Overview of Wind Energy

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  • Dear Jerilene Creado, Thank you for this outstanding and educational presentation, I wish that we can have it downloaded for educational purposes, I am utterly delighted having connection with you and equally impressed by your experience and expertise and by your devotion to your work. Many thanks for your consideration, I would be very interested to know more about you and explore opportunities that might arise - Yours most thoughtfully,
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  • Overview of Wind Energy

    1. 1. Wind Energy Overview The answer my friend is blowin’ in the wind
    2. 2. Discussion points <ul><li>How is energy generated from wind? </li></ul><ul><li>Who manufactures wind turbines? </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries are leaders in wind energy production? </li></ul><ul><li>What government policies affect the wind industry? </li></ul><ul><li>Who operates wind farms? </li></ul><ul><li>How much does wind energy cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the catch? </li></ul>
    3. 3. How is energy generated from wind? <ul><li>Humans have harnessed wind energy all through history (sails, windmills …) </li></ul><ul><li>Wind is caused by the uneven heating of the earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a daily cycle, air above the land expands and rises while air above the sea rushes to take its place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In an atmospheric cycle the air near the tropics rises upwards to be replaced by air near the poles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wind turbines are used to generate energy from wind </li></ul>
    4. 4. How is energy generated from wind? Wind Turbines have large airfoil shaped blades. When air passes over the blade there is low pressure above the blade and higher pressure below, pushing it. A force ( lift ) perpendicular to the motion is created. The force of the lift is actually much stronger than the wind's force against the front side of the blade, which is called drag . The combination of lift and drag causes the rotor to spin like a propeller, and the turning shaft spins a generator to make electricity Source: HowStuffWorks (www.howstuffworks.com)
    5. 5. Wind turbines: Components
    6. 6. Wind turbines: Components Blades Most turbines have three blades. The turning of the blades generate electricity Hub Centre of the rotor to which the rotor blades are attached Rotor Blades and hub referred together Low-speed shaft Turned by the rotor at about 30 to 60 rotations per minute (rpm) Gears Connects low-speed shaft to high-speed shaft and increases rotational speeds from about 30 to 60 rpm to about 1000 to 1800 rpm (the rotational speed required by most generators to produce electricity) Generator Produces electricity High-speed shaft Drives generator Controller Starts up and shuts off the machine Anemometer Measures wind speed and transmits wind speed data to controller Wind vane Measures wind direction and communicates with yaw drive to orient the turbine Yaw drive Keeps rotor facing into the wind as wind direction changes Yaw motor Powers yaw drive Nacelle Contains gear box, low- and high-speed shafts, generator, controller, and brake Tower Made from tubular steel, concrete, or steel lattice . Taller towers generate more power Pitch Blades are turned, or pitched, to control the rotor speed Brake Stops rotor in emergencies
    7. 7. <ul><li>Depending on Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility scale (900kW to 2MW per turbine): used in wind farms which generate bulk energy sold in power markets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial scale (50kW to 250kW per turbine): used for commercial/community power applications, typically off-grid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential Scale (400 watts to 50kW): used in remote, off-grid locations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depending on operations at different wind speeds </li></ul>Wind turbines: Types Variable speed Fixed speed Operates at a wider range of wind speeds by changing the blade’s angle through pitch control or yawing Attains peak efficiency at one speed Greater annual energy yield, offsetting higher costs Fewer moving parts, less complex, thus lower manufacturing costs Supplies and controls reactive power to the grid Consumes reactive power from other transmission systems
    8. 8. Source: Total Alternative Power (www.totalalternativepower.com) Wind turbines: Dimensions/ definitions/ foundations Specific rating = Turbine’s rotor swept area / rating of the turbine Capacity factor = Amt of actual power produced / Amt of power if turbine operated at full output 100% of the time 25% to 80% is possible for an individual utility turbine Plate foundations/ shallow foundations A commonly used foundation is a large reinforced concrete plate under the earth forms the footing of the generator. Pile foundations The connection between foundation plates with the soft soil.
