Evolutionary biologist Bjørn Grinde in h i s book Darwinian H ap piness ,
For example, the emotion of love is proposed to be the expression of paleocircuits of the mammalian brain (specifically, modules of the cingulate gyrus ) which facilitate the care, feeding, and grooming of offspring.
The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex . The cingulate cortex is usually considered part of the limbic lobe , separate from the adjacent frontal and parietal lobes.
It is an integral part of the limbic system , which is involved with emotion formation and processing, learning, and memory, and is also important for executive function and respiratory control.
Mammals are equipped with a nerve system that enables them to distinguished between pleasant and unpleasant, positive and negative experiences.
Humans are equipped with a more powerful structure due to our capacity for free will.
The emotion of love is the expression of paleocircuits of the mammalian brain which facilitate care, feeding and grooming of offspring.
Emotion is related to a group of structures in the centre of the brain called the limbic system; hypothalamus, cingulate cortex, hippocampi and other structures.
This brain region has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behaviors, personality expression, decision making and moderating correct social behavior. The basic activity of this brain region considered to be orchestration of thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals. The most typical functions are: determine good and bad, better and best, same and different, future consequences of
current activities, working toward a defined goal, prediction of outcomes, expectation based on actions, and social "control" (the ability to suppress urges that, if not suppressed, could lead to socially unacceptable outcomes).
The amygdalae are almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep within the of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown in research to perform a primary role in the
processing and memory of emotional reactions , the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system .
Robert Sapolsky is a biologist specialising in neuro-endocrinology. He’s a primatologist who studies savanna baboons in Kenya. He’s a teacher and scholar at Stanford University. )
Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and neurotransmitter .  When produced in the body it increases heart rate, contracts blood vessels and dilates air passages and participates in the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system .  It is a catecholamine , a monoamine produced only by the adrenal glands from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine .
As a stress hormone , norepinephrine affects parts of the brain where attention and responding actions are controlled. Along with epinephrine , norepinephrine also underlies the fight-or-flight response , directly increasing heart rate , triggering the release of glucose from energy stores, and increasing blood flow to skeletal muscle .
Like us, baboons only spend a few hours a day satisfying their primary need - food - which leaves them at least three times that amount of time to get on each other's nerves…again, just like us.
His work related stress to social status, locus of control, coping mechanisms. Dominant males who were aggressive did not have to develop coping mechanisms, they submitted everybody else in the troop, female and younger makes either cope well or did not cope at all, hormone levels were higher in the later ones.
Sapolsky says: People should commit to consistent stress management in situations of lack of control or lack of predictability.
Depression: Depression is a common mental disorder that presents with depressed mood, it can severely affect our capacity to experience happiness.
Disadvantages of being an individualist in an individualistic culture: Idiocentrism, emotional competence, stress, and mental health. Greg Scott a ; Joseph Ciarrochi a ;Frank P. Deane. University of Wollongong.
People who had strong individualistic values and beliefs within an individualistic culture would have: smaller social support networks, lower emotional competence, lower intentions to seek help from a variety of sources, and poorer mental health.
“ Let us recognise that there can be no health without mental health.”
Those were The words of UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon on October 10, a day earmarked since 1992 as World Mental Health Day. He also emphasised that mental health is paramount to a person’s “well-being, family relationships and an individual’s ability to contribute to society.”
Ban Ki-moon reminded us that because resources are not only “insufficient, inequitably distributed and inefficiently used,” a large majority of people with mental disorders receive no care at all. “Scaling-up services should be a priority.”
The ladder of success. Csikszentmihalyi Hu n g arian ps yc hology professor, the architect of the no t i on o f flow psychology: people tend to compare upward, i.e. China there are more available examples of better off people with whom to compare. Comparing downward express greater satisfaction with their own lives.
Self-control and Emotional Intelligence. An intelligent person could be unmotivated to direct his intelligence to certain tasks.
Positive Psychology: Seligman born 1942 is an American psychologist and author of self-help books asserts that "pleasures of the moment" typically involve external stimulus. Positive psychologists also study positive character strengths and virtues and positive social institutions.
Assessing happiness: Psychologists use , Satisfaction With Life Scales, The Affect Balance Scale,The Experience Sampling Method AND The Day Reconstruction Method, The Subjective Happiness Scale AND The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire
David Thoreson Lykken (1928 - 2006) was a behavioural geneticist and Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Psychiatry at the University of Minnesota . : 50% of one's happiness depends on one's genes, based on studying identical twins, whose happiness is 50% correlated even when growing up in different houses. About 10% to 15% is a result of various measurable life circumstances variables, such as socioeconomic status, marital status, health, income, sex and others. The remaining 40% is a combination of unknown factors.
