Achimowicz pociagdogwiazd
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Achimowicz pociagdogwiazd

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Conference : POLAND in Space Past Now and Future

Conference : POLAND in Space Past Now and Future
Museum of Technology, PkIN, Warsaw, Poland

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Achimowicz pociagdogwiazd Achimowicz pociagdogwiazd Presentation Transcript

  • „Psychofizjologiczne aspekty bezpieczenstwa lotów w załogowych misjach lotniczych i kosmicznych” • Jerzy Achimowicz, Olaf Truszczyński, Grzegorz Nowicki • Zakład Bezpieczeństwa Lotów i Klinika • Wojskowy Instytut Medycyny Lotniczej • Ul. Krasińskiego 54, 01-755 Warszawa, Konferencja „Polska w Kosmosie, wczoraj dziś, jutro”, Muzeum Techniki, Warszawa, 2013
  • Udział WIML w projektach ESA/NASA 1. NEUROSPAT - The effect of gravitational context on EEG dynamics: A study of spatial cognition, novelty processing and sensorimotor integration -ESA 2. Operational verification of AFTE (Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise) as a factor increasing flight safety in aerospace operations. – NASA 3. WIML –NASA Workshop „Psychophysiological Aspects of Flight Safety in Aerospace Operations”, Warsaw, Hilton Convetion Centre, 16-17.09.2011
  • Human Systems Integration in Maintenance A technician performs maintenance on a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) in building 3202 in preparation for a test firing at the NASA Stennis Space Center. (ca. 2002) 5
  • Human System Integration 6
  • A View of the Human-Machine Interface INTERPRETATION SITUATION ASSESSMENT DECISION MAKING PERCEPTION ACTION EXECUTION SYTEM CONTROL HMIs RECEIVE INPUT PROVIDE FEEDBACK TO USER MACHINE OPERATIONS 7 Information Processing Model Wickens 1992
  • Conceptual Shift From Human –Machine Interface • From humans as a source of error… • To humans as a source of resilience To a new paradighm – HSI • (Human System Integration) 8
  • New approach: HSI and Automation Human Systems Integration • Iterative technology requirements • Resilience and error implications • Complex environment • Task requirements Automation and Computer Science 11/22/2013 9 9
  • Adapted from HSI chart by Based on DoD HSI Acquisition Approach (e.g., Army’s MANPRINT) Human-Systems Integration: Systems Engineering Motivation Reduced Maintainability Reduced Life-Cycle Cost and Improved Safety and Mission Success Reduced Staff Improved Human Productivity and System Performance Fewer Errors (Fewer Mishaps, Reduced Scrap, Fewer Delays) Together, these building blocks produce Optimal* Human Performance System and Task Design Human Capabilities And Competencies Human Workload Fitness for Duty Human-System Interfaces Adequate Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities Staffing and Work Distribution Human is Qualified, Rested, Motivated, and Healthy Human Factors Engineering Personnel Selection Training Manpower 10 Human-Systems Integration Personnel Safety and Survivability Habitability 10
  • HSI Research Philosophy Human Performance Model-Based Requirements & Standards Human Performance Metrics & Models Requirements/Needs Technologies & Capabilities System Design Generative Mechanisms of Human Performance 11 11
  • Psychophysiology: from understanding functions to developing countermeasures for a more resilient system and hence greater operation safety AUGMENTED REALITY AND AUGMENTED COGNITION 12
  • Flight Deck Display Research Laboratory General Research Focus • Human-centered concepts of operation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System automation that promote – Situation Awareness – Transparent Automation – Seamlessly Shared Authority The major element of our work is the Cockpit Situation Display
  • UAV Ground Station Interface Advanced Flight Deck Interface The Flight Deck Display Research Laboratory (FDDRL) develops advanced display concepts and prototypes to support the Next Generation Air Transportation System.
  • Cockpit Situation Display (CSD) This presentation is a brief overview of the CSD, a prototype display developed by the FDDRL to support: Integrated Traffic Awareness Terrain Awareness Weather Awareness Trajectory Management Based upon availability of high quality information on traffic, weather and terrain 15
  • Weather Display Goal is to develop an intuitive 3D convective weather display. Today: Classic Airborne Radar 2D – Storm tops not displayed, must use tilt Range Limited – More tactical view Immediate NextRad 2D – Storm tops still not typically displayed Range unlimited - Strategic Updates every 5-10 min Today/Tomorrow: FAA is investing in “4D Weather Cube” Range Unlimited - Stragetic 3D – Storm top information available 4D – Forecast information available Updates every 1 min 16
