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Chapter14
 

Chapter14

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    Chapter14 Chapter14 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 14 Supernatural Beliefs
    • What We Will Learn
      • What is religion?
      • What functions does religion perform for the individual and the society as a whole?
      • What different forms does religion take among the societies of the world?
      • What role does religion play in the process of culture change?
    • Defining Religion
      • A set of beliefs in supernatural forces directed at helping people make sense of the world and solve problems.
      • All forms of religion are founded on a belief in the supernatural.
    • Religion in Societies
      • All societies have:
        • Religious rituals that appease supernatural forces
        • Sets of beliefs concerning what we would call the soul
        • Notions about life after death
    • Religion in Societies
      • Evangelist Timothy J. Keller thrives in Manhattan by embracing the city and identifying with its culture.
    • Religion
      • Animism
        • Belief that people have souls or spirits in addition to physical, visible bodies.
      • Polytheism
        • The belief in the existence of many gods.
      • Monotheism
        • The belief in only one god.
    • Religion
      • Animatism
        • Belief in a generalized, impersonal power over which people have some measure of control.
      • Mana
        • An impersonal supernatural force, inhabiting certain people or things, which is believed to confer power, strength, and success.
    • Question
      • ______ is a set of beliefs in supernatural beings and forces directed at helping people make sense of the world and solve important problems.
          • Belief
          • Religion
          • Ritual
          • Superstition
    • Answer: b
      • Religion is a set of beliefs in supernatural beings and forces directed at helping people make sense of the world and solve important problems.
    • Supernatural Healing
      • A traditional healer from Jamaica uses supernatural powers.
    • Magic
      • Vodoo, a form of imitative magic, is practiced in Togo.
    • Magic
      • Supernatural beliefs that involve manipulation of supernatural forces to intervene in human activities and natural events.
      • Imitative magic
        • Based on the idea that the procedure performed resembles the desired result.
      • Contagious magic
        • Based on the premise that things, once in contact with a person continue to influence that person after separation.
    • Sorcery and Witchcraft
      • Witchcraft is an inborn, involuntary, and often unconscious capacity to cause harm to other people.
      • Sorcery is the performance of certain magical rites for the purpose of harming other people.
    • Wicca
      • A modern-day movement of witches and pagans.
      • Covens are local groups of witches found in major cities in the United States, which are presided over by high priestesses.
      • Satanists are individuals belonging to a group of people who worship Satan.
    • Wicca
      • Led by Amy Krinner, a coven of Wiccans practices magic in Bayshore, New York.
    • Question
      • _______ involves the manipulation of supernatural forces for the purpose of intervening in a wide range of human activities and natural events.
          • Magic
          • Witchcraft
          • Sorcery
          • Religion
    • Answer: a
      • Magic involves the manipulation of supernatural forces for the purpose of intervening in a wide range of human activities and natural events.
    • Question
      • Unlike magic or witchcraft, ________, stories of a culture's gods, their origins, and such, serve to explain the large questions surrounding human existence.
          • legends
          • myths
          • religion
          • tales
    • Answer: b
      • Unlike magic or witchcraft, myths, stories of a culture's gods, their origins, and such, serve to explain the large questions surrounding human existence.
    • Myths
      • Sacred literature that states certain religious truths.
      • Include stories of the gods, their origins, their activities, and the moral injunctions they teach.
      • A culture’s mythology is closely connected to its moral and social order.
    • Social Functions of Religion
      • Social control
      • Conflict resolution
      • Intensifying group solidarity
    • Psychological Functions of Religion
      • Cognitive
        • Provides an intellectual framework for explaining parts of our world that we do not understand.
      • Emotional
        • Helps reduce anxiety by prescribing straightforward ways of coping with stress.
    • Question
      • By helping individuals cope with the anxieties often accompanying deaths, accidents, illnesses and other misfortunes, religion serves a/an:
          • group identity function.
          • cognitive function.
          • positive function.
          • emotional function.
    • Answer: d
      • By helping individuals cope with the anxieties often accompanying deaths, accidents, illnesses and other misfortunes, religion serves a/an emotional function.
    • Classifying Religions: Anthony Wallace
      • Wallace identified four principal patterns of religious organization based on what he calls cults.
      • Wallace uses the term cult to refer to forms of religion that have their own set of beliefs, rituals, and goals.
      • This use of the term should not be confused with the definition used to refer to an antisocial religious group that brainwashes its members before leading them to mass suicide.
    • Classifying Religions: Anthony Wallace
      • Four forms of religious organization:
        • Individualistic cults
        • Shamanistic cults
        • Communal cults
        • Ecclesiastical cults
    • Individualistic Cults
      • The least complex form of religious organization in which each person is his or her own religious specialist.