Happiness in social networks: humans are social animals, with an evident need to belong.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Drives and desires can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentive.
Only unsatisfied needs influence behavior. In order of importance. Move to upper levels when lower levels satisfied. The further up the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show.
Motivation is the activation or energization of goal-oriented behavior. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic.
Intrinsic motivation: is the feeling experienced as a consequence of doing something for the shake of making you feel good without expecting an external reward.
Intrinsic motivation has been explained by Fritz Heider's attribution theory , Bandura's work on self-efficacy , and Ryan and Deci's cognitive evaluation theory. For students: internal factors like amount of effort, that they can be effective agents not luck and that they are interested in mastering a topic not just getting good grades.
Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Motivators: challenging work, recognition, responsibility and Hygiene factors: status, job security, salary, fringe benefits. Money is a motivator, however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period. If not Hygiene --> deterioration. At higher levels of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money.
Human relationships are consistently found to be the most important correlation with human happiness.
Cognitive dissonance. Degree of discomfort resulting from an incompatibility between two cognitions. The buyer. The Fox and the grapes Aesop (620-564 BC). What John Elster calls "adaptive preference formation. Or an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously.
Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to “ overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation ”. We should not based our happiness exclusively in extrinsic rewards as they would cause detriment in the more important and positive feelings that do not depend on prizes and external rewards.
Goal-setting theory : proximity, difficulty and specificity. Children are more motivated to learn how to ride a bike than mastering in algebra.
Models of behavior change: Volition leads from intention to actual behavior. Motivation is goals setting and volition is goals pursuit. Both require self regulatory efforts to attain goals.
Education: direct behavior, lead to increase energy, increase initiation and persistence, enhance cognitive processing, determining what consequences are reinforcing lead to improve performance.
Affective Events Theory and Two-factor theory: Singer-Schachter theory , despite being placed into the same physiological state with an injection of adrenaline. Subjects were observed to express either anger or amusement depending on whether another person in the situation displayed that emotion.
James-Lange theory , somatic theory: William James psychologist and philosopher Carl Georg Lange (1834 - 1900) Danish physician and psychologist . Argued that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes. We are angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble or we don’t do these because we are sorry.
Cannon-Bard theory: Cannon an American physiologist ,argued against the dominance of the James-Lange theory Cannon and Bard argued that the emotion arises first and then stimulates typical behaviour.
Component process model: A recent version of the cognitive theory regards emotions more broadly as the synchronisation of many different bodily and cognitive components. Emotions are identified with the overall process whereby low-level cognitive appraisals, in particular the processing of relevance, trigger bodily reactions, behaviors, feelings, and actions.
V. Sociological Factors. “A happy world” “Brave New World 1932”
“ Brave New World”. Alders Huxley(1894-1963). AD 2540, The vast majority of the population is unified under The World State , an eternally peaceful, stable global society in which goods and resources are plentiful (because the population is permanently limited to no more than two billion people) and everyone is happy.
Natural reproduction has been done away with and children are decanted and raised in Hatcheries and Conditioning Centres. Society is divided into five castes , created in these centres.
All members of society; are conditioned in childhood to hold the values that the World State idealises, which improves societal stability and quality of life.
In The World State , people typically die at age 60, having maintained good health and youthfulness their whole life. Death isn't feared; anyone reflecting upon it is reassured by the knowledge that everyone is happy, and that society goes on.
Sociological Factors. Happiness in the Perfect Society. Competition vs. Interaction .
Happiness requires political and economical stability and a fair educational system where humans rights would be guaranteed, without these the conditions happiness we cannot expect that happiness from social interaction would last.
Adam Smith (1723-1790): Father of modern economics. An inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The Wealth of Nations. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity.
Karl Marx (1818 –1883): ( German philosopher , political economist , historian , political theorist , sociologist , communist , and revolutionary ) Humankind's history is fundamentally that of the struggle between social classes . The critique of capitalism — Marx argues that in capitalist society, an economic minority (the bourgeoisie ) dominate and exploit the working class ( proletariat ) majority.