  • Terrain Display Goal is to develop a strategic trajectory-based terrain hazard display • USGS SDTS DEM 30 meter Data • 3D extruded terrain for low altitude 3D viewing • 2D projection for high altitude 3D viewing • Trajectory based terrain alerting American Sierra Nevada range approach Tahoe Nevada 17
  • • Tag Team Threat-recognition Technology Incorporates Mind, Machine • September 18, 2012 • DARPA links human brainwaves, improved sensors, cognitive algorithms to improve target detection • http://www.darpa.mil/NewsEvents/Releases/2012/09/18.aspx Read more: http://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/this-is-your-brain-onsilicon/#ixzz2hv529y8z Follow us: @digitaltrends on Twitter | digitaltrendsftw on Facebook
  • BCI – Brain Computer Interface Basically, a soldier wears an electroencephalogram (EEG) cap that monitors his brain signals as he watches the feed from a 120-megapixel, tripod-mounted, electro-optical video camera with a 120-degree field of view. (Translation: incredible detail in a huge range of vision.)
  • AFTE- Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise
  • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Blood Volume Pulse left hand Blood Volume Pulse right hand Respiration Rate AFTE Heart Rate Skin Conductance Level Hand temperature Blood flow – head Blood flow – toe EMG – left arm EMG – right arm EMG – left leg EMG right leg Systolic Blood Pressure Diastolic Blood Pressure Mean Arterial Pressure Thoracic Fluid Volume Stroke Volume Cardiac Output Total Peripheral Resistance Vagal Tone Trainer Controls 20 Displays
  • Typical Preflight AFTE Session Heart Rate 85 20 liters/min ohms/cm 65 160 55 Cardiac Output 16 200 75 bpm Stroke Volume 240 12 8 120 4 45 80 Skin Conductance Level Mean Arterial Pressure 110 Total Peripheral Resistance 20 40 16 90 35 units micromhos mmHg 100 12 30 8 25 80 4 20 70 1 25 49 73 97 121 15-second means 145 169 1 1 25 49 73 97 121 15-second means 145 169 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 15-second averages
  • • Sustained Operations: Fatigue, vigilance, sleep loss, contribute to human error accidents A Autonomous Mode Behavior: condition when a high state of physiological arousal is accompanied by a narrowing of the focus of attention
  • Performance x Phases of Flight flight 1 (pre-training) vs flight 2 (post-training): AFTE Performance Dimensions Crew Coordination Planning and and Situational Communication Awareness Checklist execution Stress Management Aircraft Handling * Taxi/takeoff Initial cruise Touch & go + Cruise search & rescue Emergency initiation * Emergency return to base Emergency approach & landing * * * * * * * * * * flight 1 vs flight 2 for Controls were not significant, except a lower score for touch and go (+) on flight 2 * * p <0.05
  • Future Applications of AFTE Transfer NASA Technology and Validation Studies • • • • Training of Polish Military Pilots Training of U.S. Naval Pilots for Airsickness Mitigation Training of U.S. Veterans as a Treatment for PostTraumatic Stress Syndrome Training of Astronauts and Cosmonauts Develop/ Test New Monitoring and Training Capabilities • Stream-line software • Neuro-feedback and autonomic coherence • Unobtrusive physiological Monitoring
  • Udział WIML w projektach ESA/NASA 1. NEUROSPAT - The effect of gravitational context on EEG dynamics: A study of spatial cognition, novelty processing and sensorimotor integration -ESA 2. Operational verification of AFTE (Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise) as a factor increasing flight safety in aerospace operations. – NASA 3. WIML –NASA Workshop „Psychophysiological Aspects of Flight Safety in Aerospace Operations”, Warsaw, Hilton Convetion Centre, 16-17.09.2011
  • Human Centered Design in Concept Aerospace Transport Systems 1. Augment cognition and augmented reality approach 2. Integrated Space,Terrain, Weather and Biofeedback Displays.(pilots and drone operators) 3. Ergonomic approach to cockpit design aimed at situation awareness
  • PERSONAL ON-BOARD „AUTONOMOUS MARS DOCTOR” 1. Long term monitoring of circadian rhytms for controlling of wake-sleep cycle 2. Real time monitoring of CNS-ANS ultradian rhythms for evaluation of physical and mental load and ability to perform. 3. Adaptive systems for psychophysiological training during long term missions.