Chapter14

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  • 1. Chapter 14 Supernatural Beliefs
  • 2. What We Will Learn
    • What is religion?
    • What functions does religion perform for the individual and the society as a whole?
    • What different forms does religion take among the societies of the world?
    • What role does religion play in the process of culture change?
  • 3. Defining Religion
    • A set of beliefs in supernatural forces directed at helping people make sense of the world and solve problems.
    • All forms of religion are founded on a belief in the supernatural.
  • 4. Religion in Societies
    • All societies have:
      • Religious rituals that appease supernatural forces
      • Sets of beliefs concerning what we would call the soul
      • Notions about life after death
  • 5. Religion in Societies
    • Evangelist Timothy J. Keller thrives in Manhattan by embracing the city and identifying with its culture.
  • 6. Religion
    • Animism
      • Belief that people have souls or spirits in addition to physical, visible bodies.
    • Polytheism
      • The belief in the existence of many gods.
    • Monotheism
      • The belief in only one god.
  • 7. Religion
    • Animatism
      • Belief in a generalized, impersonal power over which people have some measure of control.
    • Mana
      • An impersonal supernatural force, inhabiting certain people or things, which is believed to confer power, strength, and success.
  • 8. Question
    • ______ is a set of beliefs in supernatural beings and forces directed at helping people make sense of the world and solve important problems.
        • Belief
        • Religion
        • Ritual
        • Superstition
  • 9. Answer: b
    • Religion is a set of beliefs in supernatural beings and forces directed at helping people make sense of the world and solve important problems.
  • 10. Supernatural Healing
    • A traditional healer from Jamaica uses supernatural powers.
  • 11. Magic
    • Vodoo, a form of imitative magic, is practiced in Togo.
  • 12. Magic
    • Supernatural beliefs that involve manipulation of supernatural forces to intervene in human activities and natural events.
    • Imitative magic
      • Based on the idea that the procedure performed resembles the desired result.
    • Contagious magic
      • Based on the premise that things, once in contact with a person continue to influence that person after separation.
  • 13. Sorcery and Witchcraft
    • Witchcraft is an inborn, involuntary, and often unconscious capacity to cause harm to other people.
    • Sorcery is the performance of certain magical rites for the purpose of harming other people.
  • 14. Wicca
    • A modern-day movement of witches and pagans.
    • Covens are local groups of witches found in major cities in the United States, which are presided over by high priestesses.
    • Satanists are individuals belonging to a group of people who worship Satan.
  • 15. Wicca
    • Led by Amy Krinner, a coven of Wiccans practices magic in Bayshore, New York.
  • 16. Question
    • _______ involves the manipulation of supernatural forces for the purpose of intervening in a wide range of human activities and natural events.
        • Magic
        • Witchcraft
        • Sorcery
        • Religion
  • 17. Answer: a
    • Magic involves the manipulation of supernatural forces for the purpose of intervening in a wide range of human activities and natural events.
  • 18. Question
    • Unlike magic or witchcraft, ________, stories of a culture's gods, their origins, and such, serve to explain the large questions surrounding human existence.
        • legends
        • myths
        • religion
        • tales
  • 19. Answer: b
    • Unlike magic or witchcraft, myths, stories of a culture's gods, their origins, and such, serve to explain the large questions surrounding human existence.
  • 20. Myths
    • Sacred literature that states certain religious truths.
    • Include stories of the gods, their origins, their activities, and the moral injunctions they teach.
    • A culture’s mythology is closely connected to its moral and social order.
  • 21. Social Functions of Religion
    • Social control
    • Conflict resolution
    • Intensifying group solidarity
  • 22. Psychological Functions of Religion
    • Cognitive
      • Provides an intellectual framework for explaining parts of our world that we do not understand.
    • Emotional
      • Helps reduce anxiety by prescribing straightforward ways of coping with stress.
  • 23. Question
    • By helping individuals cope with the anxieties often accompanying deaths, accidents, illnesses and other misfortunes, religion serves a/an:
        • group identity function.
        • cognitive function.
        • positive function.
        • emotional function.
  • 24. Answer: d
    • By helping individuals cope with the anxieties often accompanying deaths, accidents, illnesses and other misfortunes, religion serves a/an emotional function.
  • 25. Classifying Religions: Anthony Wallace
    • Wallace identified four principal patterns of religious organization based on what he calls cults.
    • Wallace uses the term cult to refer to forms of religion that have their own set of beliefs, rituals, and goals.
    • This use of the term should not be confused with the definition used to refer to an antisocial religious group that brainwashes its members before leading them to mass suicide.
  • 26. Classifying Religions: Anthony Wallace
    • Four forms of religious organization:
      • Individualistic cults
      • Shamanistic cults
      • Communal cults
      • Ecclesiastical cults
  • 27. Individualistic Cults
    • The least complex form of religious organization in which each person is his or her own religious specialist.