    9. 9. Power from a turbine is dependent on: - Swept area of blades - Wind speed Power  Wind speed 3 Power  Swept area  Blade diameter 2 The power curve shows power production as a function of wind speed. X – wind speed (mph) Y – power (kW) Cut out wind speed (usually above 55mph) stops power production as high speeds may cause damage to the turbine Cut in wind speed (usually 8-16 mph) starts power production Rated power (approximately 29 mph) Rated power Wind speed Relation of Wind Speed to Power Production
    10. 10. <ul><li>How is energy generated from wind? </li></ul><ul><li>Who manufactures wind turbines? </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries are leaders in wind energy production? </li></ul><ul><li>What government policies affect the wind industry? </li></ul><ul><li>Who operates wind farms? </li></ul><ul><li>How much does wind energy cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the catch? </li></ul>Discussion Points
    11. 11. Source: BTM Consult ApS Manufacturers: 2006 v.s. 2007 market share
    12. 12. Manufacturers: Product comparison Source: Respective company websites S88/2.1MW S.64/1.25MW S.66/1.25MW S.64/950kW Suzlon 3.6 MW Wind Turbine 2.5 MW Wind Turbine 1.5 MW Wind Turbine GE Wind V90-3.0MW V82-1.65MW V80-2.0MW V90-1.8MW V90-2.0MW V52-850kW Vestas Made AE-61 1.32kW G80-2.0MW G87-2.0MW G90-2.0MW Made AE-52-800kW Made AE-56-800kW Made AE-59-800kW G52-850kW G58-850kW Gamesa Enercon < 1MW E-33 (330kW) E-48 (800kW) E-53 (800kW) E-44 (900kW) 1-2MW E-70 (2.3MW) E-82 (2MW) 2-3MW > 3MW
    13. 13. A 1.5MW wind turbine (  344ft) is taller than the Statue of Liberty (306ft). Manufacturers: Product comparison Source: Respective company websites N90 (2.3MW) N80 (2.5MW) N90 (2.5MW) N100 (2.5MW) N90 Offshore (2.5MW) S77 (1.5MW) S70 (1.5MW) Nordex SWT-3.6-107 SWT-2.3-82VS SWT-2.3-93 Siemens Goldwind Vensys Energy < 1MW S43/600kW S48/750kW 1-2MW Goldwind 62/1.2MW Goldwind 70/1.5MW Vensys 62 (1.2MW) Vensys 64 (1.2MW) 2-3MW > 3MW
    14. 14. Manufacturers: Key innovations Innovation Objective Company examples Weight Lowers production and system costs Vestas: uses lightweight carbon fibres in the blades and a tower with magnets Siemens’s IntegralBlade®: blades are made of fibre glass, reinforced epoxy resin and manufactured in one piece using a closed process Gamesa: blades made with epoxy resin and carbon fibre components Variable speed regulation Allows the rotor's rotational speed to vary to minimise strain and reduce noise levels Vestas: uses OptiSpeed® technology GE’s: Variable Speed System, and active damping (less tower osscilations) Gamesa: also supports variable rotation speed Pitch regulation Adjusts the angle of the turbine blades to ensure the optimal position in relation to wind Vestas: uses OptiTip® technology Siemens: CombiStall®, used in constant speed turbines and CombiPitch, used in variable speed turbines GE Wind: Control System Gamesa: variable pitch technology
    15. 15. Manufacturers: Key innovations Innovation Objective Company examples Failsafe protection Minimizes loads and controls output in all conditions and above its rated wind speed Vestas: Hydraulic ActiveStall® GE Wind: LVRTC (Low Voltage Ride thru), feeds reactive power during lightning strikes, equipment failures, and downed power lines Gamesa: Active Crowbar Net converter Allows generators to operate at variable speed, frequency and voltage, to supply power at constant frequency and voltage to the grid Siemens: NetConverter® power conversion system GE Wind: WindVAR (Wind Volt-Amp-Reactive) system, supplies reactive power Gamesa DFIM technology (Doubly Fed Induction Machine) and Gamesa SGIPE system: allows active and reactive power Lightning protection Protecting the blades, nacelle, controller and tower Siemens: blades have a lightning termination pad system and the other components are grounded Noise control system Compliance to local regulation Gamesa NRS® noise control system
    16. 16. Manufacturers: Key innovations Area Objective Company examples Positioning of the tubines Evaluates the best layout for turbines based on airflows around the blade Vestas: Compuational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques for wind mapping Monitoring system Provides standardized and customized reports on wind turbine data, electrical and mechanical data, statistical data, meteorological data and grid data Siemens: WebWPS SCADA system, has a communication driver, a database management system and web server Gamesa: WindNet®, has a web interface Predictive maintenance system Allows early detection of faults in component Gamesa SMP
