Upcoming SlideShare
×

Minooka- Heat and Energy Part one

2,858 views
2,799 views

Published on

1 Like
Statistics
Notes
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Be the first to comment

Views
Total views
2,858
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
44
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Minooka- Heat and Energy Part one

1. 1. The Properties of Matter Looking at Matter at the Molecular Level
2. 2. Matter <ul><li>Everything is made of MATTER! </li></ul><ul><li>Matter is anything that has volume and mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume is the amount of space an object takes up, or occupies. </li></ul>
3. 3. Measuring the volume of liquids <ul><li>Liquids have volume. We measure that volume with a graduated cylinder. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the markings to determine the sig figs. </li></ul><ul><li>Always measure at the bottom of the meniscus! </li></ul><ul><li>A liquid in any container has a meniscus. </li></ul><ul><li>Liters (L) and mL (milliliters) are most often used to express the volume of liquids. </li></ul>
4. 4. Solid Volume <ul><li>The volume in a solid is always expressed in cubic units. </li></ul><ul><li>Cubic means having “three dimensions.” </li></ul><ul><li>Cubic meters(m 3 ) or cubic centimeters(cm 3 ) are most often used to express the volume of a solid. </li></ul><ul><li>The 3 in m 3 signifies that three quantities were used to get the final result. (That is a derived quantity!) </li></ul><ul><li>If each side in the cube below is 2m, what is the volume of the cube? </li></ul><ul><li> __________ </li></ul>
5. 5. The major differences between <ul><li>MASS </li></ul><ul><li>A measure of the amount of matter in object. </li></ul><ul><li>Always constant, no matter the location. </li></ul><ul><li>Measured with a balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed in kilograms, grams, and milligrams. </li></ul><ul><li>WEIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>A measure of the gravitational force on an object. </li></ul><ul><li>Varies depending on where the object is in relation to the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Measured with a spring scale. </li></ul>
6. 6. Mass is a measure of Inertia <ul><li>What in the world is inertia? </li></ul><ul><li>Ever try to move a car? Yeah, it is difficult! </li></ul><ul><li>That is because of inertia! </li></ul><ul><li>Inertia is the tendency of all object to resist a change in motion. </li></ul><ul><li>This will cause objects that are still to remain still, and allow objects that are moving to continue moving. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is a measure of inertia because the greater the mass of an object…the more difficult it is to move. </li></ul>
7. 7. Describing Matter <ul><li>Knowing the characteristics or properties of an object can help you identify the object. </li></ul>
8. 8. Properties of Matter <ul><li>There are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul></ul>
9. 9. Physical Properties <ul><li>Things that describe the object are physical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical properties can also be observed or measured without changing the identity of the matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of physical properties include: color, odor, size, state, density, solubility, melting point, etc… </li></ul>
10. 10. Solids, Liquids, and Gases <ul><li>Solid - fixed volume and fixed shape </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid - fixed volume and variable shape </li></ul><ul><li>Gas - variable volume and variable shape </li></ul>
11. 11. Spotlight on Density <ul><li>Density is a very helpful physical property. </li></ul><ul><li>Density = mass per unit of volume or Density = mass/volume </li></ul><ul><li>Density is an excellent help in identifying substances because each substance has its own density. </li></ul>
12. 12. If Density = mass/volume <ul><li>Then mass = volume x density </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>m = v x d </li></ul><ul><li>AND volume = mass/density </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>volume = m </li></ul><ul><li>d </li></ul>
13. 13. Chemical Properties <ul><li>Chemical properties describe a substance based on its ability to change into a new substance with different properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: wood burns to form ash and smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical properties cannot be observed with your senses. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical properties aren’t as easy to observe as physical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of chemical properties: flammability and reactivity </li></ul>
14. 14. Characteristic Properties <ul><li>The properties that are most useful in identifying a substance are its characteristic properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the difference between physical and chemical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical properties can be observed! (with your eyes!) IDENTITY OF SUBSTANCE DOES NOT CHANGE! </li></ul><ul><li>You can observe chemical properties only in situations in which the identity of the substance could change. </li></ul>
15. 15. Physical Changes <ul><li>A physical change is a change that affects one or more physical properties of a substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical changes do not form new substances! EX: ice melting or sugar dissolving </li></ul><ul><li>Physical changes are easy to undo. </li></ul>
16. 16. Chemical Changes <ul><li>A chemical change occurs when one or more substances are changed into entirely new substances with different properties. </li></ul><ul><li>You can observe chemical properties only when a chemical change might occur! </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of chem. changes: </li></ul><ul><li>baking a cake </li></ul><ul><li>rusting </li></ul>
17. 17. Clues to chemical changes <ul><li>Color change </li></ul><ul><li>Fizzing or bubbling (gas production) </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Production of light, sound, or odor. </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of a precipitate </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical changes are not usually reversible! </li></ul>