MInooka Ions and Isotopes
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MInooka Ions and Isotopes

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MInooka Ions and Isotopes MInooka Ions and Isotopes Presentation Transcript

  • Elements Differences in the atoms that make up the elements
  • Current model of the atom
    • Nuclear atom
      • Almost all of the mass of the atom is located in the nucleus
      • All of the volume of the atom is made up by the electron cloud, which is mostly empty space
  • The Nuclear Atom
  • Proton
    • Has a charge of 1+
    • Has a mass of approximately 1 amu (atomic mass unit)
    • Found in the nucleus
    • The number of protons identifies the type of atom
    • The number of protons = the atomic number of the element
  • Electrons
    • Have a charge of 1-
    • Have a negligible mass (1/2000 of a proton)
    • Found in the electron cloud in orbitals
    • Are the particle of the atom that are responsible for the chemical bonds
    • Neutral atoms have the same number of electrons as protons
  • Neutrons
    • Are neutral, have no charge
    • Have a mass of approximately 1 amu
    • Found in the nucleus
    • Are the particle of the atom that is responsible for isotopes
  • What is an Isotope?
    • Atoms with the same number of protons (so they are the same element)
    • But they have different numbers of neutrons
    • Thus, they are atoms of the same element that have different masses
  • Two isotopes of Sodium
  • How do we write that?
    • 23
    • 11
    • Na
  • Or
    • Na-23
  • Na-23 has
    • 11 protons (atomic number)
    • 11 electrons (neutral atom)
    • 12 neutrons (atomic mass of 23 amu)
  • Na-23 is an isotope
    • It has the same number of protons as other atoms of sodium
    • It is a neutral atom (no charge, same number of electrons as protons)
    • It has different number of neutrons than other sodium atoms
  • Atomic Numbers
    • Atomic number is the number of protons in an atom
    • Mass number is the sum of the number of neutrons and the number of protons in a given atom
    • The atomic mass number on the periodic table is a weighted average mass of all known isotopes of that element