    17. 17. Gaining a toehold in the wind market Year Major Deals 2002 GE acquires Enron Wind from bankruptcy proceedings to enter the wind business 2004 Siemens acquires Danish firm Bonus to enter the wind business 2006 Suzlon acquired Hansen Transmissions, Belgian gearbox company Iberdrolo, Spanish utility company, bought wind assets from Gamesa, a Spanish turbine manufacturer, assets included US Wind farms 2007 Suzlon acquired REPower, German wind turbine company Iberdrolo, Spanish utility, acquires UK wind farm owner and utility, Scottish Power Areva, a French nuclear energy company acquires German offshore wind turbine maker Multibird Italian utility Enel and Spanish builder Acciona acquire Spanish energy company Endesa, which is the largest private utility in Latin America Energias de Portugal (EDP) took over Horizon Wind, Texan-based wind power producer, making EDP a major player in the wind market Alstom, French engineering company, bought Spanish wind turbine company, Ecotècnia, which previously ranked second in Europe 2008 Iberdrolo and Gamesa, form 2 JVs to pool their businesses in Spain and continental Europe respectively.
    18. 18. <ul><li>How is energy generated from wind? </li></ul><ul><li>Who manufactures wind turbines? </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries are leaders in wind energy production? </li></ul><ul><li>What government policies affect the wind industry? </li></ul><ul><li>Who operates wind farms? </li></ul><ul><li>How much does wind energy cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the catch? </li></ul>Discussion Points
    19. 19. Position change from 2007 Top 5 total installed capacity (2008) 5. India 4. China No change 3. Spain 2. Germany 1. US China may overtake Spain and Germany to reach 2# by 2010. Europe 8.9GW North America 8.9GW Asia 8.6GW + + = 27GW 36% Growth of New Installed Capacity in 2008 Source: GWEC (Global Wind Energy Council) Country front runners
    20. 20. The global wind market in 2007: € 25 bn (US$37 bn) in new generating equipment € 34 bn (US$50.2 bn) of total investment. Country front runners: Growth comparisons Source: GWEC (Global Wind Energy Council) China’s growth rate is very high up, and the US is catching up.
    21. 21. Intercontinental wind flows <ul><li>China is scaling up its production for domestic installation and export to the US </li></ul><ul><li>India is growing domestically and exporting to the US and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>European manufacturers are exporting mainly to the US </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America is exporting to the US and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>The US is importing turbines and increasing installations </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Denmark’s wind power share of electricity supply is 20%. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearest competitors: Spain (10%), Germany (7%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US (1%) in-spite of recent growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Danish government has a comprehensive support program for the wind industry </li></ul>Country Front Runners: A special mention about Denmark Danish Company Business Vestas Wind turbine manufacturer ABB A/S Generators & electrical systems Siemens wind Wind turbine manufacturer LM Glasfiber A/S Blade manufacturer EMD International A/S Consulting , software and training <ul><ul><ul><li>For an extensive list visit http://www.windpower.org/en/members.htm </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Includes both community based wind farms and large utilities (off-shore and on-shore) </li></ul><ul><li>About 75% of Danes have invested in wind power. </li></ul><ul><li>Output fluctuates according to weather conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The grid is balanced by interconnections with Germany, Norway and Sweden (the last 2 have significant hydro capacity) </li></ul></ul>Country Front Runners: A special mention about Denmark Denmark’s offshore projects Commissioning Capacity No. of turbines Manufacturer Horns Rev 2 2010 209 91 Siemens Rødsand 2 2010 200 89 - Nysted 2003 165.5 72 Siemens Horns Rev 1 2002 160 80 Vestas Middelgrunden [Co-operative] 2001 40 20 Bonus
    24. 24. The next big thing: China <ul><li>Wind power potential in China is around 700 to 1,200GW </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average annual growth rate of 56% in the last 7 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In response to the financial crisis the government has identified the development of wind energy as a key economic growth area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R ichest wind resource areas include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Hebei, Jilin, Liaoning and Guangdong </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Government mandates that 70% of wind turbine components (for concession projects) should be made domestically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic manufacturers include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sinovel Windtec, Goldwind and Dongfeng Eletrical Machinery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology collaborations between Goldwind and Germany’s Repower and Vensys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government decides the local price of wind power based </li></ul><ul><li>on a number of tenders </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>How is energy generated from wind? </li></ul><ul><li>Who manufactures wind turbines? </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries are leaders in wind energy production? </li></ul><ul><li>What government policies affect the wind industry? </li></ul><ul><li>Who operates wind farms? </li></ul><ul><li>How much does wind energy cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the catch? </li></ul>Discussion Points
