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Economics 8

Economics 8






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    Economics 8 Economics 8 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 8: Employment, Labor, and Wages
    • 8-1: The Labor Movement
      • Early Union Development
        • First attempt to organize labor in America was in 1778, by printers in New York City
        • Small fraction of workers belonged to unions
        • Comprised of skilled workers and possessed strong bargaining power
        • In early 1800’s, large scale immigration provided a supply of cheap, unskilled labor
        • Public opinion against the unions and labor organizers were viewed as troublemakers
      • Civil War to the 1930s
        • Manufacturing expanded
        • Hourly workers made up about ¼ of working population
        • Working conditions were difficult and often dangerous
        • Attitudes toward labor unions began to ease
        • Two main types of unions:
          • Trade or craft union – association of skilled workers who perform the same kind of work
          • Industrial union – association of all workers in the same industry, regardless of the job
        • Union Activities
          • Unions negotiated for higher wages, better hours, job security and better working conditions
          • Strike - refuse to work until demands were met
          • Picket – demonstrate or march before a place of business to protest a company’s actions
          • Boycott – mass refusal to buy products from targeted employers or companies
        • Employer Resistance
          • Lockout – management refusal to let employees work
          • Hire all new workers
          • Set up company unions , organized, supported or run by employers
          • Ludlow Massacre 1914
      • Labor Since the 1930s
        • Most of the significant labor laws in effect today were passed in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s,
        • Great Depression (1929 – 1939) video
          • Stock market crash October, 1929
          • High unemployment
          • Average hourly wage dropped from 55 cents to 5 cents
        • Pro-union legislation
          • The Wagner Act of 1935 established the right of unions to collective bargaining and created the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to police unfair labor practices
          • The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 set the first minimum wage, established overtime pay, and prohibited oppressive child labor
        • Unions grew strong until the end of WWII, when public opinion changed again.
          • Right to Work Law – state law making it illegal to require a worker to join a union as a condition of employment
      • Organized Labor Today
        • Closed Shop - arrangement under which workers must join a union before they are hired, which allows the union to determine who is hired
        • Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 made the closed shop illegal for all companies engaged in interstate commerce
        • Union Shop – workers do not have to belong to the union to be hired, but must join afterward
        • Modified Union Shop – workers have the option to join a union after being hired
        • Agency Shop – workers do not have to join a union to get a job; however, they must pay union dues to help pay for collective bargaining costs
    • 8-2: Wages and Labor Disputes
      • Wage Determination – different occupations and levels of training are rewarded with different wages
      • 1. Unskilled labor – workers not trained to operate specialized machines and equipment
      • 2. Semiskilled labor – workers who operate machines that require a minimum amount of training
      • 3. Skilled labor – workers who are trained to operate complex equipment and require little supervision
      • 4. Professional labor – workers with a high level of training, education and management skills
      • Resolving Labor Disputes
        • Collective bargaining – process of negotiation between union and management representatives over pay, benefits, and job-related matters
        • Mediation – process if resolving a dispute by bringing in a neutral third party
        • Arbitration – agreement to place a dispute before a third party for a binding settlement
        • Fact-finding – agreement to have a neutral third party collect facts about a dispute and present nonbinding recommendations
        • Injunction – court order issued to prevent a company or union from taking action during a labor protest
        • Seizure – temporary government takeover of a company to keep it running during a labor-management dispute
        • Presidential intervention
    • 8-3: Employment Trends and Issues
      • Decline of Union Influence
      • Lower Pay for Women
      • Minimum Wage