Peer Review: Guest Lecture by Pam

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  • 1. PEER REVIEW Pamela A. Bentley October 21, 2011
  • 2. LECTURE OUTLINE
    • What is peer review?
      • How to identify a peer reviewed article
      • Examples of peer reviewed articles vs. popular press
    • The Process
    • Why is it important?
  • 3. PEER REVIEW (SCHOLARLY OR REFEREED)
    • Evaluation of a document by experts in the field before it is published
      • Assessment of quality of research
        • Did they conduct the correct experiments
        • Use appropriate techniques/technologies , controls, models
        • Is this research novel to the field
      • Validity of results
        • Did the authors over interpret
      • Suggestions for improvement
        • Additional experiments
        • Removal of data (for clarity)
      • Grammatical/stylistic
        • Hopefully NOT!
      • Appropriateness for the Journal
        • Level of knowledge
        • Context
  • 4.
    • Footnotes and references
    • Diagrams, charts, tables
    • Written by a scholar or specialist in the field
    • Articles report on original research or experimentation
    • Published by professional associations
    • Use terminology associated with the discipline
    PEER REVIEWED ARTICLES http://www.ryerson.ca/library/ref/peer.html
  • 5. PEER REVIEW VS. POPULAR PRESS
    • Peer Review
      • More technical jargon
      • Aimed at a specific audience
      • Primary data
    • Popular Press
      • More approachable
      • General audience
  • 6. EXAMPLES: PEER REVIEWED
  • 7. EXAMPLES: POPULAR PRESS
  • 8. HOW TO FIND A PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL?
  • 9. WHAT THEY LOOK LIKE WHY AREN’T THE REVIEWERS LISTED? THE REVIEW PROCESS IS ALWAYS ANONYMOUS
  • 10. THE PROCESS
  • 11. IS EVERY PAPER PUBLISHED?
    • Accept, with or without editorial revisions
    • Invite the authors to revise their manuscript
    • Reject, but indicate to the authors that further work might justify a resubmission
    • Reject outright
    NO!
  • 12. WHY IS PEER REVIEW IMPORTANT?
    • Quality Control
    • Continual Improvement of the field
    • Self Assessment
    Improving the improvement process
  • 13. LET’S PEER REVIEW…
    • Milk yield in dairy cows is increased by short day photoperiod treatment
    Bentley, P. A. 1 , Wall, E. H. 2 , T. B. McFadden 1 Accept Revise Reject
  • 14.
    • Microarray analysis was used to broadly survey the transcriptome of mammary tissue biopsied from dry cows exposed to either short or long day photoperiod treatment. Key points of transcriptional regulation included immunity, responsiveness to prolactin and IGF-I signals, and cellular proliferation. In dairy cows, photoperiod manipulation increases milk yield and improves animal health. This management strategy is widely employed in the industry; however, the cellular mechanisms which facilitate increased milk production are not fully understood. Elucidation of these cellular mechanisms which respond to photoperiod manipulation will contribute to the long term goals of identifying targets for genetic selection, increasing the milk yield and the production efficiency of dairy cows, ultimately enhance profitability. Regulation of gene transcription is a principle mechanism by which cellular function is altered. We hypothesized that genes with functional effects which support milk production in the mammary gland would be differentially expressed in response to photoperiod treatment. The functional outcomes of regulation of these genes are promotion of mammary health and increased milk production capacity.
    Accept Revise Reject
  • 15.
    • Microarray analysis was used to broadly survey the transcriptome of mammary tissue biopsied from dry cows exposed to either short or long day photoperiod treatment. Key points of transcriptional regulation included immunity, responsiveness to prolactin and IGF-I signals, and cellular proliferation. In dairy cows, photoperiod manipulation increases milk yield and improves animal health. This management strategy is widely employed in the industry; however, the cellular mechanisms which facilitate increased milk production are not fully understood . Elucidation of these cellular mechanisms which respond to photoperiod manipulation will contribute to the long term goals of identifying targets for genetic selection, increasing the milk yield and the production efficiency of dairy cows, ultimately enhance profitability. Regulation of gene transcription is a principle mechanism by which cellular function is altered. We hypothesized that genes with functional effects which support milk production in the mammary gland would be differentially expressed in response to photoperiod treatment. The functional outcomes of regulation of these genes are promotion of mammary health and increased milk production capacity.
    Methods Introductions Importance Gap/Hypothesis ?
  • 16.
    • In dairy cows, photoperiod manipulation increases milk yield and improves animal health. This management strategy is widely employed in the industry; however, the cellular mechanisms which facilitate increased milk production are not fully understood. Regulation of gene transcription is a principle mechanism by which cellular function is altered. We hypothesized that genes with functional effects which support milk production in the mammary gland would be differentially expressed in response to photoperiod treatment. Microarray analysis was used to broadly survey the transcriptome of mammary tissue biopsied from dry cows exposed to either short or long day photoperiod treatment. Key points of transcriptional regulation included immunity, responsiveness to prolactin and IGF-I signals, and cellular proliferation. The functional outcomes of regulation of these genes are promotion of mammary health and increased milk production capacity. Elucidation of these cellular mechanisms which respond to photoperiod manipulation will contribute to the long term goals of identifying targets for genetic selection, increasing the milk yield and the production efficiency of dairy cows, ultimately enhance profitability.
    Accept Revise Reject
  • 17. CONCLUSIONS
    • Elucidation of these cellular mechanisms which respond to photoperiod manipulation will ultimately contribute hugely to all of science, and most likely save mankind. We believe using these technique to produce milk, there will be enough milk available to feed every child on earth.
    • Elucidation of these cellular mechanisms which respond to photoperiod manipulation will contribute to the long term goals of identifying targets for genetic selection, increasing the milk yield and the production efficiency of dairy cows, ultimately enhance profitability.
    Accept Revise Reject
  • 18. HOW WILL YOU USE THIS INFO?
    • Know how to identify a peer reviewed journal/paper
    • Understand that publication is a collective / rigorous process
    • Begin to see that information in popular press ≠ scientific findings
  • 19. ACTIVITY
    • Tweet your thoughts on Peer Review.
    • Use the popular press to find research finding of interest
      • Eg: Vitamin D deficiency in cancer patients
    • Find a peer reviewed article on the same topic.
  • 20. RESOURCES/IMAGES USED
    • http://graphics217b.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/best-magazine-covers101.jpeg
    • http://www.scientificamerican.com/media/cover/cover_2008-08.jpg
    • http://a903.phobos.apple.com/us/r30/Newsstand/v4/39/e9/8a/39e98ab1-bc96-0b78-9523-bd71e66db72b/seo_cw_product.png
    • http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v478/n7368/images/cover_nature.jpg
    • http://undsci.berkeley.edu/images/us101/peerreview.gif
    • http://i181.photobucket.com/albums/x176/weirdscience_photos/PeerReviewCartoon.jpg
    • http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR4jz1Eg2dsCvMi-mrQJ9RCOXVMrkRYgFhqmdxHCDFok2O0f6za