1. Reading and Writing Academic Papers #ALES204 Lecture 18 Dr. Jessica Laccetti
2. Outline• Science Article Assignment• How to Write• Experiment• How to Read• Practise
3. Science Article Assignment• Four Options• https://docs.google.com/open?id=0BzsIVy sTrCWkSTZULTJWT3VRM2FaTzllX0FQ WkU0dw
4. HOW TO WRITE
5. Common Mistakes• Temperature has an effect on the reaction.• Temperature affects the reaction.• I used solutions in various concentrations. (The solutions were 5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml, and 15 mg/ml)• I used solutions in varying concentrations. (The concentrations I used changed; sometimes they were 5 mg/ml, other times they were 15 mg/ml.)• Less food (cant count numbers of food)• Fewer animals (can count numbers of animals)• A large amount of food (cant count them)• A large number of animals (can count them)
6. Common MistakesInstead of WritePrior to BeforeDue to the fact that BecauseIn a considerable number of cases OftenIn the vast majority of MostDuring the time that WhenIn close proximity to NearIt has long been know that I’m too lazy to look up the reference
7. Style• You don’t need a table of contents• Number all the pages beginning with the first page• Your paper should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11") with 1" margins on all sides. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font. – But remember Times New Roman is the *default* font, you can also use Verdana, Arial, Courier New• Include a page header at the top of every page with the page number AND your surname (some journals will tell you exactly what they want in the header)
8. ExperimentHOW TO READ
9. • On your own:• Read the article• In FIVE minutes you will be stopped and asked to identify important details
10. Reading Comprehension• Please complete the questionnaire found on the blog, embedded in today’s lecture post.• Results are anonymous!
11. Harvard Report• As an experiment, Dr. Perry (psychologist), Director of the Harvard Reading-Study Center gave 1500 first year students a thirty-page chapter from a history book to read, with the explanation that in about twenty minutes they would be stopped and asked to identify the important details and to write an essay on what they had read.
12. Harvard Report - Results• The class scored well on a multiple- choice test on detail, but only 15 students of 1500 were able to write a short statement on what the chapter was all about in terms of its basic theme.• Only 15 of 1500 top first year college students had thought of reading the paragraph marked "Summary", or of skimming down the descriptive flags in the margin.
13. Change your Reading Style• No more “obedient purposelessness”• Ask yourself: – What is important? – What does the assignment ask? – What can I skip?
14. HOW TO READ
15. Step 1• Look at the title• Key information is here• “Emerging design strategies in sustainable production and consumption of textiles and clothing”
16. Step 2• Read the Abstract• “This study contributes to current knowledge of sustainability in textile and clothing production and consumption.”• “At present, however, business models are mainly linked with a large volume of sales and production.”
17. Step 2• “The paper presents ways to rethink and redesign business in the textile and clothing field by offering an overview on several design strategies that exist today in niche markets.• Furthermore we evaluate how interested consumers are in these design strategies and discuss the opportunities these design approaches offer to sustainable development through new value creation.”
18. Your Turn• In your own words (& with a partner), what is the argument being presented here?• Tweet @JessL
19. Step 3• Skim the ENTIRE article• But NOT every word!• Read only the first 1-2 sentences of each paragraph
20. Step 4• Read the entire FIRST paragraph of each section
21. Your Turn• With a partner:• Choose a section and read the ENTIRE first paragraph• Focus on key words/ideas in that paragraph• In a comment on today’s lecture post, tell me what the main idea of that paragraph is, be sure to note the section number/name
22. Step 5• Read the entire FIRST and LAST paragraphs in both the Introduction and Concluding sections
23. Steps Completed1. Identify Section Headers ✔2. Read the Abstract3. Read the first paragraph of the introduction4. Read the 1st sentence of each subsequent paragraph in theintroduction5. Read the ENTIRE final intro. paragraph6. Read the next heading7. Read the ENTIRE first paragraph8. Read the 1st sentence of each subsequent paragraph insection9. Read the ENTIRE final paragraph of section10. Repeat steps 6-911. Read the ENTIRE conclusion
24. Signposting in Writing & Reading• Read the first paragraph. Can you find any cause and effect words?• Until, rather
25. Signposting in Writing & Reading• Read section 10. Can you find any additive words?
26. Remember• The purpose of reading• If it is for specific research etc…• Tailor your reading to focus on certain sections or keywords (where that most pertinent information is)
27. Homework• For Friday, please read:• Daryl J. Bem, Writing the Empirical Journal Article: http://dbem.ws/WritingArticle.pdf• Kaustav is guest lecturing next class – be ready to send three critically literate tweets