    26. 26. Wind Policy: Definitions Feed in tariff Electricity utilities are obliged to purchase electricity from a renewable source at above market rates set by the government as an incentive to the producers Government targets Commitment to produce x% of renewable electricity by 2010 Renewable portfolio standard Electricity utilities are obliged to produce x% of electricity from RE sources Fiscal/tax Incentives Companies which have invested in RE can write off the investment against other revenues Voluntary agreements Guidelines to create an attractive environment for export, purchase, wheeling and banking of wind power Concession scheme RE is given priority for grid connection, distribution and transmission access and power dispatch Production tax credits (PTC) Companies which have invested in RE can get credits from energy produced
    27. 27. Wind Policy: Country comparison This is an indicative analysis. More information on policy will be available on www.regainparadise.org Policies EU Denmark Germany China Spain India Canada US France Feed in tariff Government targets Renewable portfolio standard Fiscal/tax incentives Contribution programs Voluntary agreements Concession scheme Production tax credits (PTC)
    28. 28. <ul><li>How is energy generated from wind? </li></ul><ul><li>Who manufactures wind turbines? </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries are leaders in wind energy production? </li></ul><ul><li>What government policies affect the wind industry? </li></ul><ul><li>Who operates wind farms? </li></ul><ul><li>How much does wind energy cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the catch? </li></ul>Discussion Points
    29. 29. <ul><li>Group of wind turbines operating in the same area </li></ul><ul><li>Sizes range between 20 and 300MW </li></ul><ul><li>Can be typically set up in a year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quicker than conventional energy plants </li></ul></ul>Wind farms Prevailing wind direction Inter-turbine and inter-row spacing varies as a function of rotor diameter and wind resource characteristics Wide spacing between wind turbines can maximize energy output but increase infrastructure costs, a trade-off exists. Medium-voltage power collection system Sub-station transformer O&M building High-voltage transmission line
    30. 30. <ul><li>Important considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind speeds, terrain, construction issues, environmental impact, shadow casting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locating Wind Farms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Broad geographical fix based on wind resource maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regions are classified according to wind speeds from Class 1 (lowest) to Class 7 (exceptional) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind farms are located at places with Class 3 Winds (14.3 -15.7 mph) or higher </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Detailed site measurements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hourly wind speed, wind direction, air pressure, air pressure for different hub heights, air temperature. </li></ul></ul></ul>An interesting company which produces Wind Resource Maps is FirstLook (part of 3TIER , provider of assessment and forecast information for RE), which uses a dataset based on computer simulations. Wind farms: Siting
    31. 31. Wind farms: Producer market
    32. 32. Global operators Source: Respective company websites <ul><li>Iberdrola Renovables (Spain) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest renewable energy firm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total capacity = 9300MW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EDP Renov á veis (Portugal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second largest wind power firm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total capacity = 4155MW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Babcock and Brown Wind Partners (Australia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total capacity = 2246MW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RES (Britain) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total capacity = 2700MW </li></ul></ul>Country Capacity (MW) Capacity factor Spain 4526 48.70% USA 2876 30.90% UK 665 7.10% Rest of the world 893 9.60% USA 1138.9 37% Australia 460.9 36% Portugal 335.3 28% Germany 120.5 25% France 52 26% Spain 2158 40% USA 2109 28% Portugal 553 28% Rest of Europe 232 24% USA 1138.9 n.a Europe 609 n.a Australia & New Zealand 456 n.a