David Émile Durkheim (1858 – 1917): was a French Sociologist. “Organic Solidarity” (Mechanical/Organic)The Division of Labor. Mechanical: homogeneity of individuals, traditional or small societies. Organic solidarity: interdependence, specialisation of work in modern and industrial societies. Organic is referring to the interdependence of the component parts. Anomie arises more generally from a mismatch between personal or group standards and wider social standards. A true social interaction based on the commitment to help each other and share our happiness through work (Jes.)
Education in society Freedom to Learn. Freedom to learn is also "the freedom of the learning generation." The goals of education in a free society The ability to function in a free, democratic society as full participants in community affairs; a society where every citizen, shows full respect for everyone else, treating all people as equals in all matters. "Education and Instruction," Leo Tolstoy, 1860.
Easterlin Paradox in Happiness Economics. Richard A. Easterlin is University Professor and Professor of Economics at the University of Southern California ."  Easterlin found that within a given country people with higher incomes are more likely to report being happy.
"The irony is that health and the quality of personal relationships are among the most potent predictors of whether people report they are happy -- and they are often the two things people sacrifice in their pursuit of greater wealth. Nations, Easterlin argues, make the same mistake as people."
Wealth and Well-Being. Ruut Veenhoven, a sociologist in the Netherlands and the director of the World Database of Happiness.
Happiness is not necessarily stable: people may change their attitudes towards life.
Neither are happiness judgements always definite, nor does a persons' appreciation of life necessarily match with ethical standards.
The concept of happiness is the degree to which an individual’s overall evaluation of his life-as-a-whole concludes positively. Happiness, is not 'well-being', 'quality of life', 'morale', 'mental health' and 'adjustment'.
Happiness' here is currently given other names as well. Terms like 'life-satisfaction', and 'psychological well-being'
A better understanding of happiness begins with the correction of misconceptions (Veenhoven)
Buddhism. Encourages loving kindness and compassion, the welfare of all beings. Happiness is obtained by chanting Nam-Myho-Renge-Kyo to overcome your sufferings.
Catholicism: Happiness consists in felicity or blessed happiness, described by;; Thomas Aquinas as a Beatific Vision of God’s essence.
Asceticism: meaning to practise strenuously, to exercise as the Greek Athletes did. Some forms of Christianity, Buddhism and Indian Religions including Yoga teach that salvation and liberation involve a process of mind-body transformation by restraining actions of the body, speech and mind.
Criticism. Friedrich Nietzsche opposed Socrates and Plato regarding Plato as the fundamental source of Nihilism in the West, (Def.: the negation of one or more aspects of life).
Judaism. Asceticism not encouraged in Judaism, the torture of the flesh following the fundamental wickedness of this life and the corruption under the sin of the flesh. Buddhism as well as Christianity leads to ascetic practises. moses Maimonides (1135-1204) Spanish philosopher raised his powerful voice against these practises. Still humans can enjoy the pleasures of life while the show devotion to God.
Taoism. Characterised by mysticism, secret practices and asceticism influenced Aristotle and Plato, and in the XIX Hegel and Schopenhauer. Taoists believe that the man is a microcosm of the universe and that they can get knowledge of the universe by understanding himself. Rituals, exercise and substances are used to affect physical and mental health. They firsts alchemists and many died by drinking beverages made of heavy metals such as mercury as they believe that will make their bodies as light as a spirit. Happiness is understood as to go along with the Dao.
Confucianism. Mencius (2300 years ago) was convinced that the mind played a mediating role between the”lesser self” (the physiological self) and the “greater self” (the moral self) getting the priorities right between the two of them leads to sagehood meaning authenticity.
Islam. Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) Wrote the Alchemy of Happiness widely practiced even now. God gave the capacity of reason to men to transform their soul for the complete devotion to God.
Fear is an emotional response to a perceived threat. It is a basic survival mechanism occurring in response to a specific stimulus , such as pain or the threat of danger. Fear should be distinguished from the related emotional state of anxiety , which typically occurs without any external threat.
Psychologists have addressed the hypothesis that fear of death motivates religious commitment, and that it may be alleviated by assurances about an afterlife.
Locus of control in psychology refers to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them. Understanding of the concept was developed by Julian B. Rotter in 1954, and has since become an important aspect of personality studies.
Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe that events result primarily from their own behavior and actions. Those with a high external locus of control believe that powerful others, fate, their environment, some higher power, other people , or chance control their decisions and their life.
There is now extensive research suggesting that religious people are happier and less stressed. It may be related social contact and support, good health due to less substance abuse, optimism and volunteering, psychological factors such as "reason for being," learned coping strategies to deal with stress, or some combination of these factors.