      • Vision quest
        • A ritual found among a number of Plains Indian cultures wherein through visions people establish special relationships with spirits who provide them with knowledge, power, and protection.
  • 28. Shamanistic Cults
    • Forms of religion in which part-time religious specialists called shamans intervene with the deities on behalf of their clients.
    • Shaman
      • A part-time religious specialist who is thought to have supernatural powers by virtue of birth, training, or inspiration.
  • 29. Shamans
    • Piaroa Indian shaman Miguel Ochoa is pictured here with medicinal plants gathered from the jungle village of Aska aja, near Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela.
  • 30. Communal Cults
    • Societies in which groups of ordinary people conduct religious ceremonies for the well-being of the total community.
    • Rites of passage
      • Any ceremony celebrating the transition of a person from one social status to another.
    • Rites of solidarity
      • Any ceremony performed for the sake of enhancing of social integration.
  • 31. Ecclesiastical Cults
    • Highly complex religious systems employing full-time priests.
    • Ecclesiastical cults are characterized by full-time professional clergy, who are formally elected or appointed and devote all or most of their time to performing priestly functions.
    • Unlike shamans who conduct rituals during times of crisis or when their services are needed, these full-time priests conduct rituals that occur at regular intervals.
  • 32. Question
    • The most complex form of religion is the ________, which is commonly found in societies with state systems of government.
        • individual cult
        • communal cult
        • ecclesiastical cult
        • shamanistic cult
  • 33. Answer: c
    • The most complex form of religion is the ecclesiastical cult, which is commonly found in societies with state systems of government.
  • 34. Major Religions of the World
  • 35. Rabbi Naamah Kelman
    • Rabbi Naamah Kelman, the first female rabbi to be ordained in Israel, is a full time religious specialist who works within a hierarchical organization.
  • 36. Number of Adherents of Major World Religions Religion Millions Christian 2106
      • Roman Catholic
    1105
      • Protestant
    369
      • Orthodox
    218
      • Anglican
    79
      • Independent
    416
  • 37. Number of Adherents of Major World Religions Religion Millions Bahai 7.5 Buddhist 375 Hindu 851 Jewish 15 Muslim 1283 New Religionists 107
  • 38. Characteristics of Different Religious Organizations Role Specialization Subsistence Example Individualistic None Food collector Crow vision quest Shamanistic Part-time Food collector Pastoralism Tungus shamanism
  • 39. Characteristics of Different Religious Organizations Role Specialization Subsistence Example Communal Perform rites for community Horticulture Totemistic rituals Ecclesiastical Full-time Horticulture/ Pastoralism Christianity and Buddhism
  • 40. Religion in the U.S.
    • Summary of the findings of two recent surveys on religion in America:
      • Roman Catholicism is the largest single religious group, comprising 24% of the adult population.
      • Anglicans, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant churches, comprising some 220 denominations, represent 36% of the adult population.
  • 41. Religion in the U.S.
    • Summary of the findings of two recent surveys on religion in America:
      • Approximately 1.5% of the population is Jewish.
      • The Islamic religion is the fastest-growing organized religion in the United States.
      • The percentage of adults identifying with a religious group dropped from 90% in 1990 to 81% in 2001.
      • The fastest-growing group in the U.S. Is those who do not identify with any specific religion; this group went from 14.3 million in 1990 to 29.4 million in 2001.
  • 42. Globalization of Religion
    • Cardinal Bernardin Gantin represents a part of the world that is growing rapidly in the number of people practicing Catholicism.
  • 43. Liberation Theology
    • A form of Catholicism found throughout South and Central America in which priests and nuns became actively involved in programs for social justice for the poor.
  • 44. Religious Forces of Social Change
    • Nativistic movements, found among American Indians.
    • Cargo cults , found in Melanesia.
    • Separatist Christian churches are small-scale churches that break away from the dominant church to gain greater political, economic, social, and religious autonomy.
  • 45. Religious Forces of Social Change
    • Mahdist movements is a term to describe revitalization movements in the Muslim world.
    • Millenarian movements found in Christian areas of the world.
  • 46. Revitalization Movements
    • Aim to add new life and purpose into the society.
    • Tend to occur during times of cultural stress brought about by:
      • rapid change
      • foreign domination
      • perceived deprivation
  • 47. Religious Nationalism
    • A phenomenon that is occurring in many parts of the world today in which traditional religious principles are merged with the workings of government.
  • 48. Religion and Nationalism
    • On July 4, 2006, this Statue of Liberation Through Christ was consecrated at a fundamentalist church in Memphis, Tennessee, as a way of demonstrating their belief that Christianity is the foundation of American society.