    33. 33. Global operators: Financials Source: Respective company websites 10% 39m 414m Aus $ Babcock and Brown Wind Partners (2008) 1% 339 m 4 m € EDP Renováveis (2007) 19% 390.2 m 2030.3 m € Iberdrola Renovables (2008) Net profit as a % of revenue Net Profit Revenue Currency
    34. 34. Global operators: Sample large farms Source: Respective company websites Wind farm Operator Location Commissioned Capacity (MW) No. of turbines Turbine manufacturer Lone Star RES, EDP Texas, US 2006 400 200 Gamesa Maple Ridge EDP New York, US 2006 321.75 195 Vestas Cedar Creek Babcock & Brown, BP AlternativEnergy Colorado, US 2007 300.5 221 Mitsubishi King Mountain RES Texas, US 2001 278 214 Bonus Sweetwater 4 Babcock & Brown Texas, US - 240.8 181 Mitsubishi, Siemens Ararat [in development] RES Ararat, Australia 2008 228 76 - Lake Bonney Stage 2 Babcock & Brown Woakwine Range , Australia 2008 159 53 Vestas P.E. Campollano EDP Castilla-La Mancha, Spain - 124.1 146 Gamesa
    35. 35. <ul><li>Interesting facts about BP: </li></ul><ul><li>2005 BP Alternative Energy launch </li></ul><ul><li>2006 BP has a strategic alliance with Clipper Power, a British MNC engaged in wind energy technology, turbine manufacturing, and wind project development </li></ul><ul><li>BP acquired Greenlight Energy Inc. and Orion Energy LLC, both US wind development companies </li></ul><ul><li>BP Alternative Energy will implement the largest wind farm worldwide. </li></ul>Large Oil & Gas Companies Source: Respective company websites Wind farm Operator Location Capacity (MW) No. of turbines Turbine manufacturer Titan [in development] BP Alternative Energy Dakota, US 5050 2020 Clipper The Fowler Ridge Wind Farm BP Alternative Energy Indiana, US 750 222 for Phase I Vestas, Clipper Colorado Green Shell WindEnergy Colorado, US 162 108 GE Wind Egmond aan Zee Shell WindEnergy Netherlands [offshore] 108 36 Vestas
    36. 36. National Wind Power Companies Large national operators have similar sized wind portfolios compared to large global operators. Possibility for M&As? Source: Respective company websites Company Area of operation Wind power portfolio No. of wind farms Clipper Windpower US, Latin America, Europe 6500MW [develops 2.5MW wind turbine - NextEra Energy Resources [part of FPL Group] North America > 6300MW 65 Noble Environmental Power US 3850MW 13 Invenergy LLC North America, Europe 836MW [additional 600MW in development] 8 [5 in development] Terra-Gen Power [RE Projects] US 831MW 21 Airtricity Europe 400MW 14 First Wind US & Hawaii 92MW 3
    37. 37. <ul><li>Key source of wind energy </li></ul><ul><li>Jointly-owned by local landowners and community members </li></ul><ul><li>Generates broad economic and social benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Europe is the leader in community wind </li></ul><ul><li>In US, the flagship community projects are in Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>There are various business structures in place to take advantage of tax laws : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minnesota Flip structure: where a company which can take advantage of the tax laws invests in the project in exchange of 10 years of PTC and cash flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winconsin Flip Structure: variation of above with local investors providing 20%, a commercial lendor 50% as debt and a corporate entity, with tax interest, 30% of the financing. The corporate entity gets the tax benefits but is responsible for loan repayments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple local owners who apportion the tax credits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-site projects typically used by entities who have no tax incidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-operative ownership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregate net metering: where the metering is on the utility-side and each investor owns a share of the production and nets it out against consumption. </li></ul></ul>Community wind farms
    38. 38. <ul><li>Why go offshore? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher and steadier wind speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Sea breeze effect’ allows generation during times of high eletricity use due to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher capacity factor, European offshore wind farms have a capacity factor of 70% - 90% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why not? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tough weather conditions require ‘tougher’ turbines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trasportation, foundation, transmission costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GE, Siemens and Nordex are offshore wind turbine manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Special foundations for offshore wind: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity foundations: huge concrete weights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tripod: 3 steel piles distribute the tower’s forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bucket foundation: negative pressure inside a cylinder which is open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>towards the bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monopile: Single steel pile sunk into the seabed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floating platform [in development by US firm, Principle Power] </li></ul></ul>Offshore wind farms