Socrates (469 / 470 BC) : The philosophic soul according to Socrates has reason, will, and desires united in virtuous harmony. A philosopher has the moderate love for wisdom and the courage to act according to wisdom. Wisdom is knowledge about the Good or the right relations between all that exists .)
Socrates based happiness in the idea of justice. The just man is happier than the unjust man. How can the most democratic society was able to condemn the wisest of all men?
Socrates said that justice sustains and perfects the other three cardinal virtues : Temperance, Wisdom, and Courage, and that justice is the cause and condition of their existence. Socrates does not include justice as a virtue within the city, suggesting that justice does not exist within the human soul either, rather it is result of a "well ordered" soul.
PLATO Philosopher kings are the hypothetical rulers, or Guardians, of Plato 's Utopian Kallipolis . If his ideal city-state is to ever come into being, "philosophers [must] become kings…or those now called kings [must]…genuinely and adequately philosophise" ( The Republic , 5.473d).
Plato’s Republic. aristocracy (rule by the best) to a timocracy (rule by the honorable), then to an oligarchy (rule by the few), then to a democracy (rule by the people), and finally to tyranny (rule by one person, rule by a tyrant.
The Republic (c. 380 BC.), by Plato , is a philosophical dialogue about the nature of justice and the order and character of the just City-State and the just individual. The dialogues, among Socrates and various Athenians and foreigners, discuss the meaning of justice , and examine whether or not the just man is happier than the unjust man, by proposing a society ruled by philosopher-kings and the guardians.
“ The philosopher”. In the Nic omachean Ethics , written in 350 B.C.E. Nicomachus . Aristotle begins with the premise that the highest good for humans and the highest aim of all human practical thinking is
eudaimonia , often translated as "well-being," or " happiness ," which in Aristotle's view is achieved by action of the human psuchē , traditionally translated as " soul ", in accordance with virtue (Greek aretē , sometimes translated as "excellence"), in a stable way that endures throughout life.
In Aristotle’s view, happiness is achieved by possessing what he refers to as the good. In chapter 1 of book 7, Aristotle separates the good into three different classes which he terms, external goods, goods of the body, and goods of the soul. External goods refer to the wealth and possessions of an individual or a city. Health is the main example of a good of the body. Goods of the soul include things like wisdom, courage, temperance, and virtue. Aristotle believes that of all the goods, the goods of the soul are most important, but he feels that all three are necessary for happiness to be possible.
Note that eudaimonia , the term we translate as "happiness", is for Aristotle an activity rather than an emotion or a state. Happiness is characteristic of a good life, that is, a life in which a person fulfils human nature in an excellent way. For Aristotle, then, happiness is "the virtuous activity of the soul in accordance with reason": happiness is the practice of virtue.
Note: Aristotle commented in his Rhetoric that a society cannot be happy unless women are happy too.
Zeno of Citium. Zeno, depicted by Raphael in The School of Athens
Stoicism (Greek Στοά ) was a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. (Stoic ethics is that good lies in the state of the soul itself; in wisdom and self-control. Stoic ethics stressed the rule: "Follow where reason leads." One must therefore strive to be free of the passions , bearing in mind that the ancient meaning of 'passion' was "anguish" or "suffering", that is, "passively" reacting to external events — somewhat different from the modern use of the word. The idea was to be free of suffering through apatheia (Greek: ἀπάθεια) or peace of mind (literally,'without passion').
Where peace of mind was understood in the ancient sense — being objective or having "clear judgment" and the maintenance of equanimity in the face of life's highs and lows in order to be objective or having clear judgement despite the highs and lows of life. Virtue is sufficient for happiness.
Hedonism is a school of ethics . The basic idea behind hedonistic thought is that pleasure is the only thing that has intrinsic value. This is often used as a justification for evaluating actions in terms of how much pleasure and how little pain (i.e. suffering ) they produce. In very simple terms, a hedonist strives to maximise this net pleasure (pleasure minus pain). Also called psychological egoism or ethical egoism, as humans are motivated by self interest or that humans should seek their own interest.
The Cyrenaics taught that the only intrinsic good is pleasure, which meant not just the absence of pain, but positively enjoyable sensations. Of these, momentary pleasures, especially physical ones, are stronger than those of anticipation or memory. They did, however, recognise the value of social obligation, and that pleasure could be gained from altruism. The school died out within a century, and was replaced by the more sophisticated philosophy of Epicureanism .
