Aim: This research is aimed at oral health care providers to identify the periodontal pathogens that are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and periodontal disease. So that periodontal pathogens can be identified and managed to prevent succession of systemic conditions.
  • 3. Identifying the association between periodontal disease and CVD is significant to public health (Hujoel, Drangsholt & Spiekerman, 2000) as CVD accounts for 29% of deaths worldwide (Kim & Amar, 2006) and still represents the major cause of death in industrialised countries (Spahr et al, 2005). The source of chronic inflammation is associated with an increase in CVD; in retro-spec periodontal disease is a possible trigger of this chronic inflammation (Spahr et al, 2005).
  • 4. Research Question “Do periodontal pathogens affect cardiovascular disease?” My research plan will be a survey and in-vitro testing using quantitative methods. This approach is appropriate because it deals with the numerical measurements required to ascertain the affects of periodontal pathogens on CVD. This is the preferred methodology because it aims to test the existing hypotheses, and to identify the numerical difference’s that effect’s each group.
  • 5. The sample group will consist of 300 participants who have been previously affected by cardiovascular disease from within the north island. The instruments chosen for this research plan are a self-report questionnaire sent via mail and in-vitro testing: 1. The questionnaire will be multi-choice questions, sent via mail, and will be prefaced with a cover letter outlining the purpose and nature of the study. 1. For the in-vitro testing a sample of calculus or plaque will be taken via scaling of the tooth surface adjacent to the gingival margin and submitted for laboratory analysis (Polit & Beck, 2004). The analysis will measure the microbiologic levels of the individual participants.
  • 6. The data collection from the in-vitro testing will require trained professionals or trained assistants to accurately take samples from the individual participants (Brinkerhoff et al, n.d.). The data from the questionnaire will be quantified from the original qualitative data to quantitative data for statistical analysis (Polit & Beck, 2008). The answers from the qualitative data will be transformed, through the process of coding, into quantitative values.
  • 7. The theory of probability statistical analysis will be used to interpret the quantitative data and discover the underlying causes, patterns, relationships and trends. The coded variables will be assigned locations within a data file - a codebook is used for documentation of the assigned locations and lists the codes and attributes accordingly. SPSS or micro-case will be used for transferring of the data for statistical analysis Univariate analysis will be used to describe the single variable of periodontal pathogen levels, specifically the attributes it composes. Representation of the univariate data will be reported for all individual cases according to their attribute in terms of the periodontal pathogen levels (Babbie, 2008).
  • 8. The expected outcome of this research is for the identification of the periodontal pathogens causing an effect on cardiovascular disease. Thus, highlighting for dental professionals the need for oral hygiene prevention in this area. In addition, increasing awareness and attention to the link between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease.
  • 9. References Auckland University of Technology ethics committee (AUTEC). (2009, May 14). Research Ethics: ethics and research involving human participants. Retrieved from Babbie, E. (2008). The basics of social research. (4th ed.). Belmont, United States: Thomson Wadsworth. Brinkerhoff, R.O., Brethower, D.M., Hluchyi. T. & Nowakowski, J.R. (n.d.). Program evaluation: a practitioner’s guide for trainers and educators. Retrieved from Cohen, I.R. (2007). Review of biomarkers, self-antigens and the immunological homunculus. Journal of Autoimmunity 29(2007) 246- 249. Retrieved from Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). University of Nebraska- Lincoln. Demmer, R.T., & Desvarieux, M. (2006). Periodontal infections and cardiovascular disease: The heart of the matter. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 137, 14S-20S. Retrieved from Desvarieux, M., Demmer, R.T., Rundek, T., Boden-Albala, B., Jacobs Jnr, D.R., Sacco, R.L, & Papapanou, P.N. (2005). Periodontal Micro biota and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: The Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST). Journal of the American heart association, 111(5), 576-581. Retrieved from Hedges, C., & Bliss-Holtz, J. (2006). Not too big, not too small, but just right: the dilemma of sample size estimation. Advanced Critical Care Nursing, 17(3), 341-344. Hujoel, P. P., Drangsholt, M., & Spiekerman, C. (2000). Periodontal disease and coronary heart disease risk. The Journal of American Medical Association, 284(11), 1406-1410. Retrieved from
  • 10. Hujoel, P. P., Drangsholt, M., Spiekerman, C & DeRouen, T.A. (2002). Pre-existing cardiovascular disease and periodontitis: A Follow- up Study. Journal of Dental Research, 81(3), 186-191. Retrieved from Joshipura, K.J., Wand, H.C., Merchant, A.T., & Rimm, E.B. (2004). Periodontal Disease and Biomarkers Related to Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of dental research, 83(2), 151-155. Retrieved from Kim, J. & Amar, S. (2006). Periodontal disease and systemic conditions: a bidirectional relationship. Odontology, 94(1), 10–21. Retrieved from Koc, M., Karaarslan, O., Abali, G., & Batur, M.K. (2010). Variation in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels over 24 hours: in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Texas Heart Institute Journal, 37(1), 42-48. Retrieved from Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing research: creating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (8th ed.). Philadelphia: PA, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2004). Nursing research: creating and assessing evidence for nursing practice(7th ed.). Philadelphia: PA, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Research Ethics Office. (2008). Why do you need ethics approval. Retrieved from Spahr, A., Klein, E., Khusevinova, N., Boeckh, C., Muche, R., & Kunze, M. (2005). Periodontal Infections and Coronary Heart Disease: Role of Periodontal Bacteria and Importance of Total Pathogen Burden in the Coronary Event and Periodontal Disease (CORODONT) Study. Internal medicine journal, 166, 554-559. Retrieved from