        • Vision quest
          • A ritual found among a number of Plains Indian cultures wherein through visions people establish special relationships with spirits who provide them with knowledge, power, and protection.
    • Shamanistic Cults
      • Forms of religion in which part-time religious specialists called shamans intervene with the deities on behalf of their clients.
      • Shaman
        • A part-time religious specialist who is thought to have supernatural powers by virtue of birth, training, or inspiration.
    • Shamans
      • Piaroa Indian shaman Miguel Ochoa is pictured here with medicinal plants gathered from the jungle village of Aska aja, near Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela.
    • Communal Cults
      • Societies in which groups of ordinary people conduct religious ceremonies for the well-being of the total community.
      • Rites of passage
        • Any ceremony celebrating the transition of a person from one social status to another.
      • Rites of solidarity
        • Any ceremony performed for the sake of enhancing of social integration.
    • Ecclesiastical Cults
      • Highly complex religious systems employing full-time priests.
      • Ecclesiastical cults are characterized by full-time professional clergy, who are formally elected or appointed and devote all or most of their time to performing priestly functions.
      • Unlike shamans who conduct rituals during times of crisis or when their services are needed, these full-time priests conduct rituals that occur at regular intervals.
    • Question
      • The most complex form of religion is the ________, which is commonly found in societies with state systems of government.
          • individual cult
          • communal cult
          • ecclesiastical cult
          • shamanistic cult
    • Answer: c
      • The most complex form of religion is the ecclesiastical cult, which is commonly found in societies with state systems of government.
    • Major Religions of the World
    • Rabbi Naamah Kelman
      • Rabbi Naamah Kelman, the first female rabbi to be ordained in Israel, is a full time religious specialist who works within a hierarchical organization.
    • Number of Adherents of Major World Religions Religion Millions Christian 2106
        • Roman Catholic
      1105
        • Protestant
      369
        • Orthodox
      218
        • Anglican
      79
        • Independent
      416
    • Number of Adherents of Major World Religions Religion Millions Bahai 7.5 Buddhist 375 Hindu 851 Jewish 15 Muslim 1283 New Religionists 107
    • Characteristics of Different Religious Organizations Role Specialization Subsistence Example Individualistic None Food collector Crow vision quest Shamanistic Part-time Food collector Pastoralism Tungus shamanism
    • Characteristics of Different Religious Organizations Role Specialization Subsistence Example Communal Perform rites for community Horticulture Totemistic rituals Ecclesiastical Full-time Horticulture/ Pastoralism Christianity and Buddhism
    • Religion in the U.S.
      • Summary of the findings of two recent surveys on religion in America:
        • Roman Catholicism is the largest single religious group, comprising 24% of the adult population.
        • Anglicans, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant churches, comprising some 220 denominations, represent 36% of the adult population.
    • Religion in the U.S.
      • Summary of the findings of two recent surveys on religion in America:
        • Approximately 1.5% of the population is Jewish.
        • The Islamic religion is the fastest-growing organized religion in the United States.
        • The percentage of adults identifying with a religious group dropped from 90% in 1990 to 81% in 2001.
        • The fastest-growing group in the U.S. Is those who do not identify with any specific religion; this group went from 14.3 million in 1990 to 29.4 million in 2001.
    • Globalization of Religion
      • Cardinal Bernardin Gantin represents a part of the world that is growing rapidly in the number of people practicing Catholicism.
    • Liberation Theology
      • A form of Catholicism found throughout South and Central America in which priests and nuns became actively involved in programs for social justice for the poor.
    • Religious Forces of Social Change
      • Nativistic movements, found among American Indians.
      • Cargo cults , found in Melanesia.
      • Separatist Christian churches are small-scale churches that break away from the dominant church to gain greater political, economic, social, and religious autonomy.
    • Religious Forces of Social Change
      • Mahdist movements is a term to describe revitalization movements in the Muslim world.
      • Millenarian movements found in Christian areas of the world.
    • Revitalization Movements
      • Aim to add new life and purpose into the society.
      • Tend to occur during times of cultural stress brought about by:
        • rapid change
        • foreign domination
        • perceived deprivation
    • Religious Nationalism
      • A phenomenon that is occurring in many parts of the world today in which traditional religious principles are merged with the workings of government.
    • Religion and Nationalism
      • On July 4, 2006, this Statue of Liberation Through Christ was consecrated at a fundamentalist church in Memphis, Tennessee, as a way of demonstrating their belief that Christianity is the foundation of American society.