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus ( c . 341– c . 270 BC), founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist , following in the steps of Democritus . His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention. Following Aristippus —about whom very little is known—Epicurus believed that the greatest good was to seek modest pleasures in order to attain a state of tranquility and freedom from fear ( ataraxia ) as well as absence of bodily pain ( aponia ) through knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of our desires. The combination of these two states is supposed to constitute happiness in its highest form. Although Epicureanism is a form of hedonism, insofar as it declares pleasure as the sole intrinsic good, its conception of absence of pain as the greatest pleasure and its advocacy of a simple life make it different from "hedonism" as it is commonly understood.
Immanuel Kant and simple utilitarianism. Metaphysics began with the study of the knowledge of God and the nature of a future world. It was concluded early that good conduct would result in happiness in another world as arranged by God.
Kant does not encourage acting in order to attain happiness . A rational agent will pursue happiness when on reflection the categorical imperative recommends happiness, but not as a foundational goal in itself. Happiness should not be our goal.
There is an indirect interest in pursuing happiness as long as it does not interfere with other duties.
Kant says that happiness should not be our goal, but he also says we should respect moral agents. We ourselves are moral agents with a capacity for happiness and it is our duty as rational agents to pursue happiness so long as it does not interfere with other duties. This is all true, except... Kant writes, "A man even has an indirect duty to seek happiness. The more he is troubled by the burdens of anxiety and need, the more he may be tempted to fail in his duty. Even apart from duty, everyone has the most fundamental urge to be happy, since the idea of happiness more or less sums up in our minds the satisfaction of all our desires, cares, and needs."
Our happiness in that intelligible world will exactly depend on how we have made ourselves worthy of being happy.
Utilitarianism . Felicific Calculus. Jeremy Bentham (1748 –1832). The possibility of computing the value of ‘units’ of happiness, associated with the utilitarianism of Bentham . Happiness, or the end of action, is to be measured in terms of units of pleasure . Happiness is to be measured in terms of units of pleasure, these are ordered by intensity, duration and propinquity.
Happiness is not a physical entity or just an entity on its own that can be produced and sold by quantity or weight. It is more a result from performing an activity.
Another problem that utilitarianism faces is to benefit the majority, but as in any society the majority is made by minorities aged citizens, students, unemployed people, disabled people, ethnic groups, married people, separated people, different religious groups, how can anyone managed to satisfy all of them with similar standards? What is the standard unit of happiness that is accepted by everybody?
Ayn Rand (1905 – 1982), was a Russian-American novelist, philosopher, playwright, and screenwriter.
Objectivism: holds that reality exists independent of consciousness; that individual persons are in direct contact with reality through sensory perception; that human beings can gain objective knowledge from perception through the process of concept formation and inductive and deductive logic ; that the proper moral purpose of one's life is the pursuit of one's own happiness or rational self-interest; that the only social system consistent with this morality is capitalism.
Ayn Rand characterised Objectivism as "a philosophy for living on earth", grounded in reality, and aimed at defining man's nature and the nature of the world in which he lives.
The fundamental right is the right to life, with other rights following from it, including rights to "liberty, property, and the pursuit of happiness.
William James 1842 : happiness is created as a result of our being active participants in the game of life. James writes that pessimism is at root a religious disease.
Viktor Frankl 1905 : “What man actually needs is not a tensionless state but rather the striving and struggling for some goal worthy of him.
Abraham Maslow 1908: Maslow insists that the urge for self-actualisation is deeply entrenched in the human psyche, but only surfaces once the more basic needs are fulfilled.
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi 1934 : The best moments usually occur if a person’s body or mind is stretched to its limits in a voluntary effort to accomplish something difficult and worthwhile. People find genuine satisfaction during a state of consciousness called Flow.
Martin Seligman 1942 : “Happiology,” Happiness has three dimensions that can be cultivated: the Pleasant Life, the Good Life, and the Meaningful Life. Bodily needs, virtues and strengths and the fulfilment of a purpose greater than ourselves. Seligman’s theory reconciles the individualistic approach, take care of ourselves and the altruistic approach, which emphasizes sacrifice for the greater purpose.
“ Happiness is an ongoing and progressive state of mind always willing to change, influenced by beliefs and preconceptions and subjected to be shaped by new knowledge. Happiness is the inner feeling of a positive emotion from having gathered the satisfaction of fulfilling different needs at different levels. Human curiosity in search for new knowledge unbalances the current state of happiness making people abandon this state in search of higher goals.”