    39. 39. <ul><li>The UK is the largest producer of offshore wind power </li></ul><ul><li>Beatrice Wind Farm installed two of the largest wind turbines (5MW each) </li></ul><ul><li>DONG Energy is one of Europe’s leading wind power generators </li></ul>Offshore operators Beatrice Wind Farm, Scotland UK, EU - UK SeaEnergy Renewables Horns Rev, Nysted, Middelgrunden, Denmark Denmark, UK 396MW Denmark DONG Energy Major projects Operations in Total capacity HQ
    40. 40. <ul><li>How is energy generated from wind? </li></ul><ul><li>Who manufactures wind turbines? </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries are leaders in wind energy production? </li></ul><ul><li>What government policies affect the wind industry? </li></ul><ul><li>Who operates wind farms? </li></ul><ul><li>How much does wind energy cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the pros of wind energy outweigh the cons? </li></ul>Discussion Points
    41. 41. <ul><li>5 Key factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment costs (turbine cost is  70% of investment cost) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind speeds at site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of farm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax credits & incentives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Trends: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbines have become taller and bigger (from 200kW in 1990 to 1.5 MW in 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbine efficiency has increased by 2-3% annually over the last decade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations & Maintenance costs have decreased with better components and systems </li></ul></ul>How much does wind energy cost?
    42. 42. Source: Wind Power Costs, EWEA publication The costs of Wind energy varies from US$ 0.048 at sites with speeds of 7.15 mps to US$ 0.026 at sites with speeds of 9.32 mps The costs of a 3 MW turbine versus a 51 MW farm are US$ 0.059 versus US$ 0.036 (costs include production tax credits) Source: The Economics of Wind Energy, AWEA publication How much does wind energy cost? Capital Cost The average installation cost varies from 900 €/kW to 1,150 €/kW Operational Cost Factors Operation Cost The costs of wind energy varies from 9 c€/kWh to 4 c€/kWh, depending on location of plant and discount rate
    43. 43. <ul><li>How is energy generated from wind? </li></ul><ul><li>Who manufactures wind turbines? </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries are leaders in wind energy production? </li></ul><ul><li>What government policies affect the wind industry? </li></ul><ul><li>Who operates wind farms? </li></ul><ul><li>How much does wind energy cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the catch? </li></ul>Discussion Points
    44. 44. <ul><li>Fast growing industry </li></ul><ul><li>“ Zero” variable resource cost </li></ul><ul><li>“ Zero” CO 2 or other greenhouse gases produced </li></ul><ul><li>Debatable issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It mars the beauty of the landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does it ? Think of Holland! Uglier than a coal station? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is noisy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T he “whooshing” aerodynamic sound at a distance of 350 metres from the turbines merges with typical home noises </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It destroys bird life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not if we choose the site clear of migratory bird paths or breeding places </li></ul></ul></ul>Wind on balance
    45. 45. <ul><li>You can’t command the wind: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It blows when it does: not when energy is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It blows where it does: away from where energy is needed </li></ul></ul>Solutions lie in the areas of storage of energy and transmission of energy particularly RE. You can learn more about these topics by subscribing to updates from www. regainparadise .org … But some challenges remain
    46. 46. <ul><li>Jerilene Creado [ [email_address] com ] </li></ul><ul><li>Sanjoy Sanyal [ [email_address] com ] </li></ul><ul><li>Regain Paradise Foundation 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Permission is granted to copy/ distribute/ modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation, with no invariant sections, no front cover texts and no back cover texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitles “GNU Free Documentation License.” </li></ul>

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